Homosexuality and the Anglican Communion
|Part of a series on|
|Christianity and LGBT topics|
|Ordination of LGBT clergy|
Since the 1990s, the Anglican Communion has struggled with controversy regarding homosexuality in the church. In 1998, the 13th Lambeth Conference of Anglican bishops passed a resolution stating that "homosexual acts" are "incompatible with Scripture". In 2002, the Diocese of New Westminster, in the Anglican Church of Canada, permitted the blessing of same-sex unions. In 2003, two openly gay men in England and the United States became candidates for bishop. In the Church of England, Jeffrey John eventually succumbed to pressure to withdraw his name from consideration to be the Bishop of Reading. In the Episcopal Church in the United States, Gene Robinson was elected and consecrated Bishop of New Hampshire, becoming the first openly gay bishop in the Anglican Communion and in apostolic Christianity. This was highly controversial and led several hundred bishops to boycott the 2008 Lambeth Conference. As an alternative to Lambeth, many of these bishops attended the Global Anglican Futures Conference in Jerusalem. The BBC, in 2009, reported that many clergy in the Church of England "already bless same-sex couples on an unofficial basis". Many provinces, primarily from the Global South and representing about half of the 80 million active Anglicans worldwide, have responded to these theological disputes by declaring a state of impaired communion with their Western counterparts. Minority groups in Western provinces have stated their opposition to what they consider un-scriptural actions by the churches in England, Canada, Australia, and the United States. Since 2000, some conservative Global South provinces have appointed missionary bishops to the United States and Canada to provide pastoral oversight to disaffected Anglicans. This process, known as Anglican realignment, is considered by the Episcopal Church USA and the Anglican Church of Canada to be an illegitimate incursion into their territories; however, conservative Anglicans argued that the incursions were necessary because of the failure of these churches to uphold orthodox teaching with regard to human sexuality. To date, "the more liberal provinces that are open to changing Church doctrine on marriage in order to allow same-sex unions include Brazil, Canada, New Zealand, Scotland, South India, South Africa, the US and Wales". Dioceses or regional bodies which also support same-sex unions are found in Australia, England, and Ireland.
|Part of a series on|
|Ministry and worship|
|Background and history|
- 1 Summary of issues
- 2 Gene Robinson controversy
- 2.1 1973 Archbishop of York’s statement
- 2.2 1998 Lambeth Conference of Anglican bishops
- 2.3 Gene Robinson consecrated bishop
- 2.4 2003 Lambeth Palace meeting
- 2.5 Statements from Rowan Williams
- 2.6 Subsequent division
- 2.7 Windsor Report and 2005 Primates Meeting
- 2.8 2007 Primates’ Meeting
- 2.9 Consecration of Mary Douglas Glasspool
- 2.10 2016 Primates’ Meeting
- 3 Differing stances
- 3.1 Church of England
- 3.2 Church of Ireland
- 3.3 Church in Wales
- 3.4 Scottish Episcopal Church
- 3.5 Church of South India
- 3.6 Church of the Province of South East Asia
- 3.7 Hong Kong Sheng Kung Hui (Hong Kong Anglican Church)
- 3.8 Anglican Church in Aotearoa, New Zealand and Polynesia
- 3.9 Anglican Church of Australia
- 3.10 Anglican Province of the Southern Cone of America
- 3.11 Episcopal Anglican Church of Brazil
- 3.12 Anglican Church of Canada
- 3.13 Episcopal Church in the United States of America
- 3.14 Episcopal Church of Cuba
- 3.15 Church in the Province of the West Indies
- 3.16 Church of the Province of Central Africa
- 3.17 Anglican Church of Kenya
- 3.18 Anglican Church of Korea
- 3.19 Church of Nigeria
- 3.20 Anglican Church in Central America
- 3.21 Anglican Church of Mexico
- 3.22 Anglican Church of Southern Africa
- 3.23 Episcopal Church of the Sudan
- 3.24 Anglican Church of Tanzania
- 3.25 Church of the Province of Uganda
- 3.26 Church of Melanesia
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 Bibliography
- 7 External links
Summary of issues
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (April 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
There is a wide range of beliefs within the Anglican Communion regarding homosexuality. The majority of followers believe that heterosexuality or celibacy is required of Christians, but believe in tolerance towards others. This differs from secular society in most western democracies, which considers homosexuality to be a normal human variation, and affirms this in law. Some of the more specific issues under study within member churches and dioceses are:
- Same-sex attracted members of the church or communion
- May they exist?
- Must they be celibate?
- Should same-sex unions of LGBT members be blessed?
- Should same-sex couples be allowed a religious marriage ceremony?
- Same-sex attracted clergy
- May they exist?
- May they be openly authentic regarding their sexual orientation?
- To what extent may they be "out" (e.g. only to their bishop, partner, spouse, or family, or to the wider public)
- May they openly have a partner or spouse?
- Must they be celibate?
- May any of these individuals (those who are celibate and those who are non-celibate) be bishops?
Anglican churches are diverse in their views, from churches which do not accept any LGBT members, to churches which are happy to have openly same-sex, partnered or married, non-celibate bishops. The nature of the Anglican Communion is such that not all churches or dioceses must agree on all issues in order to share a common faith and baptism. Part of the controversy concerns how much and what sort of disagreement over these issues may exist while still calling it a "common faith."
- The bishops of the Anglican Communion in 1998 upheld the traditional Christian teaching that marriage is between a man and a woman and that those who are not called to marriage so defined should remain celibate. A resolution was passed stating that "homosexual acts" are "incompatible with Scripture" by a vote of 526–70; however, it also contained a statement which "calls on all our people to minister pastorally and sensitively to all irrespective of sexual orientation and to condemn irrational fear of homosexuals, violence within marriage and any trivialisation and commercialisation of sex," and noted importantly: "We commit ourselves to listen to the experience of homosexual persons and we wish to assure them that they are loved by God and that all baptised, believing and faithful persons, regardless of sexual orientation, are full members of the Body of Christ." The Lambeth Conference is "not an executive which imposes doctrine or discipline but it is a forum where the mind of the Communion can be expressed on matters of controversy." Over 100 bishops, including some who voted in favour of the resolution, immediately repudiated it and signed a letter of apology to gay and lesbian Anglicans. However over 80% of the bishops did not do so.
- The Church of England considers a celibate gay person to be eligible for ordination, even if that person has entered into a civil same-sex partnership, noting "The Church should not collude with the present assumptions of society that all close relationships necessarily include sexual activity."
- The Church of England affirmed in 2005 that lay gay members who have entered into civil partnerships are still eligible for the sacraments of baptism, confirmation, and communion.
- In 2002, the Anglican Church of Canada, the Diocese of New Westminster voted to allow the blessing and officiation of same-sex unions and marriages by those parishes who choose to do so.
- The Anglican Church of Nigeria issued a statement in 2006 affirming "our commitment to the total rejection of the evil of homosexuality which is a perversion of human dignity and encourages the National Assembly to ratify the Bill prohibiting the legality of homosexuality".
- Sexual orientation, specifically the consecration of Gene Robinson, was a major issue at the 2008 Lambeth Conference. A group of conservative bishops opposed to the ordination and marriage of same-sex attracted people, including most of the "global south", gathered in June 2008 at the Global Anglican Future Conference.
Gene Robinson controversy
1973 Archbishop of York’s statement
While serving as Archbishop of York, Donald Coggan declared on BBC radio in 1973 that many Anglican clergymen were homosexuals. "We must treat them," he proclaimed, "with great sympathy and understanding."
1998 Lambeth Conference of Anglican bishops
Regarding "human sexuality", the conference said that it upholds "faithfulness in marriage between a man and a woman in lifelong union, and believes that abstinence is right for those who are not called to marriage." Furthermore, it refused to "advise the legitimising or blessing of same sex unions nor ordaining those involved in same gender unions." The vote was 526-70.
