Temporal range: Gelasian - Holocene 2.8–0 Ma
|Reconstruction of Homo erectus georgicus (Élisabeth Daynès, Musée de Préhistoire, Quinson, France)|
Homo is the genus comprising the subspecies Homo sapiens sapiens, or modern humans, plus several extinct species classified as ancestral to or closely related to modern humans—as for example from Homo habilis to Homo neanderthalensis. The genus is about 2.8 million years old; it first appeared as its earliest species Homo habilis, which emerged from the genus Australopithecus, which itself had previously split from the lineage of the genus Pan, the chimpanzees. Homo is the only genus assigned to the subtribe Hominina which, with the subtribes Australopithecina and Panina, comprise the tribe Hominini (see evolutionary tree below). All species of the genus Homo plus those species of the australopithecines that arose after the split from Pan are called hominins.
The line to the earliest members of Homo made final separation from the lineage of Pan by late Miocene or early Pliocene times—with date estimates by several specialists ranging from 13 million years ago  to as recent as four million years ago—which (latter) date was soon rejected by some;   see current estimates regarding complex speciation. Homo erectus appeared about two million years ago in East Africa (where it is dubbed Homo ergaster) and, in several early migrations, it spread throughout Africa and Eurasia. It was likely the first hominin to live in a hunter-gatherer society and to control fire. An adaptive and successful species, Homo erectus persisted for almost 2 million years before suddenly becoming extinct about 70,000 years ago (0.07 Ma)—perhaps a casualty of the Toba supereruption catastrophe.
Homo sapiens sapiens, or anatomically modern humans, emerged about 200,000 years ago (0.2 Ma) in East Africa (see Omo remains). There is division among scholars as to when H. s. sapiens became behaviorally modern; the debate is: modern behavior developed 1) simultaneously with anatomical development, or 2) separately, and was complete by 50,000 years ago (see Modern human behavior). Homo sapiens sapiens is the only surviving species of the genus Homo, all others having become extinct.
Modern humans migrated from Africa as recently as 60,000 years ago, and during Upper Paleolithic times they spread throughout Africa and Eurasia, Oceania, and the Americas; and they encountered archaic humans en route of their migrations. Some archaic humans outside Africa survived alongside modern humans until about 40,000 years ago (see H. neanderthalensis), and possibly until as late as the times of the Epipaleolithic culture (about 12,000 years ago). DNA analysis provides evidence of interbreeding between archaic and modern humans.
Name and taxonomy
- See Hominidae for an overview of taxonomy.
The Latin noun homō (genitive hominis) means "human being" or "man" in the generic sense of "human being, mankind". The binomial name Homo sapiens was coined by Carl Linnaeus (1758). Names for other species of the genus were introduced beginning in the second half of the 19th century (H. neanderthalensis 1864, H. erectus 1892).
The genus Homo was given its taxonomic name to suggest that its member species can be classified as human. And, over the decades of the 20th century, fossil finds of pre-human and early human species from late Miocene and early Pliocene times produced a rich mix for debating classifications. There is continuing debate on delineating Homo from Australopithecus—or, indeed, delineating Homo from Pan, as one body of scientists argue that the two species of chimpanzee should be classed with genus Homo rather than Pan. Even so, classifying the fossils of Homo coincides with evidences of: 1) competent human bipedalism in Homo habilis inherited from the earlier Australopithecus of more than four million years ago, (see Laetoli); and 2) human tool culture having begun by 2.5 million years ago.
From the late-19th to mid-20th century, a number of new taxonomic names including new generic names were proposed for early human fossils; most have since been merged with Homo in recognition that Homo erectus was a single and singular species with a large geographic spread of early migrations. Many such names are now dubbed as "synonyms" with Homo, including Pithecanthropus, Protanthropus, Sinanthropus, Cyphanthropus, Africanthropus, Telanthropus, Atlanthropus, and Tchadanthropus.
