|Notable members of the genus Homo. Clockwise from upper left: Approximate reconstruction of a Neanderthal († Homo neanderthalensis) skeleton, Human (Homo sapiens) mother and child from India, reconstructed † Homo habilis skull, replica skull of Peking Man (subspecies of † Homo erectus).|
For other species or subspecies suggested, see below.
Homo (from Latin homō 'man') is the genus that emerged in the (otherwise extinct) genus Australopithecus that encompasses the extant species Homo sapiens (modern humans), plus several extinct species classified as either ancestral to or closely related to modern humans (depending on the species), most notably Homo erectus and Homo neanderthalensis. The genus emerged with the appearance of Homo habilis just over 2 million years ago.[a] Homo, together with the genus Paranthropus, is probably sister to Australopithecus africanus, which itself had previously split from the lineage of Pan, the chimpanzees.[b]
Homo erectus appeared about 2 million years ago and, in several early migrations, spread throughout Africa (where it is dubbed Homo ergaster) and Eurasia. It was likely that the first human species lived in a hunter-gatherer society and was able to control fire. An adaptive and successful species, Homo erectus persisted for more than a million years and gradually diverged into new species by around 500,000 years ago.[c]
Anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens) emerged close to 300,000 to 200,000 years ago, in Africa, and Homo neanderthalensis emerged around the same time in Europe and Western Asia. Homo sapiens dispersed from Africa in several waves, from possibly as early as 250,000 years ago, and certainly by 130,000 years ago, the so-called Southern Dispersal beginning about 70–50,000 years ago leading to the lasting colonisation of Eurasia and Oceania by 50,000 years ago. Both in Africa and Eurasia, Homo sapiens met with and interbred with archaic humans. Separate archaic (non-sapiens) human species are thought to have survived until around 40,000 years ago (Neanderthal extinction).
Names and taxonomy
The Latin noun homō (genitive hominis) means "human being" or "man" in the generic sense of "human being, mankind".[d] The binomial name Homo sapiens was coined by Carl Linnaeus (1758).[e] Names for other species of the genus were introduced beginning in the second half of the 19th century (H. neanderthalensis 1864, H. erectus 1892).
Even today, the genus Homo has not been strictly defined. Since the early human fossil record began to slowly emerge from the earth, the boundaries and definitions of the genus Homo have been poorly defined and constantly in flux. Because there was no reason to think it would ever have any additional members, Carl Linnaeus did not even bother to define Homo when he first created it for humans in the 18th century. The discovery of Neanderthal brought the first addition.
The genus Homo was given its taxonomic name to suggest that its member species can be classified as human. And, over the decades of the 20th century, fossil finds of pre-human and early human species from late Miocene and early Pliocene times produced a rich mix for debating classifications. There is continuing debate on delineating Homo from Australopithecus—or, indeed, delineating Homo from Pan. Even so, classifying the fossils of Homo coincides with evidence of: (1) competent human bipedalism in Homo habilis inherited from the earlier Australopithecus of more than four million years ago, as demonstrated by the Laetoli footprints; and (2) human tool culture having begun by 2.5 million years ago.
From the late-19th to mid-20th centuries, a number of new taxonomic names including new generic names were proposed for early human fossils; most have since been merged with Homo in recognition that Homo erectus was a single species with a large geographic spread of early migrations. Many such names are now dubbed as "synonyms" with Homo, including Pithecanthropus, Protanthropus, Sinanthropus, Cyphanthropus, Africanthropus, Telanthropus, Atlanthropus, and Tchadanthropus.
Classifying the genus Homo into species and subspecies is subject to incomplete information and remains poorly done. This has led to using common names ("Neanderthal" and "Denisovan"), even in scientific papers, to avoid trinomial names or the ambiguity of classifying groups as incertae sedis (uncertain placement)—for example, H. neanderthalensis vs. H. sapiens neanderthalensis, or H. georgicus vs. H. erectus georgicus. Some recently extinct species in the genus Homo have only recently been discovered and do not as yet have consensus binomial names (see Denisova hominin). Since the beginning of the Holocene, it is likely that Homo sapiens (anatomically modern humans) has been the only extant species of Homo.
John Edward Gray (1825) was an early advocate of classifying taxa by designating tribes and families. Wood and Richmond (2000) proposed that Hominini ("hominins") be designated as a tribe that comprised all species of early humans and pre-humans ancestral to humans back to after the chimpanzee-human last common ancestor; and that Hominina be designated a subtribe of Hominini to include only the genus Homo — that is, not including the earlier upright walking hominins of the Pliocene such as Australopithecus, Orrorin tugenensis, Ardipithecus, or Sahelanthropus. Designations alternative to Hominina existed, or were offered: Australopithecinae (Gregory & Hellman 1939) and Preanthropinae (Cela-Conde & Altaba 2002); and later, Cela-Conde and Ayala (2003) proposed that the four genera Australopithecus, Ardipithecus, Praeanthropus, and Sahelanthropus be grouped with Homo within Hominini (sans Pan).
Australopithecus and the appearance of Homo
Several species, including Australopithecus garhi, Australopithecus sediba, Australopithecus africanus, and Australopithecus afarensis, have been proposed as the ancestor or sister of the Homo lineage. These species have morphological features that align them with Homo, but there is no consensus as to which gave rise to Homo.
Especially since the 2010s, the delineation of Homo in Australopithecus has become more contentious. Traditionally, the advent of Homo has been taken to coincide with the first use of stone tools (the Oldowan industry), and thus by definition with the beginning of the Lower Palaeolithic. But in 2010, evidence was presented that seems to attribute the use of stone tools to Australopithecus afarensis around 3.3 million years ago, close to a million years before the first appearance of Homo. LD 350-1, a fossil mandible fragment dated to 2.8 Mya, discovered in 2013 in Afar, Ethiopia, was described as combining "primitive traits seen in early Australopithecus with derived morphology observed in later Homo. Some authors would push the development of Homo close to or even past 3 Mya.[f] Others have voiced doubt as to whether Homo habilis should be included in Homo, proposing an origin of Homo with Homo erectus at roughly 1.9 Mya instead.