Gene Robinson consecrated bishop
In August 2003 the Episcopal Diocese of New Hampshire elected an openly gay and partnered priest, Gene Robinson, as bishop. This came shortly after a similar controversy in England when an openly gay priest, Canon Jeffrey John, was appointed to become the Suffragan Bishop of Reading. Eventually, however, John agreed to withdraw in order to avoid division. In 2004, in the aftermath of Robinson's election as bishop, John was installed as Dean of St Albans, the cathedral there being the site of England's first Christian martyr.
2003 Lambeth Palace meeting
As a result of the controversy over the ordination of gay bishops and the blessing of same-sex unions, on 15 October 2003, Anglican leaders from around the world met in Lambeth Palace in an attempt to avoid a schism on the issue. The day after, they released a lengthy statement:
We must make clear that recent actions in New Westminster and in the Episcopal Church (USA) do not express the mind of our Communion as a whole, and these decisions jeopardise our sacramental fellowship with each other. ...
If his [Gene Robinson's] consecration proceeds, we recognise that we have reached a crucial and critical point in the life of the Anglican Communion and we have had to conclude that the future of the Communion itself will be put in jeopardy. ...
In this case, the ministry of this one bishop will not be recognised by most of the Anglican world, and many provinces are likely to consider themselves to be out of Communion with the Episcopal Church (USA). This will tear the fabric of our Communion at its deepest level, and may lead to further division on this and further issues as provinces have to decide in consequence whether they can remain in communion with provinces that choose not to break communion with the Episcopal Church (USA). ...
Similar considerations apply to the situation pertaining in the Diocese of New Westminster. We commend the report of that Conference in its entirety to all members of the Anglican Communion, valuing especially its emphasis on the need to listen to the experience of homosexual persons, and [...] to assure them that they are loved by God and that all baptised, believing and faithful persons, regardless of sexual orientation, are full members of the Body of Christ"; and its acknowledgement of the need for ongoing study on questions of human sexuality. ...
As Primates, it is not for us to pass judgement on the constitutional processes of another province. We recognise the sensitive balance between provincial autonomy and the expression of critical opinion by others on the internal actions of a province.
Statements from Rowan Williams
In 2004 the Archbishop of Canterbury, Rowan Williams, wrote a letter to Anglican churches worldwide in which he condemned comments by bishops outside the Western world for inciting violence against gay men and women.
Any words that could make it easier for someone to attack or abuse a homosexual person are words of which we must repent. Do not think repentance is always something others are called to, but acknowledge the failings we all share, sinful and struggling disciples as we are.
In a 2007 speech to theology students in Toronto, Williams argued that conservatives have failed to consider the wider context of Romans 1:27, which states, "and the men likewise gave up natural relations with women and were consumed with passion for one another, men committing shameless acts with men and receiving in their own persons the due penalty for error." Williams pointed out that although St Paul (the author of this epistle) and his contemporaries viewed sex between two people of the same sex "as obviously immoral as idol worship or disobedience to parents", the main point of this passage is that humans must not judge one another for being sinful: Romans 2:1 says "Therefore you have no excuse, O man, whoever you are, when you judge another: for in passing judgment upon him you condemn yourself, because you, the judge, are doing the very same things." Williams admitted that his analysis "does nothing to settle the exegetical questions fiercely debated at the moment", but called upon conservatives to avoid self-righteousness rather than "happily identifying with Paul's castigation of someone else".
Bishops from two Anglican provinces, the Province of Rwanda and the Province of South East Asia, consecrated missionary bishops for the United States in January 2000 and formally established the Anglican Mission in America (now called the Anglican Mission in the Americas) later that year. In 2010, a similar jurisdiction created by the Reformed Episcopal Church and former members and congregations of the Episcopal Church in the USA was officially launched. Four dioceses which withdrew from the Episcopal Church account for the majority of the nearly 700 congregations affiliated with this church, the Anglican Church in North America. These two bodies—AMiA and ACNA—reject the creation of rites for same-sex unions as well as the ordination of openly gay people. Neither is a member of the Anglican Communion at present (see Anglican realignment).
Bishops in Uganda cut relations with the Diocese of New Hampshire following Robinson's consecration on 2 November 2003. The Church of Nigeria declared itself in "impaired communion" with the Episcopal Church on 2 November 2003, and nine days later announced it was planning to establish a United States branch of its province to support Nigerian Anglicans living in the U.S., the Convocation of Anglicans in North America. The Province of South East Asia broke communion with the Episcopal Church on 20 November 2003, citing Robinson's consecration as the reason for its action.
Windsor Report and 2005 Primates Meeting
In 2004, the Lambeth Commission on Communion issued a report on homosexuality in the Anglican Communion, which became known as the Windsor Report. This report took a strong stand against same-sex attracted people, recommended a moratorium on further consecrations of openly gay bishops and blessings of same-sex unions and marriages, and called for all involved in Robinson's consecration "to consider in all conscience whether they should withdraw themselves from representative functions in the Anglican Communion". However, it stopped short of recommending discipline against the Episcopal Church or Anglican Church of Canada.
Apology by 184 bishops. A “Pastoral Statement to Lesbian and Gay Anglicans from Some Member Bishops of the Lambeth Conference,” dated August 5, 1998, was sponsored by the Rt. Rev. Ronald H. Haines, Bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of Washington. The statement apologised to Lesbian and Gay Anglicans for the Windsor Report and for the fact that their voices were not heard by the Conference. By October 30, 1998, the statement had been co-signed by 183 bishops representing every continent except Antarctica.
2005 Primates' Meeting. In February 2005, the Primates of the Anglican Communion held a regular meeting at Dromantine in Northern Ireland at which sexual orientation was heavily discussed. Of the 38 Primates, 35 attended. The Primates issued a communiqué that reiterated most of the Windsor Report's statements, but added a new twist. Both the Episcopal Church and the Anglican Church of Canada were asked to voluntarily withdraw from the Anglican Consultative Council, the main formal international entity within the Anglican Communion until the next Lambeth Conference in 2008.
2007 Primates’ Meeting
The “Communiqué of the Primates’ Meeting, February 2007" (Sec 17, 4) asserted its "belief that The Episcopal Church has departed from the standard of teaching on human sexuality accepted by the Communion in the 1998 Lambeth Resolution 1.10 by consenting to the episcopal election of a candidate living in a committed same-sex relationship, and by permitting Rites of Blessing for same-sex unions. The episcopal ministry of a person living in a same-sex relationship is not acceptable to the majority of the Communion."
Consecration of Mary Douglas Glasspool
In December 2009 an openly lesbian priest, Mary Douglas Glasspool, was elected as a suffragan bishop in the Diocese of Los Angeles. Her consecration took place on 15 May 2010. Leaders from 20 Anglican provinces, meeting in Singapore in April 2010 declared the election and intended consecration of Canon Mary Glasspool, a partnered lesbian in the Episcopal Church in the United States, “demonstrated, yet again, a total disregard for the mind of the Communion”.
2016 Primates’ Meeting
A majority of the primates voted to punish the Episcopal Church for revising its canons and marriage rites allowing same-sex marriage.
The primates' communiqué included these words:
It is our unanimous desire to walk together. However given the seriousness of these matters we formally acknowledge this distance by requiring that for a period of three years The Episcopal Church no longer represent us on ecumenical and interfaith bodies, should not be appointed or elected to an internal standing committee and that while participating in the internal bodies of the Anglican Communion, they will not take part in decision making on any issues pertaining to doctrine or polity.
The communiqué condemned "homophobic prejudice and violence and resolved to work together to offer pastoral care and loving service irrespective of sexual orientation", adding that "this conviction arises out of our discipleship of Jesus Christ."
Archbishop of Canterbury apologises
Shortly after the meeting of the Anglican primates, Archbishop Justin Welby held a press conference in which he apologised “to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people for the hurt and pain they have experienced by the Anglican Communion over the years.” Welby said, “it is for me a constant source of deep sadness that people are persecuted for their sexuality … I want to take this opportunity personally to say how sorry I am for the hurt and pain in the past and present that the church has caused.”
Archbishop Josiah Idowu-Fearon demurs
Archbishop Josiah Idowu-Fearon, the Secretary General of the Anglican Communion, sat with Welby at the press conference. He spoke of the “frustration in some African provinces of Western cultural understandings of sexuality being ‘imposed’ on their communities.”