Classifying the genus Homo into species and subspecies is subject to incomplete information and remains poorly done. This has led to using common names ("Neanderthal" and "Denisovan") in even scientific papers to avoid trinomial names or the ambiguity of classifying groups as incertae sedis (uncertain placement)—for example, H. neanderthalensis vs. H. sapiens neanderthalensis, or H. georgicus vs. H. erectus georgicus. Some recently extinct species in the genus Homo are only recently discovered and do not as yet have consensus binomial names (see Denisova hominin and Red Deer Cave people).
John Edward Gray (1825) was an early advocate of classifying taxa by designating tribes and families. Wood and Richmond (2000) proposed that Hominini ("hominins") be designated as a tribe that comprised all species of early humans and pre-humans ancestral to humans back to after the chimpanzee-human last common ancestor; and that Hominina be designated a subtribe of Hominini to include only the genus Homo—that is, not including the earlier upright walking hominins of the Pliocene such as Australopithecus, Orrorin tugenensis, Ardipithecus, or Sahelanthropus. Designations alternative to Hominina existed, or were offered: Australopithecinae (Gregory & Hellman 1939) and Preanthropinae (Cela-Conde & Altaba 2002); and later, Cela-Conde and Ayala (2003) proposed that the four genera Australopithecus, Ardipithecus, Praeanthropus, and Sahelanthropus be grouped with Homo within Hominina.
Several species, including Australopithecus garhi, Australopithecus sediba, Australopithecus africanus, and Australopithecus afarensis, have been proposed as the direct ancestor of the Homo lineage. These species have morphological features that align them with Homo, but there is no consensus as to which gave rise to Homo. The advent of Homo was traditionally taken to co-incide with the first use of stone tools (the Oldowan industry), and thus by definition with the beginning of the Lower Palaeolithic. The emergence of Homo also coincides roughly with the onset of Quaternary glaciation, the beginning of the current ice age.
A fossil jawbone dated to 2.8 million years ago which may represent an intermediate stage between Australopithecus and Homo was discovered in 2015 in Afar, Ethiopia. Some authors would push the development of Homo past 3 Mya, by including Kenyanthropus (a fossil dated 3.2 to 3.5 Mya, usually classified as an australopithecine species) into the Homo genus.
The most salient physiological development between the earlier australopithecine species and Homo is the increase in cranial capacity, from about 450 cm3 (27 cu in) in A. garhi to 600 cm3 (37 cu in) in H. habilis. Within the Homo genus, cranial capacity again doubled from H. habilis through Homo ergaster or H. erectus to Homo heidelbergensis by 0.6 million years ago. The cranial capacity of H. heidelbergensis overlaps with the range found in modern humans.
Homo erectus has often been assumed to have developed anagenetically from Homo habilis from about 2 million years ago. This scenario was strengthened with the discovery of Homo erectus georgicus, early specimens of H. erectus found in the Caucasus, which seemed to exhibit transitional traits with H. habilis. As the earliest evidence for H. erectus was found outside of Africa, it was considered plausible that H. erectus developed in Eurasia and then migrated back to Africa. Based on fossils from the Koobi Fora Formation, east of Lake Turkana in Kenya, Spoor et al. (2007) argued that H. habilis may have survived beyond the emergence of H. erectus, so that the evolution of H. erectus would not have been anagenetically, and H. erectus would have existed alongside with H. habilis for about half a million years ( ), during the early Calabrian.
Some of H. ergaster migrated to Asia, where they are named Homo erectus, and to Europe with Homo georgicus. H. ergaster in Africa and H. erectus in Eurasia evolved separately for almost two million years and presumably separated into two different species. Homo rhodesiensis, who were descended from H. ergaster, migrated from Africa to Europe and became Homo heidelbergensis and later (about 250,000 years ago) Homo neanderthalensis and the Denisova hominin in Asia. The first Homo sapiens, descendants of H. rhodesiensis, appeared in Africa about 250,000 years ago. About 100,000 years ago, some H. sapiens sapiens migrated from Africa to the Levant and met with resident Neanderthals, with some admixture. Later, about 70,000 years ago, perhaps after the Toba catastrophe, a small group left the Levant to populate Eurasia, Australia and later the Americas. A subgroup among them met the Denisovans and, after further admixture, migrated to populate Melanesia. In this scenario, non-African people living today are mostly of African origin ("Out of Africa model"). However, there was also some admixture with Neanderthals and Denisovans, who had evolved locally (the "multiregional hypothesis"). Recent genomic results from the group of Svante Pääbo also show that 30,000 years ago at least three major subspecies coexisted: Denisovans, Neanderthals and anatomically modern humans. Today, only H. sapiens remains, with no other extant species.