The most salient physiological development between the earlier australopithecine species and Homo is the increase in endocranial volume (ECV), from about 460 cm3 (28 cu in) in A. garhi to 660 cm3 (40 cu in) in H. habilis and further to 760 cm3 (46 cu in) in H. erectus, 1,250 cm3 (76 cu in) in H. heidelbergensis and up to 1,760 cm3 (107 cu in) in H. neanderthalensis. However, a steady rise in cranial capacity is observed already in Autralopithecina and does not terminate after the emergence of Homo, so that it does not serve as an objective criterion to define the emergence of the genus.
Homo habilis emerged about 2.1 Mya. Already before 2010, there were suggestions that H. habilis should not be placed in genus Homo but rather in Australopithecus. The main reason to include H. habilis in Homo, its undisputed tool use, has become obsolete with the discovery of Australopithecus tool use at least a million years before H. habilis. Furthermore, H. habilis was long thought to be the ancestor of the more gracile Homo ergaster (Homo erectus). In 2007, it was discovered that H. habilis and H. erectus coexisted for a considerable time, suggesting that H. erectus is not immediately derived from H. habilis but instead from a common ancestor. With the publication of Dmanisi skull 5 in 2013, it has become less certain that Asian H. erectus is a descendant of African H. ergaster which was in turn derived from H. habilis. Instead, H. ergaster and H. erectus appear to be variants of the same species, which may have originated in either Africa or Asia and widely dispersed throughout Eurasia (including Europe, Indonesia, China) by 0.5 Mya.
Homo erectus has often been assumed to have developed anagenetically from Homo habilis from about 2 million years ago. This scenario was strengthened with the discovery of Homo erectus georgicus, early specimens of H. erectus found in the Caucasus, which seemed to exhibit transitional traits with H. habilis. As the earliest evidence for H. erectus was found outside of Africa, it was considered plausible that H. erectus developed in Eurasia and then migrated back to Africa. Based on fossils from the Koobi Fora Formation, east of Lake Turkana in Kenya, Spoor et al. (2007) argued that H. habilis may have survived beyond the emergence of H. erectus, so that the evolution of H. erectus would not have been anagenetically, and H. erectus would have existed alongside H. habilis for about half a million years ( ), during the early Calabrian.
A taxonomy of Homo within the great apes is assessed as follows, with Paranthropus and Homo emerging within Australopithecus (shown here cladistically granting Paranthropus, Kenyanthropus, and Homo).[a][b][excessive citations] The exact phylogeny within Australopithecus is still highly controversial. Approximate radiation dates of daughter clades are shown in millions of years ago (Mya). Graecopithecus, Sahelanthropus, Orrorin, possibly sisters to Australopithecus, are not shown here. Note that the naming of groupings is sometimes muddled as often certain groupings are presumed before any cladistic analysis is performed.
Several of the Homo lineages appear to have surviving progeny through introgression into other lines. Genetic evidence indicates an archaic lineage separating from the other human lineages 1.5 million years ago, perhaps H. erectus, may have interbred into the Denisovans about 55,000 years ago. Fossil evidence shows Homo erectus s.s. survived at least until 117,000 yrs ago, and the even more basal Homo floresiensis survived until 50,000 years ago. A 1.5 million years Homo erectus-like lineage appears to have made its way into modern humans through the Denisovans and specifically into the Papuans and aboriginal Australians. The genomes of non-sub-Saharan African humans show what appear to be numerous independent introgression events involving Neanderthal and in some cases also Denisovans around 45,000 years ago. The genetic structure of some sub-Saharan African groups seems to be indicative of introgression from a west Eurasian population some 3,000 years ago.
By about 1.8 million years ago, Homo erectus is present in both East Africa (Homo ergaster) and in Western Asia (Homo georgicus). The ancestors of Indonesian Homo floresiensis may have left Africa even earlier.[g]
Homo erectus and related or derived archaic human species over the next 1.5 million years spread throughout Africa and Eurasia (see: Recent African origin of modern humans). Europe is reached by about 0.5 Mya by Homo heidelbergensis.
H. sapiens soon after its first emergence spread throughout Africa, and to Western Asia in several waves, possibly as early as 250 kya, and certainly by 130 kya. In July 2019, anthropologists reported the discovery of 210,000 year old remains of a H. sapiens and 170,000 year old remains of a H. neanderthalensis in Apidima Cave, Peloponnese, Greece, more than 150,000 years older than previous H. sapiens finds in Europe.
Most notable is the Southern Dispersal of H. sapiens around 60 kya, which led to the lasting peopling of Oceania and Eurasia by anatomically modern humans. H. sapiens interbred with archaic humans both in Africa and in Eurasia, in Eurasia notably with Neanderthals and Denisovans.
Among extant populations of Homo sapiens, the deepest temporal division is found in the San people of Southern Africa, estimated at close to 130,000 years, or possibly more than 300,000 years ago. Temporal division among non-Africans is of the order of 60,000 years in the case of Australo-Melanesians. Division of Europeans and East Asians is of the order of 50,000 years, with repeated and significant admixture events throughout Eurasia during the Holocene.
List of lineages
The species status of H. rudolfensis, H. ergaster, H. georgicus, H. antecessor, H. cepranensis, H. rhodesiensis, H. neanderthalensis, Denisova hominin, and H. floresiensis remain under debate. H. heidelbergensis and H. neanderthalensis are closely related to each other and have been considered to be subspecies of H. sapiens.
There has historically been a trend to postulate new human species based on as little as an individual fossil. A "minimalist" approach to human taxonomy recognizes at most three species, Homo habilis (2.1–1.5 Mya, membership in Homo questionable), Homo erectus (1.8–0.1 Mya, including the majority of the age of the genus, and the majority of archaic varieties as subspecies, including H. heidelbergensis as a late or transitional variety) and Homo sapiens (300 kya to present, including H. neanderthalensis and other varieties as subspecies). "Species" does in this context not necessarily mean that hybridization and introgression were impossible at the time. However, it is often used as a convenient term, but it should be taken to mean to be a generic lineage at best, and clusters at worst. In general definitions and methodology of "species" delineation criteria are not generally agreed upon in anthropology or paleontology. Indeed, mammals can typically interbreed for 2 to 3 million years or longer, so all contemporary "species" in the genus Homo would potentially have been able to interbreed at the time, and introgression from beyond the genus Homo can not a priori be ruled out. It has been suggested that H. naledi may have been a hybrid with a late surviving Australipith (taken to mean beyond Homo, ed.), despite the fact that these lineages generally are regarded as long extinct. As discussed above, many introgressions have occurred between lineages, with evidence of introgression after separation of 1.5 million years.
