Nominative singular: ends in -η, rather than long -ᾱ, even after ρ, ε, and ι (an Ionic feature): χώρη for χώρα. However, θεά and some names end in long -ᾱ. Some masculine nouns end in short -ᾰ rather than -ης (ναύτης, Ἀτρεΐδης): ἱππότα for Attic ἱππότης.
The genitive singular of masculine nouns ends in -αο or -εω, rather than -ου: Ἀτρεΐδαο for Attic Ἀτρείδου.
The genitive plural usually ends in -αων or -εων: νυμφάων for Attic νυμφῶν.
The dative plural almost always end in -ῃσι or -ῃς: πύλῃσιν for Attic πύλαις.
Genitive singular: ends in -οιο, as well as -ου. For example, πεδίοιο, as well as πεδίου.
Genitive and dative dual: ends in -οιϊν. Thus, ἵπποιϊν appears, rather than ἵπποιν.
Dative plural: ends in -οισι and -οις. For example, φύλλοισι , as well as φύλλοις.
Accusative singular: ends in -ιν, as well as -ιδα. For example, γλαυκῶπιν, as well as γλαυκώπιδα.
Dative plural: ends in -εσσι and -σι. For example, πόδεσσι or ἔπεσσι.
Third-person plural pronoun ("he, she, it") (the relative) or singular article ("the")
Nominative singular: ὁ, ἡ, τό. (etc.)
Third-person plural pronoun ("he, she, it") (the relative) or plural article ("the")
Nominative plural: οἰ, αἰ, τοί, ταί.
Dative plural: τοῖς, τοῖσι, τῇς, τῇσι, ταῖς.
Interrogative pronoun, singular and plural ("who, what, which")
Nominative singular: τίς.
Accusative singular: τίνα.
Genitive singular: τέο, τεῦ.
Dative singular: τέῳ.
Genitive plural: τέων.
A note on nouns:
-σ- and -σσ- alternate in Homeric Greek. This can be of metrical use. For example, τόσος and τόσσος are equivalent; μέσος and μέσσος; ποσί and ποσσί.
The ending -φι (-οφι) can be used for the dative singular and plural of nouns and adjectives (occasionally for the genitive singular and plural, as well). For example, βίηφι (...by force), δακρυόφιν (...with tears), and ὄρεσφιν (...in the mountains).
-ν appears rather than -σαν. For example, ἔσταν for ἔστησαν in the Third-person plural Active.
The third plural middle/passive often ends in -αται or -ατο; for example, ἥατο is equivalent to ἧντο.
Future: Generally remains uncontracted. For example, ἐρέω appears instead of ἐρῶ or τελέω instead of τελέσω.
Present or imperfect: These tenses sometimes take iterative form with the letters -σκ- penultimate with the ending. For example, φύγεσκον: 'they kept on running away'
Aorist or imperfect: Both tenses can occasionally drop their augments. For example, βάλον may appear instead of ἔβαλον, and ἔμβαλε may appear instead of ἐνέβαλε.
The subjunctive appears with a short vowel. Thus, the form ἴομεν, rather than ἴωμεν.
The second singular middle subjunctive ending appears as both -ηαι and -εαι.
The third singular active subjunctive ends in -σι. Thus, we see the form φορεῇσι, instead of φορῇ.
Occasionally, the subjunctive is used in place of the future and in general remarks.
The infinitive appears with the endings -μεν, -μεναι, and -ναι, in place of -ειν and -ναι. For example, δόμεναι for δοῦναι; ἴμεν instead of ἰέναι; ἔμεν, ἔμμεν, or ἔμμεναι for εἶναι; and ἀκουέμεν(αι) in place of ἀκούειν.
In contracted verbs, where Attic employs an -ω-, Homeric Greek will use -οω- or -ωω- in place of -αο-. For example, Attic ὁρῶντες becomes ὁρόωντες.
Similarly, in places where -αε- contracts to -α- or -αει- contracts to -ᾳ-, Homeric Greek will show either αα or αᾳ.