Church of England
In December 1991, the House of Bishops issued Issues in Human Sexuality. In the preface, Archbishop George Carey described it as a document for "careful study and reflection". The conclusion of the document listed questions for reflection. On the tenth anniversary of the publication of Issues in Human Sexuality, the Bishop of Wolverhampton, Michael Bourke, wrote that "Issues aspired to help forward a debate on the subject", but rather than serving its stated purpose, "Issues has been presented as a consensus to which all bishops are expected to subscribe. Instead of enabling open and charitable discussion, it has served as an instrument of management and control."
The issue of human sexuality erupted when Jeffrey John, an openly gay priest, was elected Bishop of Reading in May 2003. Before he could take up his post there was strong opposition from a minority of bishops and he was persuaded to not proceed with the appointment. However, many senior bishops[who?] have voiced disappointment at his decision to resign. Later in 2004 he was installed as Dean of St. Albans. Further controversy erupted when churches in the Diocese of St Albans decided that they would withhold contributions until further notice to protest this appointment. St. Peter and Paul's Church in Cranfield, near Bedford, and Holy Trinity Church in New Barnet, north of Greater London, pledged to withhold money from diocesan funds in protest. St Andrew's Church in the Hertfordshire town of Chorleywood also announced that it would withhold funds until further notice. Yet, in 2002, reporters confirmed that hundreds of same-sex blessings occur, although unofficially, every year.
On 25 July 2005, the House of Bishops issued a pastoral statement on the “implications of the Civil Partnerships” which came into force on 5 December 2005. The statement reaffirmed “the Church’s teaching on both marriage and sexual intercourse”. It also noted that the “the new legislation makes no change to the law in relation to marriage”. The statement went on to say that “clergy of the Church of England should not provide services of blessing for those who register a civil partnership”. However, it said that if clergy are “approached by people asking for prayer in relation to entering into a civil partnership,” they should “respond pastorally and sensitively”. Regarding clergy themselves, “entering into a civil partnership” was not considered “intrinsically incompatible with holy orders, provided the person concerned is willing to give assurances to his or her bishop that the relationship is consistent with the standards for the clergy set out in Issues in Human Sexuality (House of Bishops, December 1991).”. However, the statement said that “lay people who have registered civil partnerships ought not to be asked to give assurances about the nature of their relationship before being admitted to baptism, confirmation and communion.’
On 21 December 2005, in another controversial act which was contrary to the House of Bishops’ pastoral statement, the Rt. Rev. David Jenkins, the former Bishop of Durham, offered a blessing for a vicar who had entered into a same-sex partnership.
In February 2007, the General Synod of the Church of England adopted a motion. In part it read that nothing should be done “that could be perceived as the Church of England qualifying its commitment to the entirety of the relevant Lambeth Conference Resolutions”. At Lambeth Conference 1998, homosexuality was that the most hotly debated issue. Its Resolution 1.10 stated in an amendment passed by a vote of 389–190 that "homosexual practice" is "incompatible with Scripture".
In 2008, in spite of the action by the General Synod, St Bartholomew's Church in London offered a rite of blessing for two priests entering into a same-sex civil partnership. Nevertheless, other dioceses and parishes supported the inclusion of gay and lesbian priests. In 2008, the Diocese of London provided guidelines with permission to provide a service of dedication for civil partnerships. As a result, in 2011, the General Synod voted to extend pensions and employee benefits to gay and lesbian priests living with their partners in civil unions.
In January 2012, the House of Bishops of the Church of England commissioned a Working Group on Human Sexuality. The working group included Sir Joseph Pilling chairman, four bishops and three advisers. 
In 2012, the Dean of St Paul's Cathedral, London, the Very Revd David Ison, announced his support for same-sex marriage and said that he had officiated at blessings or prayer services for same-sex couples. Changing Attitude UK, an affirming group of clergy, laity, and churches within the Church of England, provides a list of prayer services allowed including a "Service of Celebration following a Civil Partnership". A bishop of the Diocese of Oxford has given permission for at least one same-sex celebration to be officiated by a Church of England priest who presided for the high-profile ceremony for the Rev. Mpho Tutu and her partner. The Diocese of Southwark is another example of offering inclusive services as its cathedral says that "Same sex couples are welcome to approach the clergy with regard to preparation and prayers when entering a Civil Partnership and for continuing support and counsel within their relationship...Couples approaching the clergy should receive a warm welcome and affirmation". York Minster Cathedral also welcomes same-sex couples in civil partnerships for prayer.
In November 2013, the Report of the Working Group on Human Sexuality (nicknamed the Pilling Report) was published. It said that the Church should "stand firmly" against "homophobic attitudes" and should repent "for the lack of welcome and acceptance extended to homosexual people in the past, and to demonstrate the unconditional acceptance and love of God in Christ for all people". The report's key recommendation was "that the church's internal dialogue on the subject of human sexuality might best be addressed through a process of conversations across the church and involving others in the Anglican Communion". This recommendation was endorsed and acted on by the church as recounted later in this section. Also, in 2013, some in the Church of England planned a liturgical blessing of gay couples.
- No special services of blessing for married same-sex couples, but allowed "more informal kinds of prayer, at the request of the couple [but this should] be accompanied by pastoral discussion of the Church's teaching and [the couple's] reasons for departing from it."
- Clergy will not be allowed to enter same-sex marriages.
- Clergy of the same sex are allowed by the Church to enter civil partnerships, but only on the understanding that they will remain celibate.
Still, "gay couples who get married will be able to ask for special prayers in the Church of England after their wedding, the bishops have agreed". As such, some congregations have offered "Prayers for a Same Sex Commitment".
In September 2014, the College of Bishops met for three days. “Two of the days were devoted to the first of a series of shared conversations in the Church of England on Sexuality, Scripture and Mission. As part of the conversations the college shared the different responses being expressed in the life of the church and the deeply held convictions and experiences that inform them.”
The Revd Andrew Cain, of St Mary's Church, Kilburn and St James' Church West, in North London planned to defy the House of Bishops' ban and bless same-sex marriages, as did a few others. Weighing in on the issue, the Archbishop of Canterbury, Justin Welby, avoided taking a position on blessing same-sex marriages but did endorse civil gay marriages and prayer ceremonies to mark the important occasion for same-sex couples. Some congregations and clergy, as allowed by the permission for "informal kinds of prayer", such as St John's Church in Waterloo in South London, have begun to invite same-sex couples to receive "services of thanksgiving following a civil marriage ceremony". Same-sex attracted people who are ordained deacons, priests and bishops are forbidden to marry someone of the same sex and same-sex attracted people who are married to someone of the same sex are forbidden to be ordained. Ben Bradshaw MP wanted the position of the Church of England clarified. Specifically, he demanded to know if Church of England clergy who married a same-sex partner would be disciplined or defrocked. Gay people, including those in same-sex civil partnerships or marriages, are allowed to become clerics but are expected to remain celibate. The Huffington Post wrote in a 2014 article that gay clergy who enter into same-sex marriage or bless same-sex marriages risk being defrocked and losing their jobs. Seven clerics planned to marry regardless, defying their bishops. Some Church of England bishops, however, fully accept and embrace gay clergy with partners or spouses in their diocese while other bishops remove the licenses of such clergy, making it extremely difficult for them to find a position in another diocese. In 2014, Canon Jeremy Pemberton married Laurence Cunnington, thus becoming the first priest in the Church of England to defy the church's ban on the marriage of gay clergy. Also in 2014, an openly lesbian and trans priest was appointed as a minor canon in Manchester Cathedral.
In 2015, the Most Reverend John Sentamu, Archbishop of York, told a lay preacher, Jeremy Timm, that if he persisted with plans to marry his long-time partner, his license to preach in Anglican churches would be revoked. As of August 2015, an agreement was reached: Timm would complete existing preaching commitments before revocation. Timm announced his plans to be married in September 2015 and to leave the Church of England and join "Contemplative Fire", a dispersed, diverse and inclusive group that is primarily Anglican.