|Habitat||Adult height||Adult mass||Cranial capacity
membership in Homo uncertain
|2,100–1,500[h][i]||Tanzania||110–140 cm (3 ft 7 in – 4 ft 7 in)||33–55 kg (73–121 lb)||510–660||Many||1960|
membership in Homo uncertain
also classified as H. habilis
|1,900–600||South Africa||100 cm (3 ft 3 in)||3 individuals[j]||2010|
|H. erectus||1,900–140[k][l]||Africa, Eurasia||180 cm (5 ft 11 in)||60 kg (130 lb)||850 (early) – 1,100 (late)||Many[m][n]||1891|
African H. erectus
|1,800–1,300||East and Southern Africa||700–850||Many||1949|
|H. antecessor||1,200–800||Western Europe||175 cm (5 ft 9 in)||90 kg (200 lb)||1,000||2 sites||1994|
early H. neanderthalensis
|600–300[o]||Europe, Africa||180 cm (5 ft 11 in)||90 kg (200 lb)||1,100–1,400||Many||1907|
a single fossil, possibly H. heidelbergensis
|c. 450||Italy||1,000||1 skull cap||1994|
|H. longi||309–138||Northeast China||1,420||1 individual||1933|
early H. sapiens
|c. 300||Zambia||1,300||Single or very few||1921|
|H. naledi||c. 300||South Africa||150 cm (4 ft 11 in)||45 kg (99 lb)||450||15 individuals||2013|
(anatomically modern humans)
|c. 300–present[p]||Worldwide||150–190 cm (4 ft 11 in – 6 ft 3 in)||50–100 kg (110–220 lb)||950–1,800||(extant)||——|
||240–40[q]||Europe, Western Asia||170 cm (5 ft 7 in)||55–70 kg (121–154 lb)
|190–50||Indonesia||100 cm (3 ft 3 in)||25 kg (55 lb)||400||7 individuals||2003|
|Nesher Ramla Homo
possibly H. erectus or Denisova
|c. 100[r]||Taiwan||1 individual||2008(?)|
||c. 67||Philippines||3 individuals||2007|
|Denisova hominin||40||Siberia||2 sites||2000|
- The conventional estimate on the age of H. habilis is at roughly 2.1 to 2.3 million years. Suggestions for pushing back the age to 2.8 Mya were made in 2015 based on the discovery of a jawbone.
- The line to the earliest members of Homo were derived from Australopithecus, a genus which had separated from the Chimpanzee–human last common ancestor by late Miocene or early Pliocene times.
- H. erectus in the narrow sense (the Asian species) was extinct by 140,000 years ago, Homo erectus soloensis, found in Java, is considered the latest known survival of H. erectus. Formerly dated to as late as 50,000 to 40,000 years ago, a 2011 study pushed back the date of its extinction of H. e. soloensis to 143,000 years ago at the latest, more likely before 550,000 years ago.
- The word "human" itself is from Latin humanus, an adjective formed on the root of homo, thought to derive from a Proto-Indo-European word for "earth" reconstructed as *dhǵhem-.
- Note that in 1959, Carl Linnaeus was designated as the lectotype for Homo sapiens which means that following the nomenclatural rules, Homo sapiens was validly defined as the animal species to which Linnaeus belonged.
- Cela-Conde & Ayala (2003) recognize five genera within Hominina: Ardipithecus, Australopithecus (including Paranthropus), Homo (including Kenyanthropus), Praeanthropus (including Orrorin), and Sahelanthropus.
- In a 2015 phylogenetic study, H. floresiensis was placed with Australopithecus sediba, Homo habilis and Dmanisi Man, raising the possibility that the ancestors of Homo floresiensis left Africa before the appearance of Homo erectus, possibly even becoming the first hominins to do so and evolved further in Asia.
- Confirmed H. habilis fossils are dated to between 2.1 and 1.5 million years ago. This date range overlaps with the emergence of Homo erectus.
- Hominins with "proto-Homo" traits may have lived as early as 2.8 million years ago, as suggested by a fossil jawbone classified as transitional between Australopithecus and Homo discovered in 2015.
- A species proposed in 2010 based on the fossil remains of three individuals dated between 1.9 and 0.6 million years ago. The same fossils were also classified as H. habilis, H. ergaster or Australopithecus by other anthropologists.
- H. erectus may have appeared some 2 million years ago. Fossils dated to as much as 1.8 million years ago have been found both in Africa and in Southeast Asia, and the oldest fossils by a narrow margin (1.85 to 1.77 million years ago) were found in the Caucasus, so that it is unclear whether H. erectus emerged in Africa and migrated to Eurasia, or if, conversely, it evolved in Eurasia and migrated back to Africa.
- Homo erectus soloensis, found in Java, is considered the latest known survival of H. erectus. Formerly dated to as late as 50,000 to 40,000 years ago, a 2011 study pushed back the date of its extinction of H. e. soloensis to 143,000 years ago at the latest, more likely before 550,000 years ago. 
- Now also included in H. erectus are Peking Man (formerly Sinanthropus pekinensis) and Java Man (formerly Pithecanthropus erectus).
- H. erectus is now grouped into various subspecies, including Homo erectus erectus, Homo erectus yuanmouensis, Homo erectus lantianensis, Homo erectus nankinensis, Homo erectus pekinensis, Homo erectus palaeojavanicus, Homo erectus soloensis, Homo erectus tautavelensis, Homo erectus georgicus. The distinction from descendant species such as Homo ergaster, Homo floresiensis, Homo antecessor, Homo heidelbergensis and indeed Homo sapiens is not entirely clear.
- The type fossil is Mauer 1, dated to ca. 0.6 million years ago. The transition from H. heidelbergensis to H. neanderthalensis between 300 and 243 thousand years ago is conventional, and makes use of the fact that there is no known fossil in this period. Examples of H. heidelbergensis are fossils found at Bilzingsleben (also classified as Homo erectus bilzingslebensis).
- The age of H. sapiens has long been assumed to be close to 200,000 years, but since 2017 there have been a number of suggestions extending this time to as high as 300,000 years. In 2017, fossils found in Jebel Irhoud (Morocco) suggest that Homo sapiens may have speciated by as early as 315,000 years ago. Genetic evidence has been adduced for an age of roughly 270,000 years.