List of species
The species status of Homo rudolfensis, Homo ergaster, H. georgicus, H. antecessor, H. cepranensis, H. rhodesiensis, Homo neanderthalensis, Denisova hominin, Red Deer Cave people and Homo floresiensis remains under debate. H. heidelbergensis and H. neanderthalensis are closely related to each other and have been considered to be subspecies of H. sapiens. Recently, nuclear DNA from a Neanderthal specimen from Vindija Cave has been sequenced using two different methods that yield similar results regarding Neanderthal and H. sapiens lineages, with both analyses suggesting a date for the split between 460,000 and 700,000 years ago, though a population split of around 370,000 years is inferred. The nuclear DNA results indicate about 30% of derived alleles in H. sapiens are also in the Neanderthal lineage. This high frequency may suggest some gene flow between ancestral human and Neanderthal populations due to mating between the two.
|Species||Temporal range Mya||Habitat||Adult height||Adult mass||Cranial capacity (cm³)||Fossil record||Discovery / publication of name|
|H. habilis||2.1 – 1.5||Africa||150 cm (4 ft 11 in)||33–55 kg (73–121 lb)||510–660||Many||1960/1964|
|H. erectus||1.9 – 0.07||Africa, Eurasia (Java, China, India, Caucasus)||180 cm (5 ft 11 in)||60 kg (130 lb)||850 (early) – 1,100 (late)||Many||1891/1892|
membership in Homo uncertain
also classified as H. habilis
|1.9 – 0.6||South Africa||100 cm (3 ft 3 in)||3 individuals||2010/2010|
also classified as H. erectus
|1.8 – 1.3||Eastern and Southern Africa||700–850||Many||1975|
also classified as H. heidelbergensis
|1.2 – 0.8||Spain||175 cm (5 ft 9 in)||90 kg (200 lb)||1,000||2 sites||1997|
a single fossil, possibly H. erectus
|0.9 – 0.35||Italy||1,000||1 skull cap||1994/2003|
|H. heidelbergensis||0.6 – 0.35||Europe, Africa, China||180 cm (5 ft 11 in)||90 kg (200 lb)||1,100–1,400||Many||1908|
possibly a subspecies of H. sapiens
|0.35 – 0.04||Europe, Western Asia||170 cm (5 ft 7 in)||55–70 kg (121–154 lb) (heavily built)||1,200–1,900||Many||(1829)/1864|
also classified as H. heidelbergensis
|0.3 – 0.12||Zambia||1,300||Very few||1921|
possibly H. erectus
|0.25 – 0.2||Taiwan||1 individual||pre-2008/2015|
|Worldwide||150 - 190 cm (4 ft 7 in - 6 ft 3 in)||50–100 kg (110–220 lb)||950–1,800||(extant)||—/1758|
|0.10 – 0.012||Indonesia||100 cm (3 ft 3 in)||25 kg (55 lb)||400||7 individuals||2003/2004|
possible H. sapiens subspecies or hybrid
|Red Deer Cave people
possible H. sapiens subspecies or hybrid
- List of human evolution fossils (with images)
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- Spoor, Fred; Gunz, Philipp; Neubauer, Simon; Stelzer, Stefanie; Scott, Nadia; Kwekason, Amandus; Dean, M. Christopher (March 5, 2015). "Reconstructed Homo habilis type OH 7 suggests deep-rooted species diversity in early Homo". Nature 519 (7541): 83–86. doi:10.1038/nature14224. ISSN 0028-0836.