However, other bishops and dioceses have supported same-gender marriage and have advocated for the right of gay priests to marry. For example, the Rt Revd Nick Holtam, the Bishop of Salisbury, endorsed same-sex marriage following its passage. In December 2015, the bishop of Buckingham announced his support for same-gender marriage within the church. In 2016, another priest, in the Diocese of Southwark, converted his civil partnership into marriage and "has kept his position". The Diocese in Europe also reported the marriage of a same-gender couple that took place in a Lutheran church in Denmark calling a "truly joyful occasion". The Diocese of Chichester featured Gay Pride in Brighton and encouraged participation. Also, the Diocese of Litchfield launched a congregation especially to reach out to LGBTI people. The bishop of the Diocese of Liverpool has called for the church to be more inclusive of same-gender relationships.
In 2016, the General Synod announced that, in response to the growing support for gay marriage, it will reconsider allowing blessing rites for same-gender couples entering into marriage. Additionally, an openly married gay priest was elected to the 2016 General Synod representing a historic moment for gay rights in the church.
From 10 to 12 July 2016, following the prorogation of the meeting of the General Synod, most "members met in an informal setting in which they listened and were heard as they reflected together on scripture and a changing culture in relation to their understanding of human sexuality".
The Church of England’s official Statement after the synod's members completed their informal reflections said that "the Shared Conversations over the last two years now come to a conclusion with over 1300 members of the church directly involved. It is our hope that what has been learned through the relationships developed will inform the way the church conducts whatever further formal discussions may be necessary in the future. It is our prayer that the manner in which we express our different views and deep disagreements will bear witness to Jesus who calls us to love as he has loved us."
In September of 2016, the Bishop of Grantham, the Rt Rev Nicholas Chamberlain, announced that he is gay and in a celibate relationship becoming the first bishop to do so in the Anglican church. Following, Bishop Nicholas' 'coming out', he "received high-level support from the most senior official in the Anglican communion" as the Secretary General, Dr Josiah Idowu-Fearon, said that "the Anglican Communion has never made sexual orientation a condition of eligibility to hold office within the church and I reject the suggestion that it has".
Church of Ireland
Within the Church of Ireland there is a wide spectrum of opinion. In general, the church recognises four viewpoints ranging from opposition to acceptance of same-gender relationships. Conservatives expressed great concern about the blessing of the relationship of a lesbian couple in St. Nicolas' Collegiate Church, Galway in September 2002. The rector of the parish, the Reverend Patrick Towers, told the press, "I refuse to do weddings of same gender couples as they simply don't exist. But I am always very happy to look favourably on anyone seeking a blessing, be it for divorced couples, animals or friendships. It was a standard blessing, one I wrote myself, based on the Claddagh ring theme." There was also widespread concern within the Church of Ireland at the Bishop of Limerick's attendance at Gene Robinson's consecration. Views at parish level reflect this, with many evangelical parishes as well as those in the more populous (in terms of Church of Ireland membership) north being generally opposed to LGBT identities, while middle and high church parishes, especially in the south, have openly gay parishioners as a matter of routine. For example, at General Synod 2005, Dean Michael Burrows (now a bishop) stated that he regularly gives Holy Communion to same-sex attracted parishioners in long-standing relationships. Moreover, many of the church's congregations, including seven cathedrals, are publicly and officially affirming of same-sex couples.
The bishops have announced a process of listening and reflection within the church. A preliminary response to the Windsor Report was produced by the church's standing committee in January 2005. Most of the northern dioceses passed motions favouring the Lambeth Conference's Resolution I.10, although a similar motion failed to receive overall endorsement in the Diocese of Connor, covering most of County Antrim and the diocese with the most members in the Church of Ireland. Then, in 2010, the denomination recognised that a congregation within the church had received the 'Straight-up' Rebel award, an LGBT award, for its special services for LGBTI people. In 2011, during this long period of reflection, a senior priest in the Church of Ireland entered into a same-sex civil partnership and the relationship was celebrated by his community. Since then, other priests have been taking the time and opportunity to come out about their experiences.
In 2015, the Bishop of Cork, Paul Colton, announced his support of same-sex marriage, becoming the first Church of Ireland bishop to do so, saying that "The events in society are moving very rapidly and the church is not at all up to pace with the debate." Following Bishop Colton, two retired archbishops of Dublin also voiced their 'yes' vote in favour of same-sex marriages. While opposing gay marriage, Bishop Pat Storey, Ireland's first woman bishop, did endorse and express support for same-sex civil unions. On May 23, 2015, the people of Ireland voted in favour of the legalisation of same-sex marriage, the first country to do such by popular vote. In 2016, the Church of Ireland released a pastoral letter offering guidelines on same-gender marriage. Although the Church of Ireland does not currently offer marriage or blessing rites, the guidelines do allow for bishops to permit gay priests to legally marry and also allow priests to offer formal prayers on behalf of the newly married couples. REFORM Ireland, a conservative lobby within the Church of Ireland, has rejected the contents of the letter, arguing that it is too moderate and open to the possibility of change. Most recently, in 2016, many clergy in the Church of Ireland signed a letter supporting the U.S Episcopal Church and its open stance toward blessing same-sex couples. In January 2016, the Church of Ireland Gazette, which is "editorially independent of the denomination", endorsed and supported a blessing rite for same-sex marriages in the church. A church report has also said "the moral logic underpinning the negative portrayal of same-sex eroticism in Scripture does not directly address committed, loving, consecrated same-sex relationships today."
Church in Wales
The Church in Wales currently has clergy and lay members with differing views regarding the subject of human sexuality. However, the trend has been for the church to move in a more liberal direction. In 2011, the Church in Wales allowed priests in civil partnerships to receive full employee benefits. In 2012, the Archbishop of Wales, Barry Morgan, endorsed civil marriage for same-sex couples and encouraged other Anglicans to support the legislation. After the archbishop offered his support for the civil policy, some bishops and dioceses developed legislation to alter the official position of the Church in Wales. The church has also endorsed an LGBT film meant to encourage support and affirmation for LGBT people.
In 2015, the governing body voted in favour of same-sex marriages, but a policy change requires further action. During the consultation and discussion, 58% of respondents voted in favour of same-gender marriage while 42% opposed. Among the dioceses, the Diocese of St Asaph and the Diocese of Llandaff overwhelmingly supported same-sex marriage. In April 2016, the Bench of Bishops decided to fully affirm same-sex couples and offer prayers of solemnisation for same-sex marriages. Of the prayers provided for same-sex couples, Form One gives God thanks "for [the two people], who have found such love and companionship in each other, that it has led them to dedicate their lives in support of one another".
Scottish Episcopal Church
"[We] had never regarded the fact that someone was in a close relationship with a member of the same sex as in itself constituting a bar to the exercise of an ordained ministry...We do not have a synodical decision like the Church of England has, which it made a number of years ago, and therefore if someone who was of a homosexual orientation felt a sense of call to the ordained ministry then we would begin the process of testing that vocation. We wouldn't bar him or her simply because they were homosexual."
Sensational headlines in North America announced that the Scottish Episcopal Church had agreed to ordain gay and lesbian people in committed relationships. The Church thus released a statement pointing out that the policy was not news. Regarding the media release, the Church said: "Press interest has focused on one small part of the overall statement". It continued to say that:
"In referring to the fact that there is no current bar to ordination for someone who might be in a close relationship with a member of the same sex, the Bishops were simply stating the present position as it applies in Scotland where, unlike some other provinces, no motion discouraging such ordinations has ever been passed by our General Synod. Consequently, the statement earlier this month does not represent any change in policy on the part of the Bishops."
In 2015, the Scottish Episcopal Church voted in favour of same-sex marriage ceremonies. Following that vote, the Dundee cathedral hosted its first same-sex wedding. In 2016, the General Synod voted in favour of amending the marriage canon to include same gender couples; the change will require a second reading in 2017. The motion was approved by 97 votes to 33 with 3 abstensions. After the Synod, Bishop David Chillingworth, the Primus of the Scottish Episcopal Church, gave his assessment of the situation regarding the change in the marriage canon:
“The second reading may or may not be approved in 2017. If it is approved, that will represent a decision about our attitude to Same-Sex Marriage. But our church understands that the ‘other view’ doesn’t disappear just because the General Synod may make a decision. Therefore our commitment to ‘walking together’, ‘unity in diversity’ and the rest mean that we shall continue to be a church which holds differing views of marriage within our life. We shall have a clear position based on the canonical position. But we shall hold, honour and respect a diversity of view in our shared life."