- The first humans with "proto-Neanderthal traits" lived in Eurasia as early as 0.6 to 0.35 million years ago (classified as H. heidelbergensis, also called a chronospecies because it represents a chronological grouping rather than being based on clear morphological distinctions from either H. erectus or H. neanderthalensis). There is a fossil gap in Europe between 300 and 243 kya, and by convention, fossils younger than 243 kya are called "Neanderthal".
- younger than 450 kya, either between 190–130 or between 70–10 kya
- provisional names Homo sp. Altai or Homo sapiens ssp. Denisova.
- Stringer, C.B. (1994). "Evolution of early humans". In Jones, S.; Martin, R.; Pilbeam, D. (eds.). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 242.
- Schrenk, F.; Kullmer, O.; Bromage, T. (2007). "Chapter 9: The Earliest Putative Homo Fossils". In Henke, W.; Tattersall, I. (eds.). Handbook of Paleoanthropology. pp. 1611–1631. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-33761-4_52.
- Spoor, F.; Gunz, P.; Neubauer, S.; Stelzer, S.; Scott, N.; Kwekason, A.; Dean, M.C. (March 2015). "Reconstructed Homo habilis type OH 7 suggests deep-rooted species diversity in early Homo". Nature. 519 (7541): 83–86. Bibcode:2015Natur.519...83S. doi:10.1038/nature14224. PMID 25739632. S2CID 4470282.
- Schuster AM (1997). "Earliest Remains of Genus Homo". Archaeology. 50 (1). Retrieved 5 March 2015.
- Haile-Selassie Y, Gibert L, Melillo SM, Ryan TM, Alene M, Deino A, et al. (May 2015). "New species from Ethiopia further expands Middle Pliocene hominin diversity". Nature. 521 (7553): 483–8. Bibcode:2015Natur.521..483H. doi:10.1038/nature14448. PMID 26017448. S2CID 4455029.
- Indriati E, Swisher CC, Lepre C, Quinn RL, Suriyanto RA, Hascaryo AT, et al. (2011). "The age of the 20 meter Solo River terrace, Java, Indonesia and the survival of Homo erectus in Asia". PLOS ONE. 6 (6): e21562. Bibcode:2011PLoSO...621562I. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0021562. PMC 3126814. PMID 21738710..
- Callaway, E. (7 June 2017). "Oldest Homo sapiens fossil claim rewrites our species' history". Nature. doi:10.1038/nature.2017.22114. Retrieved 11 June 2017.
- Posth C, Renaud G, Mittnik A, Drucker DG, Rougier H, Cupillard C, et al. (March 2016). "Pleistocene Mitochondrial Genomes Suggest a Single Major Dispersal of Non-Africans and a Late Glacial Population Turnover in Europe". Current Biology. 26 (6): 827–33. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2016.01.037. hdl:2440/114930. PMID 26853362. S2CID 140098861.
- Karmin M, Saag L, Vicente M, Wilson Sayres MA, Järve M, Talas UG, et al. (April 2015). "A recent bottleneck of Y chromosome diversity coincides with a global change in culture". Genome Research. 25 (4): 459–66. doi:10.1101/gr.186684.114. PMC 4381518. PMID 25770088.
- Pagani L, Lawson DJ, Jagoda E, Mörseburg A, Eriksson A, Mitt M, et al. (October 2016). "Genomic analyses inform on migration events during the peopling of Eurasia". Nature. 538 (7624): 238–242. Bibcode:2016Natur.538..238P. doi:10.1038/nature19792. PMC 5164938. PMID 27654910.
- Haber M, Jones AL, Connell BA, Arciero E, Yang H, Thomas MG, et al. (August 2019). "A Rare Deep-Rooting D0 African Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup and Its Implications for the Expansion of Modern Humans Out of Africa". Genetics. 212 (4): 1421–1428. doi:10.1534/genetics.119.302368. PMC 6707464. PMID 31196864.
- Green RE, Krause J, Briggs AW, Maricic T, Stenzel U, Kircher M, et al. (May 2010). "A draft sequence of the Neandertal genome". Science. 328 (5979): 710–722. Bibcode:2010Sci...328..710G. doi:10.1126/science.1188021. PMC 5100745. PMID 20448178.
- Lowery RK, Uribe G, Jimenez EB, Weiss MA, Herrera KJ, Regueiro M, Herrera RJ (November 2013). "Neanderthal and Denisova genetic affinities with contemporary humans: introgression versus common ancestral polymorphisms". Gene. 530 (1): 83–94. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2013.06.005. PMID 23872234. This study raises the possibility of observed genetic affinities between archaic and modern human populations being mostly due to common ancestral polymorphisms.
- "The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition". 2000.
- Stearn, W.T. (1959). "The background of Linnaeus's contributions to the nomenclature and methods of systematic biology". Systematic Zoology. 8 (1): 4–22. doi:10.2307/2411603. JSTOR 2411603.
- von Linné, C. (1758). Systema naturæ. Regnum animale (10 ed.). Sumptibus Guilielmi Engelmann. pp. 18, 20. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
- Schwartz, J.H.; Tattersall, I. (August 2015). "ANTHROPOLOGY. Defining the genus Homo". Science. 349 (6251): 931–932. Bibcode:2015Sci...349..931S. doi:10.1126/science.aac6182. PMID 26315422. S2CID 206639783.
- Lents, N. (4 October 2014). "Homo naledi and the problems with the Homo genus". The Wildernist. Archived from the original on 18 November 2015. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
- Wood, B.; Collard, M. (April 1999). "The human genus". Science. 284 (5411): 65–71. Bibcode:1999Sci...284...65.. doi:10.1126/science.284.5411.65. PMID 10102822. S2CID 7018418.
- "ape-man", from Pithecanthropus erectus (Java Man), Eugène Dubois, Pithecanthropus erectus: eine menschenähnliche Übergangsform aus Java (1894), identified with the Pithecanthropus alalus (i.e. "non-speaking ape-man") hypothesized earlier by Ernst Haeckel
- Haeckel, Ernst (1895). "Protanthropus primigenius". Systematische Phylogenie. 3: p. 625.
- "Sinic man", from Sinanthropus pekinensis (Peking Man), Davidson Black (1927).