- Villmoare, Brian; Kimbel, William H.; Seyoum, Chalachew; Campisano, Christopher J.; DiMaggio, Erin N.; Rowan, John; Braun, David R.; Arrowsmith, J. Ramón; Reed, Kaye E. (2015-03-20). "Early Homo at 2.8 Ma from Ledi-Geraru, Afar, Ethiopia". Science 347 (6228): 1352–1355. doi:10.1126/science.aaa1343. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 25739410.
- Schuster, Angela M. H. (1997). "Earliest Remains of Genus Homo". Archaeology 50 (1). Retrieved 5 March 2015.
- Arnason U, Gullberg A, Janke A (December 1998). "Molecular timing of primate divergences as estimated by two nonprimate calibration points". J. Mol. Evol. 47 (6): 718–27. doi:10.1007/PL00006431. PMID 9847414.
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- Wakeley J (March 2008). "Complex speciation of humans and chimpanzees". Nature 452 (7184): E3–4; discussion E4. doi:10.1038/nature06805. PMID 18337768. "Patterson et al. suggest that the apparently short divergence time between humans and chimpanzees on the X chromosome is explained by a massive interspecific hybridization event in the ancestry of these two species. However, Patterson et al. do not statistically test their own null model of simple speciation before concluding that speciation was complex, and—even if the null model could be rejected—they do not consider other explanations of a short divergence time on the X chromosome. These include natural selection on the X chromosome in the common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees, changes in the ratio of male-to-female mutation rates over time, and less extreme versions of divergence with gene flow. I therefore believe that their claim of hybridization is unwarranted."
- , BBC
- The word "human" itself is from Latin humanus, an adjective formed on the root of homo, thought to derive from a Proto-Indo-European word for "earth" reconstructed as *dhǵhem-. dhghem The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000.
- Linné, Carl von (1758). Systema naturæ. Regnum animale. (10 ed.). pp. 18, 20. Retrieved 19 November 2012.. Note: In 1959, Linnaeus was designated as the lectotype for Homo sapiens (Stearn, W. T. 1959. "The background of Linnaeus's contributions to the nomenclature and methods of systematic biology", Systematic Zoology 8 (1): 4-22, p. 4) which means that following the nomenclatural rules, Homo sapiens was validly defined as the animal species to which Linnaeus belonged.
- "ape-man", from Pithecanthropus erectus (Java Man), Eugène Dubois, Pithecanthropus erectus : eine menschenähnliche Übergangsform aus Java (1894), identified with the Pithecanthropus alalus (i.e. "non-speaking ape-man") hypothesized earlier by Ernst Haeckel
- "early man", Protanthropus primigenius Ernst Haeckel, Systematische Phylogenie vol. 3 (1895), p. 625
- "Sinic man", from Sinanthropus pekinensis (Peking Man), Davidson Black (1927).
- "crooked man", from Cyphanthropus rhodesiensis (Rhodesian Man) William Plane Pycraft (1928).
- "African man", used by T. F. Dreyer (1935) for the Florisbad Skull he found in 1932 (also Homo florisbadensis or Homo helmei). Also the genus suggested for a number of archaic human skulls found at Lake Eyasi by Weinert (1938). Leaky, Journal of the East Africa Natural History Society' (1942), p. 43.
- "remote man"; from Telanthropus capensis (Broom and Robinson 1949), see (1961), p. 487.
- from Atlanthropus mauritanicus, name given to the species of fossils (three lower jaw bones and a parietal bone of a skull) discovered in 1954 to 1955 by Camille Arambourg in Tighennif, Algeria. C. Arambourg, "A recent discovery in human paleontology: Atlanthropus of ternifine (Algeria)", American Journal of Physical Anthropology 13.2 (June 1955), 191–201, doi: 10.1002/ajpa.1330130203.
- Y. Coppens, "L'Hominien du Tchad", Actes V Congr. PPEC I (1965), 329f.; "Le Tchadanthropus", Anthropologia 70 (1966), 5–16.
- Alexandra Vivelo (2013), Characterization of Unique Features of the Denisovan Exome
- J. E. Gray, "An outline of an attempt at the disposition of Mammalia into Tribes and Families, with a list of genera apparently appertaining to each Tribe", Annals of Philosophy', new series (1825), pp. 337–344.