Church of South India
The Church of South India, although divided in opinion like many Anglican provinces, has many outspoken clergy in favour of rights for same-sex couples. "The Church of South India (CSI) [is] a relatively liberal Protestant church which has, since 1984, allowed women to become pastors. 'CSI has been liberal on these issues. It has taken up issues of gender, dalits and landlessness. It has to address the issue of sexual minorities too'". In 2009, the Rev. Christopher Rajkumar, a presbyter in the Church of South India, stated that opposition to the rights of same-sex couples is a violation of human rights. Also in 2009, Bishop V. Devashayam supported legal rights for gay people saying "it is wrong to condemn people for their sexual orientation".
In 2015, St Mark's Cathedral in Bangalore, a congregation of the Church of South India, hosted a forum on preventing homophobia, and Christopher Rajkumar reiterated his support for gay rights. CSI clergy, under the National Council of Churches in India, co-held a conference working against homophobia in Jakarta, Indonesia in 2014 featuring a rainbow flag and with speakers in favor of same-sex couples. Moreover, during the week of the Primates' meeting in Canterbury, the Church of South India was listed by the BBC as being among the Anglican provinces open to blessing same-sex couples.
Church of the Province of South East Asia
"The said confirmation therefore seriously raises the question of ECUSA's genuine commitment to our corporate responsibility as members of the church catholic to uphold and promote only the Apostolic Faith and Order inherited. A natural, holistic and consistent reading of the Scriptures clearly show that it is against the practise of homosexuality. In the context of orthodox and classical Christianity, the canonical authority of the Scriptures is taken to be recognized and received by the community of faith and not subject to majority, culturally relevant or even theological voting."
On 24 November 2003, the province declared that it had entered into a state of impaired communion with the Episcopal Church by releasing the following statement:
"The Synod of the Province of the Anglican Church of South East Asia unanimously rejects the purported consecration of Dr Gene Robinson on 2 November 2003 by the Episcopal Church in the United States of America, in New Hampshire, as a bishop in the Anglican Church. The Province views the purported consecration as a flagrant disregard of the fundamental teachings of the Bible and the long-established doctrines of the Church.
As the Rev. Gene Robinson is a practising homosexual who had divorced his wife and has, for the last 13 years, been living with a male partner, the Province cannot and does not recognize his consecration and ministry in the Anglican church.
In view of the ECUSA's action in proceeding with the consecration despite the warnings and pleas of a large majority of Anglican churches worldwide, the Province regrets that communion with the ECUSA as well as those who voted for the consecration and those who participated in the consecration service is now broken.
This means that the Province no longer treats those in ECUSA who carried out and supported the act of consecration as brothers and sisters in Christ unless and until they repent of their action and return to embrace Biblical truths. At the same time, the Province remains in fellowship with the faithful believers within ECUSA who rightly oppose and reject the erroneous actions of their house.
This decision was made unanimously at an extraordinary meeting of the Synod held in Kudat, Sabah, Malaysia, on 20 November 2003."
Hong Kong Sheng Kung Hui (Hong Kong Anglican Church)
The fourth General Synod of the Hong Kong Sheng Kung Hui, at its meeting on 15 October 2007, resolved that the Anglican Church in Hong Kong and Macau supports the recommendations contained in the Windsor Report so as to safeguard the unity of the Anglican Communion. However, Archbishop Peter Kwong, a former primate, stated that he supported diversity in the Communion saying "Anglicanism is inclusive...so why shouldn't we find a common ground on homosexuality?". In 2013, some leaders in the Hong Kong Anglican Church endorsed civil rights legislation that provided legal protection for the LGBT community from discrimination. Additionally, in 2015, the Rev. Peter Douglas Koon, the Anglican province's secretary general, objected to discrimination occurring in conservative schools and emphatically assured the LGBT community that Anglican schools would be accepting of LGBT faculty and students.
Anglican Church in Aotearoa, New Zealand and Polynesia
There is no officially stated policy, and members are divided regarding agreement with the Windsor Report and Lambeth Conference. There is no single national approach toward the ordination of openly gay or lesbian clergy, although individual dioceses have supported or opposed the inclusion of LGBT clergy. However, in 2016, it has been announced that the province will go forward in nationally proposing the option of same-gender blessing rites. Some Pākehā parishes are more open to gay and lesbian issues, including ordination and blessing of unions. The Dunedin and Auckland dioceses are notable for other such examples, including the ordination of a non-celibate gay clergy and the blessings of same-sex relationships performed by priests in an official capacity. In 2006, an openly gay and partnered deacon was ordained in the Dunedin Diocese. Subsequently, the same deacon was ordained as a priest. The Diocese of Auckland has also established policies in favour of ordaining partnered gay and lesbian priests.
New Zealand writer Liz Lightfoot has documented the experiences of individuals coming out in the Anglican Church as a contribution to the 'listening process' in the Anglican Church.
In 2014, General Synod passes a resolution that would create a pathway towards the blessing of same-sex relationships, while upholding the traditional doctrine of marriage. The synod in 2016 voted to receive the report on blessings but left the proposal to "[lie] on the table] and the report will be reviewed again in 2018. "However, Synod did pass a constitutional change allowing bishops the right to authorize a service for use in his or her diocese".
Anglican Church of Australia
The Anglican Church of Australia has no official position on sexual orientation or homosexuality. At its 2004 General Synod held in Perth, the church passed four resolutions on human sexuality. The key resolutions stated that, "Recognising that this is a matter of ongoing debate and conversation in this church and that we all have an obligation to listen to each other with respect, this General Synod does not condone the liturgical blessing of same sex relationships" and "this General Synod does not condone the ordination of people in open committed same sex relationships." The former primate, Phillip Aspinall, has stated that the topic is not worth splitting the church over. Archbishop Aspinall has also stated that he does not take an official position on the ordination of gay clergy, preferring instead to encourage respectful conversation. Another former primate, Archbishop Peter Carnley, stated that he believed "life-long gay relationships and commitments...could receive church blessings. Peter Jensen, the former archbishop of the strongly conservative Evangelical Diocese of Sydney, has vigorously opposed homosexuality, stating that, in spite of St. Peter's revelation that "God has shown me that I should not call anyone profane or unclean", accepting non-heterosexual people would be "calling holy what God called sin". Archbishop Peter Carnley, criticised "Sydney Anglicans" for "empty moralizing" and questioned if the Bible condemns homosexuality in a statement:
The exact meaning to be read from these texts and whether they can rightly be made to provide a neat pre-packaged answer to our contemporary questions is what is at issue. Anybody brave enough to claim to know the inner mind of God on the basis of a personal claim to be privy to the only conceivable interpretation of some biblical texts is guilty of self-delusion.
St Andrew's Church in Subiaco, Perth, Western Australia, was the first Anglican church in Australia to publicly welcome gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender people. Its Sunday evening services are affirming of LGBT people. Since then, other dioceses have taken affirming stances toward same-sex couples and LGBT clergy. In 2013, the Diocese of Perth voted in favor of honoring same-sex marriages. In 2011, the Diocese of Adelaide elected a new bishop, the Rt. Rev. Tim Harris, and he supported allowing LGBT clergy if they agreed to be celibate, but, at the same time, he expressed that he is open to conversation about change. Moreover, in 2012, the Diocese of Gippsland appointed an openly gay priest, and, in 2015, the Bishop of Wangaratta endorsed same-sex marriage joining an archdeacon who had already offered to perform gay marriages when allowed to do so. Additionally, the bishop of the Diocese of Grafton, the Rt. Rev. Sarah Macneil, has been affirming and supportive of LGBT clergy and relationships. So far, two cathedrals, the cathedral of the Diocese of Grafton and St. John's Cathedral in the Diocese of Brisbane have officially become supportive and affirming of LGBT people. Towards the end of 2015, Bishop Greg Thompson of the Diocese of Newcastle has called for conversation and has said that he opposes discrimination against LGBT people. Also in 2015, the Social Responsibilities Committee of the Anglican Church in Southern Queensland endorsed civil unions for same-sex couples.