- "crooked man", from Cyphanthropus rhodesiensis (Rhodesian Man) William Plane Pycraft (1928).
- "African man", used by T.F. Dreyer (1935) for the Florisbad Skull he found in 1932 (also Homo florisbadensis or Homo helmei). Also the genus suggested for a number of archaic human skulls found at Lake Eyasi by Weinert (1938). Leaky, Journal of the East Africa Natural History Society' (1942), p. 43.
- "remote man"; from Telanthropus capensis (Broom and Robinson 1949), see (1961), p. 487.
- from Atlanthropus mauritanicus, name given to the species of fossils (three lower jaw bones and a parietal bone of a skull) discovered in 1954 to 1955 by Camille Arambourg in Tighennif, Algeria. Arambourg, C. (1955). "A recent discovery in human paleontology: Atlanthropus of ternifine (Algeria)". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 13 (2): 191–201. doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330130203.
- Coppens, Y. (1965). "L'Hominien du Tchad". Actes V Congr. PPEC. I: 329f.
- Coppens, Y. (1966). "Le Tchadanthropus". Anthropologia. 70: 5–16.
- Vivelo, Alexandra (25 August 2013). Characterization of Unique Features of the Denisovan Exome (Masters thesis). California State University. hdl:10211.3/47490. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013.
- Barras, C. (14 March 2012). "Chinese human fossils unlike any known species". New Scientist. Retrieved 15 March 2012.
- Gray, J.E. (1825). "An outline of an attempt at the disposition of Mammalia into Tribes and Families, with a list of genera apparently appertaining to each Tribe". Annals of Philosophy. new series: 337–344.
- Wood & Richmond (2000), pp. 19–60
- Brunet, M.; Guy, F.; Pilbeam, D.; Mackaye, H.T.; Likius, A.; Ahounta, D.; et al. (July 2002). "A new hominid from the Upper Miocene of Chad, Central Africa". Nature. 418 (6894): 145–51. Bibcode:2002Natur.418..145B. doi:10.1038/nature00879. PMID 12110880. S2CID 1316969.
- Cela-Conde, C.J.; Ayala, F.J. (June 2003). "Genera of the human lineage". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 100 (13): 7684–7689. Bibcode:2003PNAS..100.7684C. doi:10.1073/pnas.0832372100. PMC 164648. PMID 12794185.
- Wood, B.; Lonergan, N. (April 2008). "The hominin fossil record: taxa, grades and clades" (PDF). Journal of Anatomy. 212 (4): 354–76. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7580.2008.00871.x. PMC 2409102. PMID 18380861.
- Pickering, R.; Dirks, P.H.; Jinnah, Z.; de Ruiter, D.J.; Churchil, S.E.; Herries, A.I.; et al. (September 2011). "Australopithecus sediba at 1.977 Ma and implications for the origins of the genus Homo". Science. 333 (6048): 1421–1423. Bibcode:2011Sci...333.1421P. doi:10.1126/science.1203697. PMID 21903808. S2CID 22633702.
- Asfaw, B.; White, T.; Lovejoy, O.; Latimer, B.; Simpson, S.; Suwa, G. (April 1999). "Australopithecus garhi: a new species of early hominid from Ethiopia". Science. 284 (5414): 629–635. Bibcode:1999Sci...284..629A. doi:10.1126/science.284.5414.629. PMID 10213683.
- McPherron, S.P.; Alemseged, Z.; Marean, C.W.; Wynn, J.G.; Reed, D.; Geraads, D.; et al. (August 2010). "Evidence for stone-tool-assisted consumption of animal tissues before 3.39 million years ago at Dikika, Ethiopia". Nature. 466 (7308): 857–860. Bibcode:2010Natur.466..857M. doi:10.1038/nature09248. PMID 20703305. S2CID 4356816.
The oldest direct evidence of stone tool manufacture comes from Gona (Ethiopia) and dates to between 2.6 and 2.5 million years (Myr) ago. [...] Here we report stone-tool-inflicted marks on bones found during recent survey work in Dikika, Ethiopia [... showing] unambiguous stone-tool cut marks for flesh removal [..., dated] to between 3.42 and 3.24 Myr ago [...] Our discovery extends by approximately 800,000 years the antiquity of stone tools and of stone-tool-assisted consumption of ungulates by hominins; furthermore, this behaviour can now be attributed to Australopithecus afarensis.
- Villmoare, B.; Kimbel, W.H.; Seyoum, C.; Campisano, C.J.; DiMaggio, E.N.; Rowan, J.; et al. (March 2015). "Paleoanthropology. Early Homo at 2.8 Ma from Ledi-Geraru, Afar, Ethiopia". Science. 347 (6228): 1352–1355. Bibcode:2015Sci...347.1352V. doi:10.1126/science.aaa1343. PMID 25739410..
- DiMaggio EN, Campisano CJ, Rowan J, Dupont-Nivet G, Deino AL, Bibi F, et al. (March 2015). "Paleoanthropology. Late Pliocene fossiliferous sedimentary record and the environmental context of early Homo from Afar, Ethiopia". Science. 347 (6228): 1355–1359. Bibcode:2015Sci...347.1355D. doi:10.1126/science.aaa1415. PMID 25739409.
- Wood, Bernard (28 June 2011). "Did early Homo migrate "out of" or "in to" Africa?". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 108 (26): 10375–10376. Bibcode:2011PNAS..10810375W. doi:10.1073/pnas.1107724108. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 3127876. PMID 21677194.
the adaptive coherence of Homo would be compromised if H. habilis is included in Homo. Thus, if these arguments are accepted the origins of the genus Homo are coincident in time and place with the emergence of H. erectus, not H. habilis.
- Kimbel, W.H.; Villmoare, B. (July 2016). "From Australopithecus to Homo: the transition that wasn't". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences. 371 (1698): 20150248. doi:10.1098/rstb.2015.0248. PMC 4920303. PMID 27298460.
A fresh look at brain size, hand morphology and earliest technology suggests that a number of key Homo attributes may already be present in generalized species of Australopithecus, and that adaptive distinctions in Homo are simply amplifications or extensions of ancient hominin trends. [...] the adaptive shift represented by the ECV of Australopithecus is at least as significant as the one represented by the ECV of early Homo, and that a major 'grade-level’ leap in brain size with the advent of H. erectus is probably illusory.
