Homelessness in Australia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Abandoned homeless shelter Mawson, ACT

Homelessness in Australia is a social issue concerning the number of people in Australia that are considered to be homeless. There are no internationally agreed upon definitions of homelessness, making it difficult to compare levels of homelessness across countries.[1] A majority of people experiencing homelessness long-term in Australia are found in the large cities of Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane and Perth. It is estimated that on any given night approximately 116,000 people will be homeless[2] and many more are living in insecure housing, "one step away from being homeless".[3] A person who does not obtain any shelter is often described as sleeping 'rough'.

A person is considered to be homeless in Australia if they:

  • do not have access to safe, secure adequate housing, or, if the only housing they have access to damages, or is likely to damage, their health.
  • are in circumstances which threaten or adversely affect the adequacy, safety, security, or affordability of their home.
  • have no security of tenure – that is, they have no legal right to continued occupation of their living area.

2011 census homelessness figures[edit]

There were 105,237 people experiencing homelessness in Australia on census night in 2011. This equated to 1 in 200 Australians,[4] and represented an increase of 17% from the 2006 census, with the rate of homelessness increasing from 45 per 10,000 to 49 per 10,000 or an increase in population percentage terms of 0.04%.

People who are homeless in Australia are classified into one of six categories. These are:

  • improvised dwellings, tents, sleepers out
  • supported accommodation
  • people staying with other households
  • boarding houses
  • other temporary lodgings
  • severely overcrowded dwellings.

56% of people experiencing homelessness on census night were male and 44% female.[citation needed] Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians were over-represented in homelessness data making up 25% (26,744)[5]) of the homeless population, compared to 2.5%[6] of the Australian population. 30% of those experiencing homelessness were born overseas above the % of the Australian population.[citation needed]

From 2006 to 2011 the number of people sleeping 'rough' decreased from 9% of the homeless population to 6%. There was also a significant increase (23%) in the number of people staying in homelessness services.

2016 census homelessness figures[edit]

The number of homeless people in Australia jumped by more than 15,000 — or 14 per cent — in the five years to 2016, according to census data. The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) said 116,000 people were homeless on census night in 2016, representing 50 homeless people per 10,000.[7]

2021 census homelessness figures[edit]

In the 2021 census for homeless figures, the number of people experiencing homelessness rose by an approximate 6067 people, an increase of 5.2% since the 2016 census. However the rate of homelessness decreased to 48 people per 10,000 compared to 50 people per 10,000 back in 2016.[8]


Reason Percentage
Domestic and family violence 25
Financial difficulties 15
Housing stress 13
Inappropriate or inadequate dwellings 10
Relationship or family breakdown ~6
Housing affordability stress ~5
Source: AIHW Specialist Homelessness
Services data collection (2011–12)

There are many causes of homelessness.[9][10][11] The reasons for homelessness are many and varied and each individual's path to homelessness is different and unique. Some other reasons for homelessness are addictions, mental illness, exiting care (foster care system or prison system), barriers facing refugees, debt, disability, unemployment, lack of support, blacklisting, poverty, and being kicked out of home. A number of homeless people also bring it upon themselves or are content with living outdoors.[12][13][14] Some of the current homeless population in Australia were previously in large-scale residential institutions for the mentally ill. Deinstitutionalisation of people with mental illnesses began in Australia during the 1980s, and most now live in the general community.


It has been estimated that a single homeless person costs the government $30,000 per year.[15]

Government responses[edit]

The Road Home – Federal Government White Paper[edit]

The Road Home[16] was launched by former Prime Minister Kevin Rudd in December 2008.[17] This White Paper sets an ambitious target to halve homelessness by 2020 and offer supported accommodation to all rough sleepers who need it.[18] Launching the White Paper, Kevin Rudd said, referring to the 105,000 homeless people in Australia "A country like this should not have this problem, so large and longstanding, without being addressed, it's time we had a decent solution to this problem that has been around for a long time."[19]

The Road Home focuses future effort and investment into three strategies:

  1. Turning Off the Tap: Early intervention services to prevent homelessness.
  2. Improving and expanding services which aim to end homelessness: Ensuring that Services are more connected, integrated and responsive to achieve sustainable housing, improve social and economic participation and end homelessness for their clients.
  3. Breaking the Cycle: Ensuring that people who become homeless are able to quickly move through the crisis system into stable housing with the support they need so that homelessness does not recur.