- Wood and Richmond; Richmond, BG (2000). "Human evolution: taxonomy and paleobiology". Journal of Anatomy 197 (Pt 1): 19–60. doi:10.1046/j.1469-7580.2000.19710019.x. PMC 1468107. PMID 10999270.
- Brunet, M. et al. 2002: A new hominid from the upper Miocene of Chad, central Africa. Nature (London), 418: 145-151. Cela-Conde, C.J. and Ayala, F.J., 2003: Genera of the human lineage. PNAS, 100(13): 7684-7689. Wood, B.; Lonergan, N., 2008: The hominin fossil record: taxa, grades and clades. J. Anat., 212: 354–376. PDF
- C. J. Cela-Conde and F. J. Ayala. 2003. "Genera of the human lineage". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 100(13):7684-7689.
- Stringer, C. (2012). "What makes a modern human". Nature 485 (7396): 33–35. doi:10.1038/485033a. PMID 22552077.
- Pickering, R.; Dirks, P. H.; Jinnah, Z.; De Ruiter, D. J.; Churchill, S. E.; Herries, A. I.; Berger, L. R. (2011). "Australopithecus sediba at 1.977 Ma and implications for the origins of the genus Homo". Science 333 (6048): 1421–1423. doi:10.1126/science.1203697.
- Asfaw, B.; White, T.; Lovejoy, O.; Latimer, B.; Simpson, S.; Suwa, G. (1999). "Australopithecus garhi: a new species of early hominid from Ethiopia". Science 284 (5414): 629–635. doi:10.1126/science.284.5414.629.
- In 2010, evidence was presented that seems to attribute the use of stone tools to Australopithecus afarensis, close to a million years before the first appearance of Homo. McPherron, S. P.; Alemseged, Z.; Marean, C. W.; Wynn, J. G.; Reed, D.; Geraads, D.; Bobe, R.; Bearat, H. A. (2010). "Evidence for stone-tool-assisted consumption of animal tissues before 3.39 million years ago at Dikika, Ethiopia". Nature 466: 857–860. doi:10.1038/nature09248. "The oldest direct evidence of stone tool manufacture comes from Gona (Ethiopia) and dates to between 2.6 and 2.5 million years (Myr) ago. [...] Here we report stone-tool-inflicted marks on bones found during recent survey work in Dikika, Ethiopia [... showing] unambiguous stone-tool cut marks for flesh removal [..., dated] to between 3.42 and 3.24 Myr ago [...] Our discovery extends by approximately 800,000 years the antiquity of stone tools and of stone-tool-assisted consumption of ungulates by hominins; furthermore, this behaviour can now be attributed to Australopithecus afarensis."
- Erin N. DiMaggio EN, Campisano CJ, Rowan J, Dupont-Nivet G, Deino AL et al. "Late Pliocene fossiliferous sedimentary record and the environmental context of early Homo from Afar, Ethiopia". Science. doi:10.1126/science.aaa1415. See also: "Oldest known member of human family found in Ethiopia". New Scientist. 4 March 2015. Retrieved 7 March 2015., Ghosh, Pallab (4 March 2015). "'First human' discovered in Ethiopia". BBC News. Retrieved 5 March 2015.
- Cela-Conde and Ayala (2003) recognize five genera within Hominina: Ardipithecus, Australopithecus (including Paranthropus), Homo (including Kenyanthropus), Praeanthropus (including Orrorin), and Sahelanthropus. C. J. Cela-Conde and F. J. Ayala. 2003. "Genera of the human lineage". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 100(13):7684-7689.
- "A partial maxilla assigned to H. habilis reliably demonstrates that this species survived until later than previously recognized, making an anagenetic relationship with H. erectus unlikely. The discovery of a particularly small calvaria of H. erectus indicates that this taxon overlapped in size with H. habilis, and may have shown marked sexual dimorphism. The new fossils confirm the distinctiveness of H. habilis and H. erectus, independently of overall cranial size, and suggest that these two early taxa were living broadly sympatrically in the same lake basin for almost half a million years." Spoor, F; Leakey, M.G; Gathogo, P.N; Brown, F.H; Antón, S.C; McDougall, I; Kiarie, C; Manthi, F.K.; Leakey, L.N. (2007). "Implications of new early Homo fossils from Ileret, east of Lake Turkana, Kenya". Nature 448 (7154): 688–691. doi:10.1038/nature05986.