- Wood & Richmond (2000), p. 41: "A recent reassessment of cladistic and functional evidence concluded that there are few, if any, grounds for retaining H. habilis in Homo, and recommended that the material be transferred (or, for some, returned) to Australopithecus (Wood & Collard, 1999)."
- Miller, J.M. (May 2000). "Craniofacial variation in Homo habilis: an analysis of the evidence for multiple species". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 112 (1): 103–128. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096-8644(200005)112:1<103::AID-AJPA10>3.0.CO;2-6. PMID 10766947.
Spoor, F.; Leakey, M.G.; Gathogo, P.N.; Brown, F.H.; Antón, S.C.; McDougall, I.; et al. (August 2007). "Implications of new early Homo fossils from Ileret, east of Lake Turkana, Kenya". Nature. 448 (7154): 688–691. Bibcode:2007Natur.448..688S. doi:10.1038/nature05986. PMID 17687323. S2CID 35845.
A partial maxilla assigned to H. habilis reliably demonstrates that this species survived until later than previously recognized, making an anagenetic relationship with H. erectus unlikely. The discovery of a particularly small calvaria of H. erectus indicates that this taxon overlapped in size with H. habilis, and may have shown marked sexual dimorphism. The new fossils confirm the distinctiveness of H. habilis and H. erectus, independently of overall cranial size, and suggest that these two early taxa were living broadly sympatrically in the same lake basin for almost half a million years.
- Agustí J, Lordkipanidze D (June 2011). "How "African" was the early human dispersal out of Africa?". Quaternary Science Reviews. 30 (11–12): 1338–1342. Bibcode:2011QSRv...30.1338A. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2010.04.012.
- Prins, H.E.; Walrath, D.; McBride, B. (2007). Evolution and prehistory: the human challenge. Wadsworth Publishing. p. 162. ISBN 978-0-495-38190-7..
- Curnoe, D. (June 2010). "A review of early Homo in southern Africa focusing on cranial, mandibular and dental remains, with the description of a new species (Homo gautengensis sp. nov.)". HOMO. 61 (3): 151–77. doi:10.1016/j.jchb.2010.04.002. PMID 20466364.
- Berger, L.R.; Hawks, J.; Dirks, P.H.; Elliott, M.; Roberts, E.M. (May 2017). Perry, G.H. (ed.). "Homo naledi and Pleistocene hominin evolution in subequatorial Africa". eLife. 6: e24234. doi:10.7554/eLife.24234. PMC 5423770. PMID 28483041.
- Mondal, M.; Bertranpetit, J.; Lao, O. (January 2019). "Approximate Bayesian computation with deep learning supports a third archaic introgression in Asia and Oceania". Nature Communications. 10 (1): 246. Bibcode:2019NatCo..10..246M. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-08089-7. PMC 6335398. PMID 30651539.
- Zeitoun, V. (September 2003). "High occurrence of a basicranial feature in Homo erectus: anatomical description of the preglenoid tubercle". The Anatomical Record Part B: The New Anatomist. 274 (1): 148–156. doi:10.1002/ar.b.10028. PMID 12964205.
- Dembo M, Matzke NJ, Mooers AØ, Collard M (August 2015). "Bayesian analysis of a morphological supermatrix sheds light on controversial fossil hominin relationships". Proceedings. Biological Sciences. 282 (1812): 20150943. doi:10.1098/rspb.2015.0943. PMC 4528516. PMID 26202999.
- Dembo M, Radovčić D, Garvin HM, Laird MF, Schroeder L, Scott JE, et al. (August 2016). "The evolutionary relationships and age of Homo naledi: An assessment using dated Bayesian phylogenetic methods". Journal of Human Evolution. 97: 17–26. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2016.04.008. hdl:2164/8796. PMID 27457542.
- Ko, K.H. (December 2016). "Hominin interbreeding and the evolution of human variation". Journal of Biological Research. 23 (1): 17. doi:10.1186/s40709-016-0054-7. PMC 4947341. PMID 27429943.
- Harrison, N. (1 May 2019). The Origins of Europeans and Their Pre-Historic Innovations from 6 Million to 10,000 BCE: From 6 Million to 10,000 BCE. Algora Publishing. ISBN 9781628943795.
- Strait D, Grine F, Fleagle J (2015). Analyzing Hominin Hominin Phylogeny: Cladistic Approach. pp. 1989–2014 (cladogram p. 2006). ISBN 978-3-642-39978-7..
- Mounier, A.; Caparros, M. (2015). "The phylogenetic status of Homo heidelbergensis – a cladistic study of Middle Pleistocene hominins". BMSAP (in French). 27 (3–4): 110–134. doi:10.1007/s13219-015-0127-4. ISSN 0037-8984. S2CID 17449909.
- Rogers AR, Harris NS, Achenbach AA (February 2020). "Neanderthal-Denisovan ancestors interbred with a distantly related hominin". Science Advances. 6 (8): eaay5483. Bibcode:2020SciA....6.5483R. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aay5483. PMC 7032934. PMID 32128408.
- Dediu, D.; Levinson, S.C. (1 June 2018). "Neanderthal language revisited: not only us". Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences. The Evolution of Language. 21: 49–55. doi:10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.01.001. hdl:21.11116/0000-0000-1667-4. ISSN 2352-1546. S2CID 54391128.
- Hubisz, M.J.; Williams, A.L.; Siepel, A. (August 2020). "Mapping gene flow between ancient hominins through demography-aware inference of the ancestral recombination graph". PLOS Genetics. 16 (8): e1008895. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1008895. PMC 7410169. PMID 32760067.
- Kuhlwilm M, Gronau I, Hubisz MJ, de Filippo C, Prado-Martinez J, Kircher M, et al. (February 2016). "Ancient gene flow from early modern humans into Eastern Neanderthals". Nature. 530 (7591): 429–33. Bibcode:2016Natur.530..429K. doi:10.1038/nature16544. PMC 4933530. PMID 26886800.
- Prüfer K, Racimo F, Patterson N, Jay F, Sankararaman S, Sawyer S, et al. (January 2014). "The complete genome sequence of a Neanderthal from the Altai Mountains". Nature. 505 (7481): 43–9. Bibcode:2014Natur.505...43P. doi:10.1038/nature12886. PMC 4031459. PMID 24352235.