The Road Home was not implemented following the ousting of the Rudd Government. In 2019, before the launch of the documentary Life After The Oasis the National Youth Commission published the Report Card which shows only a start to the work required to reduce youth homelessness in Australia.

Affordable housing[edit]

The Council of Australian Governments (COAG)'s National Affordable Housing Agreement (NAHA) subject to provisions of the Intergovernmental Agreement on Federal Financial Relations, defines and measures housing and homelessness services for the Commonwealth and the States and Territories.[20] In 2008 Rudd announced that NAHA would "deliver more longer-term housing for Australians who are homeless, more public and community housing and build and renew run down and overcrowded housing for Indigenous Australians living in remote areas."[16] NAHA's mandate includes a) social housing; assistance to people in the private rental market; support and accommodation for people who are homeless or at risk of homelessness; and home purchase assistance; b) (b) working towards improving coordination across housing related programs to make better use of existing stock and under-utilised Government assets and achieve better integration between housing and human services, including health and disability services; and c) reducing the rate of homelessness."[20]

National Partnership Agreement on Homelessness (NPAH)[edit]

Since 2008, the National Partnership Agreement on Homelessness (NPAH) was formed to allow the Commonwealth Government to provide matching funding to hundreds of homelessness services.[21] In response to the federal funding, states and territories typically match the Commonwealth’s contribution. The total annual NPAH funding is around $250 million per year which is directed to around 800 homelessness services around Australia.[22]

In 2016, homelessness services across Australia began a #SaveNPAH campaign to ensure the Australian Government renews the funding package past 2017. The services stated that without the funding, services would be forced to cut back on essential programs and thousands of Australians would become homeless.[23][24][25] The #SaveNPAH campaign succeeded in part, with the Australian government committing to a one year extension of funding.[26][27]

State Government initiatives[edit]

In South Australia, the State Government of Premier Mike Rann (2002 to 2011) committed substantial funding to a series of initiatives designed to combat homelessness. Advised by Social Inclusion Commissioner David Cappo and the founder of New York's Common Ground program, Rosanne Haggerty, the Rann Government established Common Ground Adelaide[28] building high quality inner city apartments (combined with intensive support) for "rough sleeping" homeless people. The government also funded the Street to Home program and a hospital liaison service designed to assist homeless people who are admitted to the Emergency Departments of Adelaide's major public hospitals. Rather than being released back into homelessness, patients identified as rough sleepers are found accommodation backed by professional support. Common Ground and Street to Home now operate across Australia in other States.

Ask Izzy[edit]

Ask Izzy is a mobile website which connects people experiencing or at risk of homelessness. They provide essential services such as meals, housing, support and counseling. The website was developed by Infoxchange in partnership with Google, REA Group and News Corp.[29][30]

Youth homelessness[edit]

In the mid-1970s, evidence began to emerge that the traditional homelessness population predominantly consisting of middle aged or older males was changing. Instead, younger people began emerging in surveys of the homeless population. This change is attributed to the disproportionately high unemployment rates among young people at the time, inadequate unemployment benefits (particularly for teens who had left school), burgeoning inflation rates and increasing housing and rent costs. This change in demographic increased the demands made on the non-government welfare sector to accommodate homeless youth.[31]

According to the 2006 census, there were over 44,000 young people experiencing homelessness. This means that about 43% of the Australian homeless population are infants, children or youth under the age of 25. A particularly common form of youth homelessness in Australia is "couch surfing" whereby the person experiencing homelessness relies on the support of friends to sleep on their couch or floor.[32] Relationship breakdown and family conflict are often cited as common instigators of youth homelessness.[33]

Youth Homelessness Matters Day is an annual event run across Australia that highlights youth homelessness and associated issues.[34]

Youth refuges[edit]

Youth refuges started appearing in Australia in the 1970s as a community based response to youth homelessness.[35]


Post traumatic stress disorder and homelessness[edit]

A 2006 University of Sydney study of Sydney's homeless found a very high incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) amongst the homeless.[38][39][40][41]

The Cost of Youth Homelessness in Australia[edit]