Anglican Province of the Southern Cone of America
Archbishop Gregory Venables has also been strongly critical of homosexuality. Bishops in his province criticised the Windsor Report for failing to call liberal churches to repentance. The province has declared itself in "impaired communion" with ECUSA, but continues to maintain full communion with opponents of the Robinson consecration. Venables has authorised dioceses within his province to provide episcopal oversight to United States churches that have left ECUSA.
In December 2007, the convention of the Episcopal Diocese of San Joaquin, an Episcopal Church diocese in central California, voted to leave the ECUSA and joined the Province of the Southern Cone as the Anglican Diocese of San Joaquin. A minority of the Episcopal Diocese remained in the ECUSA. In October 2008, a majority of the convention of the Episcopal Diocese of Pittsburgh voted to leave ECUSA and affiliate with the Southern Cone, resulting in one body affiliated with the Southern Cone and a second body remaining within ECUSA. The following month, the conventions of two more US dioceses—the Diocese of Quincy in Illinois and the Diocese of Fort Worth in Texas—voted to leave ECUSA and affiliate with the Southern Cone. All were subsequently absorbed into the new Anglican Church in North America.
However, some Anglican representatives from the Diocese of Uruguay expressed their support for the inclusion of same-sex couples.
Episcopal Anglican Church of Brazil
The Anglican Episcopal Church of Brazil is characterised by its progressive theological views on homosexuality. After the 1998 Lambeth Conference, the Anglican Church in Brazil decided to promote two national forums on human sexuality, both held in Rio de Janeiro. Its decisions guided the policy. According to the final document, the consensus of the Brazilian Church is that human sexuality is a gift from God, and it should be experienced in peace, freedom, love and respect. The Church has approved of the ordination of openly gay priests and has offered blessing services for same-sex marriages. It is understood that the Church should respect the privacy of its members and clergy. Any kind of public exposure of someone's sexual orientation (as a pre-requisite to be a member or take part of any ministry) violates this privacy. Because of that progressive position, the Bishop of the Diocese of Recife, still strongly Evangelical, Robinson Cavalcanti, declared Recife to be independent of the Church of Brazil, an action that resulted in his being deposed as a bishop by the Ecclesiastical Tribunal. Among his main reasons, he pointed out that the Brazilian Church was sympathetic to the ordination of Gene Robinson, as well as the ordination of all LGBT people. This split the Diocese of Recife in two: one part loyal to Bishop Orlando Santos de Oliveira, primate of the Anglican Episcopal Church of Brazil, and currently coordinated by Bishop Sebastião Gameleira, and the other, under Cavalcanti's leadership, tied to the Anglican Church of the Southern Cone.
In 2016, the presiding bishop convened an Extraordinary Synod to discuss adding same-sex marriage to the marriage canon; the proposal will be considered during General Synod in 2017.
Anglican Church of Canada
Sexual orientation and the Anglican Church of Canada exist within a strictly Canadian context. In the secular context, Canadian law underwent a profound change in regards to homosexuality. The last same-sex attracted person to be sent to prison indefinitely as a "dangerous sex offender" was in 1967. In 1969, the Canadian parliament passed amendments of the Criminal Code, decriminalising homosexuality in Canada. On 20 July 1971, the last gay man criminally convicted because of his sexual orientation was released from prison. A series of judicial rulings beginning in 2003 legalised same-sex marriage in the majority of Canada's provinces, and on 20 July 2005, the Canadian government extended the new definition nationwide by statute.
Currently ten Anglican dioceses (Edmonton, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island, Rupert’s Land, Ottawa, Vancouver-based New Westminster, Toronto, London-based Huron, Hamilton-based Niagara, Montreal, and Victoria-based British Columbia) allow the blessing and marriage of same-sex couples. The Anglican Parishes of the Central Interior (formerly the Diocese of Cariboo) also permit such rites.
At the General Synod on July 6, 2013, the Anglican Church Of Canada made the decision to vote on the issue of same-sex marriage at the following synod in 2016. At the General Synod in 2016, a motion to change the marriage canon to include same-sex marriage received the necessary 2/3 majority and was approved; it will receive a second reading in 2019. Following the General Synod, the Dioceses of Niagara and Ottawa decided to allow legal same-sex marriages as a local option. Also in 2016, the Diocese of Toronto elected, for the first time, an openly gay and partnered person to be a bishop.
Episcopal Church in the United States of America
In 2003, ECUSA became the first Anglican province to ordain an openly gay priest in a same-sex relationship as a bishop; however, the Episcopal Church's stance on LGBT matters had been debated for decades. In 1976, the Church's General Convention passed a resolution stating: "It is the sense of this General Convention that homosexual persons are children of God who have a full and equal claim with all other persons upon the love acceptance, and pastoral concern and care of the Church." In 1977, the first openly gay and lesbian priest was ordained by Bishop Paul Moore Jr. in New York.
Various interpretations were held within the Episcopal Church on this resolution, ranging from the majority of dioceses that now ordain non-celibate gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender clergy to the minority group who founded the Anglican Communion Network which currently opposes such ordinations. On 23 June 2005, The Episcopal Church defined its meaning in a 130-page document entitled "To Set Our Hope on Christ":
We believe that God has been opening our eyes to acts of God that we had not known how to see before ... the eligibility for ordination of those in covenanted same-sex unions ... a person living in a same-gendered union may be eligible to lead the flock of Christ ... members of the Episcopal Church have discerned holiness in same-sex relationships and have come to support the blessing of such unions and the ordination or consecration of persons in those unions ... Their holiness stands in stark contrast with many sinful patterns of sexuality in the world ... The idea that there is only one correct way to read or interpret scripture is a rather modern idea.
In July 2009, the General Convention voted to allow bishops to bless same-sex unions, and also called for bishops to "collect and develop theological and liturgical resources" for possibly creating an official rite for such ceremonies at the 2012 General Convention.
In January 2010, the Reverend Mally Lloyd and the Reverend Katherine Hancock Ragsdale, two prominent Episcopal priests, married in a ceremony at the Cathedral Church of St. Paul in Boston, Massachusetts.
In 2012, the General Convention approved an official liturgy for blessing same-sex unions, called “The Witnessing and Blessing of a Lifelong Covenant,” while making it clear that it was not marriage. The action enabled priests to bestow the church’s blessing on gay couples even in states where same-sex marriage is illegal, subject to the approval of the bishops.
In 2015, the General Convention approved “canonical and liturgical changes to provide marriage equality for Episcopalians.” The canonical change eliminated “language defining marriage as between a man and a woman.” The liturgical change provided two marriage rites for use by same-sex or opposite-sex couples with consent of the priest and permission of the bishop.
Episcopal Church of Cuba
At least one bishop of the extra-provincial diocese, Bishop Nerva Cot, stated that she supported the ordination of openly gay and lesbian priests.
Church in the Province of the West Indies
Church of the Province of Central Africa
Anglican Church of Kenya
Anglican Church of Korea
The Anglican Church of Korea is among the more liberal provinces in the Anglican Communion. In 2015, some clergy, members, and congregations of the province participated in an LGBT Pride event and have been affirming of equal rights for gays and lesbians.
Church of Nigeria
The Church remains sharply opposed to homosexuality, calling it "a perversion of human dignity." In March 2009, the Church declared itself in full communion with the Anglican Church in North America, a denomination formed by American and Canadian Anglicans who opposed their national churches' actions with regard to homosexuality and equality.
Anglican Church in Central America
The Anglican Church in Central America consists of five churches representing different Central American countries. Therefore, it appears that each member church is able to make its own decisions. In 2013, priests and ministries in the Diocese of El Salvador began to advocate for the full inclusion of LGBT members. In 2014, the Episcopal Church of Costa Rica, a diocese of the province, took steps toward welcoming the LGBTQ community.