- Callaway, E. (2016). "Evidence mounts for interbreeding bonanza in ancient human species". Nature News. doi:10.1038/nature.2016.19394. S2CID 87029139.
- Varki, A. (April 2016). "Why are there no persisting hybrids of humans with Denisovans, Neanderthals, or anyone else?". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 113 (17): E2354. Bibcode:2016PNAS..113E2354V. doi:10.1073/pnas.1602270113. PMC 4855598. PMID 27044111.
- Pickrell JK, Patterson N, Loh PR, Lipson M, Berger B, Stoneking M, et al. (February 2014). "Ancient west Eurasian ancestry in southern and eastern Africa". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 111 (7): 2632–2637. arXiv:1307.8014. Bibcode:2014PNAS..111.2632P. doi:10.1073/pnas.1313787111. PMC 3932865. PMID 24550290.
- Groves C (2017). "Progress in human systematics. A review". Paradigmi (2): 59–74. doi:10.3280/PARA2017-002005. ISSN 1120-3404.
- Beyin, A. (2011). "Upper Pleistocene Human Dispersals out of Africa: A Review of the Current State of the Debate". International Journal of Evolutionary Biology. 2011 (615094): 615094. doi:10.4061/2011/615094. PMC 3119552. PMID 21716744.
- Callaway, E. (March 2016). "Oldest ancient-human DNA details dawn of Neanderthals". Nature. 531 (7594): 286. Bibcode:2016Natur.531..296C. doi:10.1038/531286a. PMID 26983523. S2CID 4459329.
- Zimmer, C. (10 July 2019). "A Skull Bone Discovered in Greece May Alter the Story of Human Prehistory - The bone, found in a cave, is the oldest modern human fossil ever discovered in Europe. It hints that humans began leaving Africa far earlier than once thought". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 July 2019.
- Staff (10 July 2019). "'Oldest remains' outside Africa reset human migration clock". Phys.org. Retrieved 10 July 2019.
- Harvati, K.; Röding, C.; Bosman, A.M.; Karakostis, F.A.; Grün, R.; Stringer, C.; et al. (July 2019). "Apidima Cave fossils provide earliest evidence of Homo sapiens in Eurasia". Nature. 571 (7766): 500–504. doi:10.1038/s41586-019-1376-z. PMID 31292546. S2CID 195873640.
- Reich D, Green RE, Kircher M, Krause J, Patterson N, Durand EY, et al. (December 2010). "Genetic history of an archaic hominin group from Denisova Cave in Siberia" (PDF). Nature. 468 (7327): 1053–1060. Bibcode:2010Natur.468.1053R. doi:10.1038/nature09710. hdl:10230/25596. PMC 4306417. PMID 21179161.
- Reich D, Patterson N, Kircher M, Delfin F, Nandineni MR, Pugach I, et al. (October 2011). "Denisova admixture and the first modern human dispersals into Southeast Asia and Oceania". American Journal of Human Genetics. 89 (4): 516–528. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.09.005. PMC 3188841. PMID 21944045.
- Henn BM, Gignoux CR, Jobin M, Granka JM, Macpherson JM, Kidd JM, et al. (March 2011). "Hunter-gatherer genomic diversity suggests a southern African origin for modern humans". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 108 (13): 5154–5162. Bibcode:2011PNAS..108.5154H. doi:10.1073/pnas.1017511108. PMC 3069156. PMID 21383195.
- Schlebusch CM, Malmström H, Günther T, Sjödin P, Coutinho A, Edlund H, et al. (November 2017). "Southern African ancient genomes estimate modern human divergence to 350,000 to 260,000 years ago". Science. 358 (6363): 652–655. Bibcode:2017Sci...358..652S. doi:10.1126/science.aao6266. PMID 28971970.
- Perkins, Sid (17 October 2013). "Skull suggests three early human species were one". Nature News & Comment.
- Switek, B. (17 October 2013). "Beautiful Skull Spurs Debate on Human History". National Geographic. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- Lordkipanidze D, Ponce de León MS, Margvelashvili A, Rak Y, Rightmire GP, Vekua A, Zollikofer CP (October 2013). "A complete skull from Dmanisi, Georgia, and the evolutionary biology of early Homo". Science. 342 (6156): 326–31. Bibcode:2013Sci...342..326L. doi:10.1126/science.1238484. PMID 24136960. S2CID 20435482.
- "Homo heidelbergensis - The evolutionary dividing line between Homo erectus and modern humans was not sharp". Dennis O'Neil. Retrieved 29 November 2015.
- Mounier, A.; Marchal, F.; Condemi, S. (March 2009). "Is Homo heidelbergensis a distinct species? New insight on the Mauer mandible". Journal of Human Evolution. 56 (3): 219–246. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2008.12.006. PMID 19249816.
- Lieberman, D.E.; McBratney, B.M.; Krovitz, G. (February 2002). "The evolution and development of cranial form in Homosapiens". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 99 (3): 1134–1139. Bibcode:2002PNAS...99.1134L. doi:10.1073/pnas.022440799. PMC 122156. PMID 11805284.
- Wilson, A.C.; Maxson, L.R.; Sarich, V.M. (July 1974). "Two types of molecular evolution. Evidence from studies of interspecific hybridization". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 71 (7): 2843–2847. Bibcode:1974PNAS...71.2843W. doi:10.1073/pnas.71.7.2843. PMC 388568. PMID 4212492.
- Popadin, K.; Gunbin, K.; Peshkin, L.; Annis, S.; Kraytsberg, Y.; Markuzon, N.; et al. (19 October 2017). "Mitochondrial pseudogenes suggest repeated inter-species hybridization among direct human ancestors". bioRxiv. 134502. doi:10.1101/134502.
- Ackermann, R.R.; Arnold, M.L.; Baiz, M.D.; Cahill, J.A.; Cortés-Ortiz, L.; Evans, B.J.; et al. (July 2019). "Hybridization in human evolution: Insights from other organisms". Evolutionary Anthropology. 28 (4): 189–209. doi:10.1002/evan.21787. hdl:2027.42/151330. PMC 6980311. PMID 31222847.
- Schrenk F, Kullmer O, Bromage T (2007). "The Earliest Putative Homo Fossils". In Henke W, Tattersall I (eds.). Handbook of Paleoanthropology. Vol. 1. In collaboration with Thorolf Hardt. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. pp. 1611–1631. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-33761-4_52. ISBN 978-3-540-32474-4.