- Green, RE; Krause, J et al. (2010). "A draft sequence of the Neanderthal genome". Science 328 (5979): 710–22. doi:10.1126/science.1188021. PMID 20448178.
- Reich, D; Green, RE; Kircher, M et al. (December 2010). "(December 2010). "Genetic history of an archaic hominin group from Denisova Cave in Siberia"". Nature 468 (7327): 1053–60. doi:10.1038/nature09710. PMID 21179161.
- Reich et al. (Oct 2011). "Denisova admixture and the first modern human dispersals into southeast Asia and Oceania". Am J Hum Genet 89 (4): 516–28. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.09.005. PMC 3188841. PMID 21944045.
- Biological Anthropology: 2nd Edition. 2009. Craig Stanford et al.
- Schrenk, Friedemann; Kullmer, Ottmar; Bromage, Timothy (2007). "The Earliest Putative Homo Fossils". In Henke, Winfried; Tattersall, Ian. Handbook of Paleoanthropology 1. In collaboration with Thorolf Hardt. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. pp. 1611–1631. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-33761-4_52. ISBN 978-3-540-32474-4. Confirmed H. habilis fossils are dated to between 2.1 and 1.5 million years ago. This date range overlaps with the emergence of Homo erectus. Wilford, John Noble (August 9, 2007). "Fossils in Kenya Challenge Linear Evolution". The New York Times. Retrieved 2015-05-04.
- DiMaggio, Erin N.; Campisano, Christopher J.; Rowan, John et al. (March 20, 2015). "Late Pliocene fossiliferous sedimentary record and the environmental context of early Homo from Afar, Ethiopia". Science (Washington, D.C.: American Association for the Advancement of Science) 347 (6228): 1355–1359. doi:10.1126/science.aaa1415. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 25739409. Hominins with "proto-Homo" traits may have lived as early as 2.8 million years ago, as suggested by a fossil jawbone classified as transitional between Australopithecus and Homo discovered in 2015.
- Haviland, William A.; Walrath, Dana; Prins, Harald E. L.; McBride, Bunny (2007). Evolution and Prehistory: The Human Challenge (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth. p. 162. ISBN 978-0-495-38190-7.H. erectus may have appeared some 2 million years ago. Fossils dated to as much as 1.8 million years ago have been found both in Africa and in Southeast Asia, and the oldest fossils by a narrow margin (1.85 to 1.77 million years ago) were found in the Caucasus, so that it is unclear whether H. erectus emerged in Africa and migrated to Eurasia, or if, conversely, it evolved in Eurasia and migrated back to Africa.
- Ferring, R.; Oms, O.; Agusti, J.; Berna, F.; Nioradze, M.; Shelia, T.; Tappen, M.; Vekua, A.; Zhvania, D.; Lordkipanidze, D. (2011). "Earliest human occupations at Dmanisi (Georgian Caucasus) dated to 1.85-1.78 Ma". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108 (26): 10432. doi:10.1073/pnas.1106638108.
- "New discovery suggests Homo erectus originated from Asia". Daily News and Analysis (Mumbai, India: Diligent Media Corporation Ltd.). Asian News International. June 8, 2011. Retrieved 2015-05-04.
- Frazier, Kendrick (November–December 2006). "Leakey Fights Church Campaign to Downgrade Kenya Museum's Human Fossils". Skeptical Inquirer (Amherst, NY: Committee for Skeptical Inquiry) 30 (6). ISSN 0194-6730. Retrieved 2015-05-04.