The Cost of Youth Homelessness in Australia was a longitudinal research study involving three survey waves of 298 young homeless Australians (aged between 15 and 24) and 96 unemployed and disadvantaged youth. The project was funded by the Australian Research Council with industry partners the Salvation Army, Anglicare and Mission Australia. Data collection was undertaken between 2012 and 2015 across Australia. Importantly the project found that over one-third of the homeless youth surveyed reported domestic violence had occurred prior to leaving home and nearly two-thirds had been in some form of out of home (state) care by the time they had turned 18. Half of the homeless youth surveyed reported they had been diagnosed with some form of mental health issue and that they were much more likely to have come into contact with the criminal justice system than the general population and similarly disadvantaged youth.[42]

Centre for Social Impact[edit]

The Centre for Social Impact's research sits on the bedrock of leading universities. They develop and bring together knowledge to understand current social challenges and opportunities to create a better world. Working ethically and with rigour, across disciplines and by ensuring people, community and organisations are central. The focus over the next five years will be on reducing social inequality and understanding and addressing key complex social problems.[43]

Awareness days[edit]

  • Youth Refuge Week – occurred in the 1980s, was covered in the Australian press, with youth refuges participating in events.[44][45][46]
  • Youth Homelessness Matters Day – begun in 2005, coordinated by the National Youth Coalition for Housing.[47]
  • Homeless Persons' Week – originating from various churches and missions running winter vigils to remember people who had died on the streets, in 2007, Homelessness Australia began coordinating the event as a national awareness week.[48]

See also[edit]

Mental health:


  1. ^ "Homelessness, the homeless, and integrated social services". Integrating Social Services for Vulnerable Groups. 2015. pp. 111–164. doi:10.1787/9789264233775-7-en. ISBN 9789264233768.
  2. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (14 March 2018). "MEDIA RELEASE: Census reveals a rise in the rate of homelessness in Australia". 2049.0 – Census of Population and Housing: Estimating homelessness, 2016. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
  3. ^ "#HomelessnessCounts during Homelessness Week 2016, 1–7 August". Archived from the original on 19 March 2017. Retrieved 11 March 2017.
  4. ^ "2049.0 – Census of Population and Housing: Estimating homelessness, 2011". abs.gov.au. 14 March 2018.
  5. ^ "2049.0 – Census of Population and Housing: Estimating homelessness, 2011". abs.gov.au. Retrieved 14 July 2023.
  6. ^ "2075.0 - Census of Population and Housing - Counts of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, 2011". abs.gov.au. Retrieved 14 July 2023.
  7. ^ Crothers, Joanna (14 March 2018). "Australia's homelessness worsening, census data shows". ABC News. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
  8. ^ "Estimating Homelessness: Census, 2021 | Australian Bureau of Statistics". www.abs.gov.au. 27 April 2023. Retrieved 4 October 2023.
  9. ^ "Homelessness is a Human Rights Issue". Australian Human Rights Commission.
  10. ^ Forell, S; McCarron, E; Schetzer, L (2005). "No home, no justice? The legal needs of homeless people in NSW". Law and Justice Foundation of NSW.
  11. ^ "There is no one definition of homelessness". Homelessness Australia. Archived from the original on 10 August 2012.
  12. ^ Pietsch, Bryan (2 April 2021). "How Veterans of #Vanlife Feel About All the Newbies". The New York Times.
  13. ^ "Couple sell house to live in campervan, transforming it into luxury home on wheels for under £4k – Metro".
  14. ^ "Shocking pictures: Housing Trust homes trashed as evictions rise". Adelaidenow.com.au. 30 November 2021. (subscription required)
  15. ^ "Subscribe to The Australian | Newspaper home delivery, website, iPad, iPhone & Android apps". www.theaustralian.com.au. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
  16. ^ a b The Road Home: A National Approach to Reducing Homelessness (PDF) (Report). Canberra, Australia: Homelessness Taskforce, Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs. 2008. p. 92. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 May 2013. Retrieved 10 June 2013.
  17. ^ "Rudd's 2020 homeless pledge welcomed". The Sydney Morning Herald. 21 December 2008.
  18. ^ "The Road Home - Homelessness White Paper". Archived from the original on 2 September 2010. Retrieved 24 June 2010.
  19. ^ "Rudd's vow to homeless called bold, visionary". The Sydney Morning Herald. 22 December 2008.
  20. ^ a b National Affordable Housing Agreement (PDF) (Report). The Council of Australian Governments. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 March 2012. Retrieved 11 June 2013.
  21. ^ "Housing and Homelessness | Council of Australian Governments (COAG)". Archived from the original on 20 October 2016. Retrieved 7 December 2016.
  22. ^ "National Housing and Homelessness Agreement | Department of Social Services, Australian Government". www.dss.gov.au. Retrieved 8 June 2023.
  23. ^ "NPAH Campaign".
  24. ^ "'Tsunami Of Homelessness' Feared As Underfunded Services Plead For More Cash". Retrieved 8 June 2023.
  25. ^ "St Vincent de Paul Society calls for more certainty with homelessness funding - St Vincent de Paul Society - Good Works". Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
  26. ^ "12 Month funding extension a welcome first step, but still a long way to go in turning around rising homelessness and family violence in Australia" (PDF). Retrieved 27 September 2019.
  27. ^ Karp, Paul (8 December 2016). "Coag agenda: Turnbull gives ground on homelessness and family violence". The Guardian.
  28. ^ "Common Ground". commongroundadelaide.org.au.
  29. ^ GILLETT, CHRISTOPHER. "Ask Izzy app connects the homeless to food, shelter and health services." The Herald Sun. January 29, 2016.
  30. ^ Wright, Tony. "Prime Minister Turnbull meets Kent and spruiks new website for homeless." The Sydney Morning Herald. Jan. 29, 2016.
  31. ^ Fopp, Rodney. "Long-term accommodation for young people." Archived 2017-02-02 at the Wayback Machine National Youth Affairs Research Scheme. 1990.
  32. ^ Morello, Vincent (13 April 2010). "Couch Surfing Risky for Homeless Youth". www.smh.com.au The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
  33. ^ Seymour, George (9 April 2010). "The Young and the Homeless". www.onlineopinion.com.au On Line Opinion. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
  34. ^ "Welcome from NYCH". youthhomelessnessmatters.net. Archived from the original on 21 February 2010. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
  35. ^ Barratt, Sam. "Youth refuge: Towards diversity and specialisation?." Parity 25, no. 3 (2012): 38.
  36. ^ Coffey, Michael. "What Ever Happened to the Revolution? Activism and the Early Days of Youth Refuges in NSW." Parity. Volume 19, Issue 10. Another Country: Histories of Homelessness. Council to Homeless Persons. (2006): 23–25.
  37. ^ Coffey, Michael. "What Ever Happened to the (R)evolution?: Take 2 Revisiting Activism and the Early Days of Youth Refuges in NSW." Undercurrent No. 1. (2008): 5–12.
  38. ^ Rossmanith, Kate (16 May 2006). "Study reveals stress factor in homelessness". University of Sydney.
  39. ^ Taylor, Kathryn; Louise Sharpe (1 March 2008). "Trauma and post traumatic stress disorder amongst homeless adults in Sydney" (PDF). Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. 42 (3): 206–213. doi:10.1080/00048670701827218. PMID 18247195. S2CID 25501123. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 April 2013.
  40. ^ Lee, Stuart; et al. (June 2010). "Mental Health Care on the Streets: An Integrated Approach". Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 44 (6): 505–512. doi:10.3109/00048670903555120 (inactive 31 January 2024). PMID 20482410.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of January 2024 (link)
  41. ^ Huey, Laura; Fthenos, Georgios; Hryniewicz, Danielle (July 2012). ""I Need Help and I Know I Need Help. Why Won't Nobody Listen to Me?" Trauma and Homeless Women's Experiences with Accessing and Consuming Mental Health Services". Society and Mental Health. 2 (2): 120–134. doi:10.1177/2156869312445287. S2CID 74289163.
  42. ^ MacKenzie, David; Flatau, Paul; Steen, Adam; Thielking, Monika (28 April 2016). "The Cost of Youth Homelessness in Australia Research Briefing". Analysis & Policy Observatory. Swinburne University. Retrieved 3 March 2021.
  43. ^ "Housing and Homelessness | CSI". Centre for Social Impact. Retrieved 8 June 2023.
  44. ^ "The Sydney Morning Herald from Sydney, New South Wales on March 15, 1982 · Page 7". 15 March 1982.
  45. ^ "The Sydney Morning Herald from Sydney, New South Wales on March 15, 1982 · Page 9". 15 March 1982.
  46. ^ "Annual Report 1982" (PDF). Caretakers Cottage.
  47. ^ "National Youth Coalition for Housing – NYCH". Archived from the original on 5 February 2017. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
  48. ^ "Homelessness Week". Archived from the original on 16 February 2017. Retrieved 27 January 2017.

External links[edit]