Anglican Church of Mexico
The Anglican Church of Mexico, like the other North American provinces, has expressed in some particular instances more liberal views regarding gender and sexuality. However, Presiding Bishop Francisco Moreno has opposed same-sex unions and the current canons do not provide for them. In 2007, Archbishop Carlos Touché-Porter became a patron of Inclusive Church advocating for '"a liberal, open church which is inclusive of all,' regardless of race, gender or sexuality". Former Presiding Bishop Carlos Touché-Porter also affirmed that Bishop Gene Robinson was not the first gay cleric, but that he was simply being honest. He also supported the ordination of openly gay clergy. Furthermore, in 2008, when Pope Benedict XVI approached the Anglican Church with the possibility of joining the Catholic Church over issues of sexuality, Presiding Bishop Carlos reassured his province that he supported remaining within the Anglican Communion. Among the affirming churches, St. Mark's Anglican Church in Guadalajara, Jalisco is publicly supportive of gay, lesbian, and transgender members. Nevertheless, on the other side, Presiding Bishop Francisco Moreno, the current primate of the province, has indicated that he supports marriage as defined "between a man and a woman".
Anglican Church of Southern Africa
The previous archbishop, Desmond Tutu, said that: "The Jesus I worship is not likely to collaborate with those who vilify and persecute an already oppressed minority [...]. I could not myself keep quiet whilst people were being penalised for something about which they could do nothing, their sexuality. For it is so improbable that any sane, normal person would deliberately choose a lifestyle exposing him or her to so much vilification, opprobrium and physical abuse, even death. To discriminate against our sisters and brothers who are lesbian or gay on grounds of their sexual orientation for me is as totally unacceptable and unjust as Apartheid ever was."
Another former archbishop, Njongonkulu Ndungane, has criticised other African churches regarding homosexuality and said that the church's attention should be focused on other concerns such as AIDS and poverty. Nevertheless, Ndungane expressed publicly his disapproval of same-sex marriage when it was legalised in South Africa: "As far as we are concerned as a church, our understanding of marriage is between a man and a woman. And as a church, and the Anglican Church in particular, we have said no to same-sex unions." However, in 2016, the bishops of the Anglican Church of Southern Africa voted to affirm members in same-gender marriages as fully equal members of the Church. Bishop Raphael Hess, in Saldanha Bay, has backed same-sex marriage and is proposing a way to allow gay priests to marry. Archbishop Tutu also gave his daughter and her partner a blessing.
Additionally, the Anglican Church of Southern Africa does not have an official policy regarding the ordination of openly gay or lesbian clergy and, thus, some may identify as LGBT depending on their diocese. In 2003, for example, the Rev. Rowan Smith, the dean of St. George's Cathedral in Cape Town, was warmly celebrated by his congregation after coming out as gay. Also in 2003, the Rev. Douglas Torr came out to his congregation in Johannesburg. Moreover, the Rt. Rev. Mervyn Castle, who is openly gay and celibate, was consecrated suffragan bishop in Cape Town. Still, while gay and lesbian clergy may be locally ordained, the national church has not yet developed liturgies to bless same-gender unions. Nevertheless, the Diocese of Cape Town, in 2009, did vote in favour of recognising same-gender unions pastorally and the diocese committed itself to studying the issue further. The vote in 2009 "[had] taken a small step towards accepting gay people in 'faithful, committed relationships'". In 2016, Bishop Raphael Hess of Sadanha Bay gave permission for an Anglican priest to officiate at a service of celebration for the Rev. Mpho Tutu and her partner. When Tutu surrendered her license to avoid controversy, Bishop Hess stated that he "hoped it would be short-lived" and that he is proposing to change policy to welcome her back. Her father, Desmond Tutu, gave "a father's blessing".
Also in 2016, Archbishop Makgoba said "we also tried at the Synod of Bishops to draw up guidelines for clergy wanting to bless couples in same-sex unions, or who want to enter same-sex unions themselves ... On this issue, I had to report back to the Synod, the only agreement we reached is that we were not of one mind". Yet, the bishops did agree that LGBT people, including members in same-sex marriages, are affirmed as "full members" of the church.
The Diocese of Saldanha Bay proposed the blessing of same-gender unions and the licensing of LGBTI priests in civil marriages. During the provincial synod, the proposal did not receive enough votes and was not passed. Archbishop Thabo Makgoba, however, declared that "all is not lost". He said the issue might hopefully be taken up again at the next provincial synod in 2019. He also said the issue could be discussed at the local level in parishes and dioceses. He also voiced his support for same-sex marriage. In addition to Saldanha Bay, the Diocese of False Bay has also been supportive of LGBTI clergy and members having celebrated the ministry of one of its openly gay priests.
Episcopal Church of the Sudan
The Primate of the Episcopal Church of the Sudan, Archbishop Daniel Deng Bul, on 22 July at a public press conference during the 2008 Lambeth Conference called for Bishop Gene Robinson to resign, and for all those who had participated in his consecration to confess their sins to the conference.
Anglican Church of Tanzania
In November 2003, responding to the consecration of Bishop Gene Robinson, Archbishop Donald Mtetemela stated his belief that homosexuality is against biblical teaching: "The Anglican Church of Tanzania believes that homosexuality is contrary to the teaching of the Word of God. It is a sin." Mtetemela declared that the Church of Tanzania was no longer in communion with Episcopal Church bishops who participated in the consecration of Robinson, and those who permit the blessing of same-sex unions.
Church of the Province of Uganda
The Ugandan church cut ties with its North American counterparts over homosexuality. It declared itself in full communion with the Anglican Church in North America, a denomination not recognised by the Anglican Communion that was formed by lay and clergy members who had left The Episcopal Church and the Anglican Church of Canada over matters of LGBT inclusion.
Church of Melanesia
In 1998, the Council of Bishops requested that the Rt Rev Terry Brown "draft a study paper on homosexuality for the Church of Melanesia...". In 2007, Bishop Terry Brown, a former Bishop of Malaita reflected on his experience "as an 'out' gay man serving as bishop".
- Christopher Craig Brittain and Andrew McKinnon, "Homosexuality and the Construction of 'Anglican Orthodoxy': The Symbolic Politics of the Anglican Communion," Sociology of Religion (2011), pp. 1–3.
- "Christian attitudes to same-sex marriage". bbc.co.uk. BBC. Retrieved April 14, 2016.
- The Tablet, 26 July 2003,Row over homosexuality splits Anglican Communion. Retrieved 21 March 2007.
- "Church split over homosexuality would be a failure - Welby - BBC News". BBC News. Retrieved 2016-04-23.
- Vogler, Sarah (November 7, 2015). "Same-sex marriage: Arm of Anglican Church supports civil unions in Queensland". couriermail.com.au. Courier Mail. Retrieved April 23, 2016.
- "Church will embrace gay marriage, says Archbishop Welby". Mail Online. Retrieved 2016-04-23.
- "Archbishops and leading theologian call for Yes vote". The Irish Times. Retrieved 23 April 2016.
- David Skidmore, 7 August 1998, Lambeth Conference 1998 Archives. Retrieved 12 April 2007.
- Site of The Archbishop of Canterbury, Lambeth Conference
- Church of England News, 25 July 2005.House of Bishops issues pastoral statement on Civil Partnerships. Retrieved 18 July 2007.
- Peter Akinola, Message to the nation. Retrieved 17 July 2007.
- People magazine (Dec 2, 1974 Vol. 2 No. 23)
- 1998 Lambeth Conference, Resolution 1.10, "Human Sexuality", Online at http://www.anglicancommunion.org/resources/document-library/lambeth-conference/1998/section-i-called-to-full-humanity/section-i10-human-sexuality?author=Lambeth+Conference&year=1998.
- Robert W. Prichard, A History of the Episcopal Church (Morehouse 3rd rev ed, 2014), p. 402.
- BBC News, 16 October 2003, Anglican leaders' statement. Retrieved 22 March 2007.
- BBC News, 28 November 2004,Churches warned over 'gay slurs'. Retrieved 12 April 2007.
- Tom Heneghan, Yahoo! News,Anglican head Williams says anti-gays misread Bible. Retrieved 19 April 2007.