- Now also included in H. erectus are Peking Man (formerly Sinanthropus pekinensis) and Java Man (formerly Pithecanthropus erectus). H. erectus is now grouped into various subspecies, including Homo erectus erectus, Homo erectus yuanmouensis, Homo erectus lantianensis, Homo erectus nankinensis, Homo erectus pekinensis, Homo erectus palaeojavanicus, Homo erectus soloensis, Homo erectus tautavelensis, Homo erectus georgicus. The distinction from descendant species such as Homo ergaster, Homo floresiensis, Homo antecessor, Homo heidelbergensis and indeed Homo sapiens is not entirely clear.
- Curnoe, Darren (June 2010). "A review of early Homo in southern Africa focusing on cranial, mandibular and dental remains, with the description of a new species (Homo gautengensis sp. nov.)". HOMO - Journal of Comparative Human Biology (Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Elsevier) 61 (3): 151–177. doi:10.1016/j.jchb.2010.04.002. ISSN 0018-442X. PMID 20466364. A species proposed in 2010 based on the fossil remains of three individuals dated between 1.9 and 0.6 million years ago. The same fossils were also classified as H. habilis, H. ergaster or Australopithecus by other anthropologists.
- Hazarika, Manjil (2007). "Homo erectus/ergaster and Out of Africa: Recent Developments in Paleoanthropology and Prehistoric Archaeology" (PDF). EAA Summer School eBook 1. European Anthropological Association. pp. 35–41. Retrieved 2015-05-04. "Intensive Course in Biological Anthrpology, 1st Summer School of the European Anthropological Association, 16–30 June, 2007, Prague, Czech Republic"
- The type fossil is Mauer 1, dated to ca. 0.6 million years ago. The transition from H. heidelbergensis to H. neanderthalensis at about 0.35 to 0.25 million years ago is largely conventional. Relevant examples are fossils found at Bilzingsleben (also classified as Homo erectus bilzingslebensis).
- Bischoff, James L.; Shamp, Donald D.; Aramburu, Arantza et al. (March 2003). "The Sima de los Huesos Hominids Date to Beyond U/Th Equilibrium (>350 kyr) and Perhaps to 400–500 kyr: New Radiometric Dates". Journal of Archaeological Science (Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Elsevier) 30 (3): 275–280. doi:10.1006/jasc.2002.0834. ISSN 0305-4403. The first humans with "proto-Neanderthal traits" lived in Eurasia as early as 0.6 to 0.35 million years ago (classified as H. heidelbergensis, also called a chronospecies because it represents a chronological grouping rather than being based on clear morphological distinctions from either H. erectus or H. neanderthalensis), with the first "true Neanderthals" appearing between 0.25 and 0.2 million years ago.
- "Fossil Reanalysis Pushes Back Origin of Homo sapiens". Scientific American (Stuttgart: Georg von Holtzbrinck Publishing Group). February 17, 2005. ISSN 0036-8733. Retrieved 2015-05-04. The oldest fossil remains of anatomically modern humans are the Omo remains, which date to 195,000 (±5,000) years ago and include two partial skulls as well as arm, leg, foot and pelvis bones.
- McDougall, Ian; Brown, Francis H.; Fleagle, John G. (February 17, 2005). "Stratigraphic placement and age of modern humans from Kibish, Ethiopia". Nature (London: Nature Publishing Group) 433 (7027): 733–736. Bibcode:2005Natur.433..733M. doi:10.1038/nature03258. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 15716951. H. sapiens idaltu is a confirmed subspecies, based on 3 craniums dated 0.16 – 0.15 Mya found in Ethiopia (1997/2003).
- Serre; Langaney, André; Chech, Mario; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Paunovic, Maja; Mennecier, Philippe; Hofreiter, Michael; Possnert, Göran; Pääbo, Svante et al. (2004). "No evidence of Neandertal mtDNA contribution to early modern humans". PLoS Biology 2 (3): 313–7. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0020057. PMC 368159. PMID 15024415.
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- Bradshaw Foundation Origins – Exploring the Fossil Record (with Center for the Advanced Study of Hominid Paleobiology at George Washington University)
- Hominid species
- Prominent Hominid Fossils
- Mikko's Phylogeny archive
- Homo at the Encyclopedia of Life