Homogeneous is a term in physical chemistry and material science that refers to substances and mixtures which are in a single phase. This is in contrast to a substance that is heterogeneous. The definition of homogeneous strongly depends on the context used. Generally it refers to smooth variation of properties with no discontinuities or jumps. In chemistry, a homogeneous suspension of material means that when dividing the volume in half, the same amount of material is suspended in both halves of the substance. However, it might be possible to see the particles under a microscope. An example of a homogeneous mixture is air. Air can be more specifically described as a gaseous solution (oxygen and other gases dissolved in the major component, nitrogen). Since interactions between molecules play almost no role, dilute gases form rather trivial solutions. In part of the literature, they are not even classified as solutions.
Homogeneity of mixtures
Homogeneous mixtures have the same proportions of the various components throughout a given sample (or multiple samples of different proportion), creating a consistent mixture. However, two homogeneous mixtures of the same pair of substances may differ widely from each other and can be homogenized to make a constant. Homogeneous mixtures always have the same composition. Mixtures can be characterized by being separable by mechanical means e.g. heat, filtration, gravitational sorting, etc.
A solution is a special type of homogeneous mixture. Solutions are homogeneous because the ratio of solute to solvent remains the same throughout the solution even if homogenized with multiple sources, and stable because the solute will not settle out after any period of time, and it cannot be removed by a filter or a centrifuge. This type of mixture is very stable, i.e., its particles do not settle, or separate. As a homogeneous mixture, a solution has one phase (liquid) although the solute and solvent can vary: for example, salt water. In chemistry, a mixture is a substance containing two or more elements or compounds that are not covalently bound to each other and which retain their own chemical and physical identities; – a substance which has two or more constituent physical substances. Mixtures, in the broader sense, are two or more substances physically in the same place, but these are not chemically combined, and therefore ratios are not necessarily considered.
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