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Homophonic translation renders a text in one language into a near-homophonic text in another language, usually with no attempt to preserve the original meaning of the text. In one homophonic translation, for example, the English "sat on a wall" // is rendered as French "s'étonne aux Halles" [setɔnoɑl] (literally "is surprised at the Market"). More generally, homophonic transformation renders a text into a near-homophonic text in the same or another language: e.g., "recognize speech" could become "wreck a nice beach".
Homophonic translation may be used to render proper nouns in a foreign language. A more elegant solution, when possible, is phono-semantic matching, which attempts to have closer semantics as well as the proper sound.
Alternatively, homophonic translation may be used for humorous purpose, as bilingual punning (macaronic language). This requires the listener or reader to understand both the surface, nonsensical translated text, as well as the source text—the surface text then sounds like source text spoken in a foreign accent.
Frayer Jerker is a homophonic translation of the French Frère Jacques (1956). Other examples of homophonic translation include some works by Oulipo (1960–), Frédéric Dard, Luis van Rooten's English-French Mots D'Heures: Gousses, Rames (1967), Louis Zukofsky's Latin-English Catullus Fragmenta (1969), Ormonde de Kay's English-French N'Heures Souris Rames (1980), John Hulme's German-English Morder Guss Reims: The Gustav Leberwurst Manuscript, and David Melnick's Ancient Greek-English Men in Aida (1983).
Hierosolyma, the Greco-Roman name for Jerusalem, is an example of this phenomenon, where the Hebrew "Yeru", which means "City of" is reinterpreted as the Greek "Hiero", which means "Holy".
The individual words are all correct French. (Of course fallent is a form of the verb *falloir that is no longer in use and Reguennes is a hapax legomenon), and some passages follow standard syntax and are interpretable (though nonsensical), but the result is in fact not meaningful French.
The Italian rabbi Leon of Modena composed at age 13 an octave by the name of "Kinah Sh'mor", meaningful in both Hebrew and Renaissance Judeo-Italian, as an elegy for his teacher Moses della Rocca. The first four verses are below.
|Hebrew text||Hebrew transliteration||Translation||Judeo-Italian||Roman-type Italian||Translation|
קִינָה שְׁמוֹר. אוֹי מֶה כְּפַּס אוֹצֵר בּוֹ.
|Kinah sh'mor. Oy, meh k'pas otzer bo,||Mark this lament! Ah, but the treasure of him has passed,||
קִי נַאשֵׁי מור, אואִימֵי, קֵי ּפַאסוֹ אַצֵירבו!
|Chi nasce muor, Oime, che pass'acerbo!||Whoever is born, dies. Ay, me! A bitter thing has come to pass!|
כָּל טוֹב עֵילוֹם. כּוֹסִי אוֹר דִין אֶל צִילוֹ.
|Kol tov eilom. Kosi or din el tzilo.||All his divine good! The shadow of God’s judgment falls on my cup of light.||
קולטו וְאֵין לְ אומְ, קוסִי אורְדִינַה לְצְיֵילוֹ.
|Colto vien l'huom, cosi ordin'il Cielo.||A man has been plucked, such is the decree of Heaven.|
מֹשֶׁה, מוֹרִי, מֹשֶׁה יָקָר, דֶבֶר בּוֹ.
|Moshe mori, Moshe, yakar, dever bo.||Moses my teacher, Moses, how precious all was in him,||
מוסֵי מורי, מוסֵי, גְיָיה קַאר דֵי וֵירבו,
|Mose morì, Mose gia car de verbo,||Moses, my teacher, Moses, so precious of speech,|
שָׂם תּוּשִׁיָה אוֹן. יוֹם כִּיפּוּר הוּא זֶה לוֹ.
|Sam tushiyah on. Yom Kippur hu zeh lo.||How much resourcefulness and strength were there! This is his Day of Atonement.||
סַאנְטו סִיאַה אונְיִי אום, קון פורו זֵילוֹ!
|Santo sia ogn'huom, con puro zelo!||Sainted be he of all men, pure was his zeal!|
Here is another example of a sentence which has two completely different meanings if read in Latin or in Italian:
|Sentence||Latin meaning||Italian meaning|
|I, Vitelli, dei Romani sono belli.||Go, Vitellius, at the Roman god's sound of war.||The Romans' veals are beautiful.|
Homophonic translations of song lyrics, often combined with music videos, for comic effect—also known as soramimi in Japan and mondegreen in English speaking countries—have gained popularity on the internet.
- Holorime, a form of rhyme where the entire line or phrase is repeated by a homophonic variant
- Mondegreen, the erroneous interpretation of language by homophony
- Mots d'Heures
- Soramimi, the reinterpretation of song lyrics by homophonic translation
- Phono-semantic matching (PSM), a borrowing in which a foreign word is matched with a phonetically and semantically similar pre-existent native word/root.
- Mairzy Doats
- An often-used example in the literature of speech recognition. An early example is N. Rex Dixon, "Some Problems in Automatic Recognition of Continuous Speech and Their Implications for Pattern Recognition" Proceedings of the First International Joint Conference on Pattern Recognition, IEEE, 1973 as quoted in Mark Liberman, "Wrecking a nice beach", Language Log August 5, 2014
- Chace, Howard L. (1956). "Frayer Jerker". Anguish Languish [English Language]. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. OCLC 2539398.
- 1981; ISBN 0517545594
- the first line is quoted by Nigel Molesworth in Down With Skool 1953, by Geoffrey Willans, illustrated by Ronald Searle, p. 41.
- Bernard Dupriez, A Dictionary of Literary Devices: Gradus, A-Z, Toronto 1991. ISBN 0-8020-6803-0. p. 462.
- cf. Genette, Gérard; Newman, Channa; Doubinsky, Claude. Palimpsests. pp. 40–41.
- "Luis d'Antin van Rooten's Humpty Dumpty". The Guardian. 27 November 2009. Retrieved 27 November 2009.
- Aaron D. Rubin (2017). "Judeo-Italian". In Kahn, Lily; Rubin, Aaron D. (eds.). Handbook of Jewish Languages (2 ed.). Leiden, the Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill NV. pp. 343–345. ISBN 978-90-04-34577-5.
- Philologos. "When the Second Verse Is Same as the First in Hebrew". The Forward. Forward Association. Retrieved 10 January 2018.
- Word Ways 36 (2003)