- DiMaggio, E.N.; Campisano, C.J.; Rowan, J.; Dupont-Nivet, G.; Deino, A.L.; Bibi, F.; et al. (March 2015). "Paleoanthropology. Late Pliocene fossiliferous sedimentary record and the environmental context of early Homo from Afar, Ethiopia". Science. 347 (6228): 1355–9. Bibcode:2015Sci...347.1355D. doi:10.1126/science.aaa1415. PMID 25739409. S2CID 43455561.
- Curnoe, D. (June 2010). "A review of early Homo in southern Africa focusing on cranial, mandibular and dental remains, with the description of a new species (Homo gautengensis sp. nov.)". HOMO. 61 (3): 151–177. doi:10.1016/j.jchb.2010.04.002. PMID 20466364.
- Haviland WA, Walrath D, Prins HE, McBride B (2007). Evolution and Prehistory: The Human Challenge (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth. p. 162. ISBN 978-0-495-38190-7.
- Ferring R, Oms O, Agustí J, Berna F, Nioradze M, Shelia T, et al. (June 2011). "Earliest human occupations at Dmanisi (Georgian Caucasus) dated to 1.85-1.78 Ma". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 108 (26): 10432–6. Bibcode:2011PNAS..10810432F. doi:10.1073/pnas.1106638108. PMC 3127884. PMID 21646521.
- Indriati, E.; Swisher, C.C.; Lepre, C.; Quinn, R.L.; Suriyanto, R.A.; Hascaryo, A.T.; et al. (2011). "The age of the 20 meter Solo River terrace, Java, Indonesia and the survival of Homo erectus in Asia". PLOS ONE. 6 (6): e21562. Bibcode:2011PLoSO...621562I. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0021562. PMC 3126814. PMID 21738710.
- Hazarika M (2007). "Homo erectus/ergaster and Out of Africa: Recent Developments in Paleoanthropology and Prehistoric Archaeology" (PDF). EAA Summer School eBook. Vol. 1. European Anthropological Association. pp. 35–41.
Intensive Course in Biological Anthrpology, 1st Summer School of the European Anthropological Association, 16–30 June 2007, Prague, Czech Republic
- Muttoni G, Scardia G, Kent DV, Swisher CC, Manzi G (2009). "Pleistocene magnetochronology of early hominin sites at Ceprano and Fontana Ranuccio, Italy". Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 286 (1–2): 255–268. Bibcode:2009E&PSL.286..255M. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2009.06.032.
- Ji, Q.; Wu, W.; Ji, Y.; Li, Q.; Ni, X. (25 June 2021). "Late Middle Pleistocene Harbin cranium represents a new Homo species". The Innovation. 2 (3): 100132. Bibcode:2021Innov...200132J. doi:10.1016/j.xinn.2021.100132. PMC 8454552. PMID 34557772.
- Ni X, Ji Q, Wu W, Shao Q, Ji Y, Zhang C, Liang L, Ge J, Guo Z, Li J, Li Q, Grün R, Stringer C (25 June 2021). "Massive cranium from Harbin in northeastern China establishes a new Middle Pleistocene human lineage". The Innovation. 2 (3): 100130. Bibcode:2021Innov...200130N. doi:10.1016/j.xinn.2021.100130. PMC 8454562. PMID 34557770.
- Dirks, P.H.; Roberts, E.M.; Hilbert-Wolf, H.; Kramers, J.D.; Hawks, J.; Dosseto A.; et al. (May 2017). "Homo naledi and associated sediments in the Rising Star Cave, South Africa". eLife. 6: e24231. doi:10.7554/eLife.24231. PMC 5423772. PMID 28483040.
- Callaway, Ewan (7 June 2017). "Oldest Homo sapiens fossil claim rewrites our species' history". Nature. doi:10.1038/nature.2017.22114. Retrieved 11 June 2017.
- Posth, C.; Wißing, C.; Kitagawa, K.; Pagani, L.; van Holstein, L.; Racimo, F.; et al. (July 2017). "Deeply divergent archaic mitochondrial genome provides lower time boundary for African gene flow into Neanderthals". Nature Communications. 8: 16046. Bibcode:2017NatCo...816046P. doi:10.1038/ncomms16046. PMC 5500885. PMID 28675384.
- Bischoff JL, Shamp DD, Aramburu A, et al. (March 2003). "The Sima de los Huesos Hominids Date to Beyond U/Th Equilibrium (>350 kyr) and Perhaps to 400–500 kyr: New Radiometric Dates". Journal of Archaeological Science. 30 (3): 275–280. doi:10.1006/jasc.2002.0834. ISSN 0305-4403.
- Dean, D.; Hublin, J.J.; Holloway, R.; Ziegler, R. (May 1998). "On the phylogenetic position of the pre-Neandertal specimen from Reilingen, Germany". Journal of Human Evolution. 34 (5): 485–508. doi:10.1006/jhev.1998.0214. PMID 9614635.
- Chang, C.H.; Kaifu, Y.; Takai, M.; Kono, R.T.; Grün, R.; Matsu'ura, S.; et al. (January 2015). "The first archaic Homo from Taiwan". Nature Communications. 6: 6037. Bibcode:2015NatCo...6.6037C. doi:10.1038/ncomms7037. PMC 4316746. PMID 25625212.
- Détroit, F.; Mijares, A.S.; Corny, J.; Daver, G.; Zanolli, C.; Dizon, E.; et al. (April 2019). "A new species of Homo from the Late Pleistocene of the Philippines" (PDF). Nature. 568 (7751): 181–186. Bibcode:2019Natur.568..181D. doi:10.1038/s41586-019-1067-9. PMID 30971845. S2CID 106411053.
- Zimmer C (10 April 2019). "A new human species once lived in this Philippine cave – Archaeologists in Luzon Island have turned up the bones of a distantly related species, Homo luzonensis, further expanding the human family tree". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
- Exploring the Hominid Fossil Record (Center for the Advanced Study of Hominid Paleobiology at George Washington University)
- Hominid species
- Prominent Hominid Fossils
- Mikko's Phylogeny archive
- "Homo" at the Encyclopedia of Life
- Human Timeline (Interactive) – Smithsonian, National Museum of Natural History (August 2016).