Homophobic propaganda

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Homophobic propaganda (or anti-gay propaganda) is propaganda based on homonegativity and homophobia towards homosexual and sometimes other non-heterosexual people. Such propaganda supports anti-gay prejudices and stereotypes, and promotes social stigmatization and/or discrimination. The term homophobic propaganda was used by the historian Stefan Micheler in his work Homophobic Propaganda and the Denunciation of Same-Sex-Desiring Men under National Socialism,[1] as well as other works treating the topic.[2]

In some countries, some forms of homophobic propaganda are considered hate speech and are prohibited by law.

History of homophobic propaganda[edit]

Germany[edit]

Political attitudes towards homosexuals in Nazi Germany were based on the assumption that homosexuals were destroying the German nation as "sexual degenerates". Historian Erwin J. Haeberle, in his work Swastika, Pink Triangle and Yellow Star: The Destruction of Sexology and the Persecution of Homosexuals in Nazi Germany, dates the first appearance of this political attitude to 14 May 1928.[3]

Homophobic propaganda and law[edit]

Russia[edit]

In Russia, it is illegal to commit crimes against someone based on their social group, and LGBT people are considered a separate social group by law. Responsibility for it is established item 136 and item 282 of the criminal code of the Russian Federation.[4]

However, on June 30, 2013, President Vladimir Putin signed into law a bill banning the "propaganda of nontraditional sexual relations" among minors, and prohibits the equation of same-sex and straight marital relationships.[5] Vice News claims that many LGBT rights groups have been transformed "from being a stigmatized fringe group to full-blown enemies of the state" in Russia following the introduction of this law, and that openly homophobic and neo-Nazi groups such as Occupy Paedophilia have been described by Russian authorities as "civil movements fighting the sins of society".

Norway[edit]

In 1981, Norway became the first country to establish a criminal penalty (a fine or imprisonment for up to two years) for public threats, defamations, expressions of hate, or agitation for discrimination towards the LGBT community.[6]

The Netherlands[edit]

On July 1, 1987 in the Netherlands joined the Dutch Penal code, which established punishment for public defamations on the basis of sexual orientation as fees or imprisonment for up to two years.[7]

Ireland[edit]

In 1989 in Ireland a resolution against anti-gay hate speech came into effect. It establishes penalty in the form of fees or imprisonment for up to two years for publication or distribution of materials which contain defamations, threats, hate speech or offenses for LGBT people. The law is occasionally taken into effect.[7]

Australia[edit]

On 2 March 1993 in New South Wales, Australia, an amendment to the antidiscrimination law came into effect which prohibits public hate speech, despisement or ridiculing of homosexuals. A legal exclusion is any information which is distributed for educational, religious, scientific or social purposes.[8]

On 10 December 1999 an analogous amendment was accepted by Tasmanian parliament, which permits no exclusion.[9]

South Africa[edit]

In February 2000 the South African Parliament enacted the Promotion of Equality and Prevention of Unfair Discrimination Act, which prohibits hate speech based on any of the constitutionally prohibited grounds, including sexual orientation. The definition of hate speech includes speech which is intended to "promote or propagate hatred".[10]

United Kingdom[edit]

Section 28 of the Local Government Act 1988 added section 2A to the Local Government Act 1986, which forbade local authorities from being allowed to "promote homosexuality", or "promote the teaching in any maintained school the acceptability of homosexuality as a pretended family relationship".[11]

It was repealed on 21 June 2000 in Scotland as one of the first pieces of legislation enacted by the new Scottish Parliament, and on 18 November 2003 in the rest of the United Kingdom by section 122 of the Local Government Act 2003.[12]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Micheler, Stefan "Homophobic Propaganda and the Denunciation of Same-Sex-Desiring Men under National Socialism", Journal of the History of Sexuality, Volume 11, Number 1 and 2, January/April 2002, pp. 105—130
  2. ^ "Faultlines: homophobic innovation in Gay Rights, Special Rights - Special Issue: Fundamentalist Media" in Afterimage, Feb-March, 1995 by Ioannis Mookas
  3. ^ Haeberle, Erwin J. "Swastika, Pink Triangle and Yellow Star: The Destruction of Sexology and the Persecution of Homosexuals in Nazi Germany". Journal of Sex Research 17:3 (1981): 270-87.
  4. ^ "The Constitution of Russian Federation". Az-libr.ru. 2009-04-11. Retrieved 2009-11-21. 
  5. ^ The Guardian: Russia passes law banning gay 'propaganda'. June 11, 2013.
  6. ^ "Norway General Civil Penal Code, §135 a". European Public Prosecutors. Archived from the original on 2005-05-29. Retrieved 2009-11-21. 
  7. ^ a b "Equality for lesbians and gay men.". ILGA-Europe. June 1998. Archived from the original on 2007-12-19. Retrieved 2009-11-21. 
  8. ^ "ANTI-DISCRIMINATION ACT 1977 - SECT 49ZT. Homosexual vilification unlawful". Austlii.edu.au. Retrieved 2009-11-21. 
  9. ^ Rodney Croome (14 January 1999). "Tasmania - Changing Hearts and Laws". Sydney Star Observer. Archived from the original on 2005-03-12. Retrieved 2009-11-21. 
  10. ^ Promotion of Equality and Prevention of Unfair Discrimination Act 4 of 2000, section 10.
  11. ^ "Local Government Act 1988 Chapter 9" (PDF). Parliament of the United Kingdom. 1988. Retrieved 29 May 2015. 
  12. ^ Local Government Act 2003 (c. 26) – Statute Law Database

Bibliography[edit]

  • Plant, Richard. The Pink Triangle: The Nazi War Against Homosexuals. New York: Holt, 1986. ISBN 0-8050-0600-1
  • Grau, Gunter. The Hidden Holocaust?: Gay and Lesbian Persecution in Germany 1933-45. Routledge, 1995. ISBN 1-884964-15-X
  • Heger, Heinz. The Men with the Pink Triangle: the True Life-and-Death Story of Homosexuals in the Nazi Death Camps. Alyson Publications Inc., U.S., 1995. ISBN 0-932870-06-6
  • Healy, Dan. How many victims of the antisodomy law. Homosexual Desire in Revolutionary Russia. The University of Chicago Press, 2001. ISBN 0-226-32234-3