- Peter J. Akinola, Statement of the Primates of the Global South in the Anglican Communion in response to the consecration of Gene Robinson on 2 November 2003. Retrieved 17 July 2007.
- Office of the Archbishop of the Province of the Anglican Church in South East Asia, 24 November 2003. Breaking of Communion with the Episcopal Church of the United States of America (ECUSA) consequent on the purported consecration of a gay bishop. Retrieved 17 July 2007.
- The Windsor Report 2004.On public Rites of Blessing of same sex unions. Retrieved 17 July 2007.
- The Windsor Report 2004. On elections to the episcopate. Retrieved 17 July 2007.
- Andrew Linzey and Richard Kirker, eds., Gays and the Future of Anglicanism: Responses to the Windsor Report (O Books, 2005), 337-338.
- “The Anglican Communion The Primates’ Meeting, February 2005 Communiqué,” Sec 14, 3-4. Online at http://www.anglicancommunion.org/media/68387/communique-_english.pdf.
- Lisa Miller. "A Traditionalist Who Shakes Tradition". Newsweek.
- Bill Bowder, "Trumpet blast from the Global South," Church Times, 21 Apr 2010. Online at https://www.churchtimes.co.uk/articles/2010/23-april/news/trumpet-blast-from-the-global-south.
- The Episcopal Church (United States) at its 2015 triennial General Convention adopted "canonical and liturgical changes to provide marriage equality for Episcopalians." The canonical change eliminated "language defining marriage as between a man and a woman." The two new marriage rites contain language that allows "them to be used by same-sex or opposite-sex couples." Episcopal News Service staff, "General Convention wrap-up: Historic actions, structural changes" (7 July 2015). Online at http://episcopaldigitalnetwork.com/ens/2015/07/07/general-convention-wrap-up-historic-actions-structural-changes/.
- “Communiqué from the Primates of the Anglican Communion,” 15 Jan 2016. Online at http://www.primates2016.org/articles/2016/01/15/communique-primates/
- Matthew Davies and Mary Frances Schjonberg, "Welby apologizes for persecution on the grounds of sexuality" (Episcopal News Service, January 15, 2016). Online at http://episcopaldigitalnetwork.com/ens/2016/01/15/welby-apologizes-for-persecution-on-the-grounds-of-sexuality/ Episcopal News Service.
- "Factfile: Anglican Church around the world". BBC News. 13 February 2007. Retrieved 15 February 2008.
- Issues in Human Sexuality.
- Michael W. Brierley, ed., Public Life and the Place of the Church: Reflections to Honour the Bishop of Oxford (Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2006), p. 103.
- Bisset, By Chris Hastings, Fiona Govan and Susan. "Vicars bless hundreds of gay couples a year". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 2016-05-23.
- Bishops’ Pastoral Statement on Civil Partnerships. Retrieved July 27, 2016.
- Bishops’ Pastoral Statement on Civil Partnerships. Retrieved July 27, 2016.
- Correspondent, By Jonathan Petre, Religion. "Church blessing for homosexual vicar". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 2016-04-07.
- Lesbian and Gay Christians Synod Debate
- Resolutions Archive from 1998
- Wynne-Jones, Jonathan. "Male priests marry in Anglican church's first gay 'wedding'". telegraph.co.uk. Telegraph UK. Retrieved April 12, 2016.
- Seed, Nigel. "Church Services After A Civil Partnership" (PDF). inclusive-church.org.uk. Diocese of London. Retrieved April 25, 2016.
- Bates, Stephen (2010-02-11). "Church of England General Synod extends pension rights for gay partners". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2016-02-24.
- Pilling Report Published. Retrieved July 27, 2016.
- "Dr David Ison, new Dean of St Paul, backs gay marriage". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 2016-04-23.
- "A Service of Celebration following a Civil Partnership". changingattitude.org.uk. Changing Attitude. Retrieved April 25, 2016.
- "Same-sex ceremony conducted with Oxford bishop's permission | Anglican Ink 2016 ©". www.anglican.ink. Retrieved 2016-05-24.
- "Desmond Tutu's reverend daughter marries a woman and loses church licence". The Telegraph. Retrieved 2016-05-24.
- "Weddings, Baptisms & Funerals - Worship - Southwark Cathedral". cathedral.southwark.anglican.org. Retrieved 2016-06-20.
- "Same sex relationships and Civil Partnerships - York Minster". yorkminster.org. Retrieved 2016-06-29.
- Pilling Report Recommends Shared Conversation. Retrieved June 27, 2016
- Report of the House of Bishops Working Group on human sexuality, 2013, 149, 151. Retrieved June 27, 2016.
- "Church of England Plans Blessings for Gay Couples". advocate.com.
- [https://www.churchofengland.org/about-us/structure/general-synod/about-general-synod/house-of-bishops.aspx College of Bishops. Retrieved July 28, 2016. "All serving bishops in the Church of England comprise a body known as the College of Bishops"
- College of Bishops Endorse Pilling Report’s Recommendations. Retrieved June 27, 2016.
- No Gay Couple Blessings, 15 February 2014
- "Church offers prayers after same-sex weddings - but bans gay priests from marrying". Retrieved 2016-09-05.
- Bennett, John. "St Mary and St Nicolas - Prayers for Same Sex Couples". www.stmaryandstnicolas.org.uk. Retrieved 2016-09-05.
- College of Bishops Meeting, 17 September 2014. Retrieved July 28, 2016.
- "London's Rev Andrew Cain to defy same-sex blessings ban". BBC News.
- Archbishop of Canterbury signals end of C of E's resistance to gay marriage
- Swinfird, Steven. "Archbishop of Canterbury: I would attend my children's same-sex marriage if they were gay". telegraph.co.uk. Telegraph UK. Retrieved January 2, 2016.
- [offer services of thanksgiving following a civil marriage ceremony. "Weddings"] Check
|url=value (help). stjohnswaterloo.org. St John's at Waterloo. Retrieved April 12, 2016.
- "Gay couple blessings ruled out by Church of England bishops". BBC News.
- "MP urges Church of England clarity on same-sex marriage priests". BBC News.
- David Shariatmadari. "Church of England 'must accept actively gay clergy'". the Guardian.
- "Church Of England Clergy Could Be Defrocked If They Marry Gay Partner". The Huffington Post UK.
- "LGBT ministers and clergy". changingattitude.org.uk.
- "Church of England faces 'crisis' as gay priest weds". Telegraph.co.uk. 12 April 2014.
- "Transgender priest Rachel Mann made minor canon at Manchester Cathedral: 'God did not reject me,' she says | Christian News on Christian Today". www.christiantoday.com. Retrieved 2016-04-30.
- "Gay Anglican preacher forced to 'choose between marriage or ministry'". Telegraph.co.uk. 11 August 2015.
- "Anglican preacher quits CofE over gay marriage - Christian News on Christian Today". christiantoday.com.
- A Guide for the Contemplative Fire Community This group accepts people from other faith or non-faith backgrounds.
- Brown, Andrew (2014-03-28). "Gay marriage: bishop of Salisbury gives backing to same-sex weddings". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2016-04-07.
- "Church of England should be made to allow gay clergy to marry - bishop". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 2016-02-24.
- "Married gay priest elected to Church of England Synod". Retrieved 2016-08-04.
- "LONG STANDING SYNOD MEMBER BENEFITS FROM A PORVOO PARTNERSHIP - News - Diocese in Europe". europe.anglican.org. Retrieved 2016-08-21.
- Ltd, Diocese of Chichester vs Blanc. "Brighton churches embrace UK's biggest Pride Festival - Diocese of Chichester". www.chichester.anglican.org. Retrieved 2016-08-21.
- Lichfield, Diocese of. "Diocese of Lichfield | New LGBTI congregation in Lichfield Diocese". www.lichfield.anglican.org. Retrieved 2016-08-21.
- correspondent, Harriet Sherwood Religion (2016-06-16). "Senior bishop calls for change in C of E attitudes to gay people". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2016-08-21.
- "Church of England's centuries-old teaching on marriage 'up for discussion' to accommodate same-sex couples". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 2016-02-24.
- Bingham, John. "Married gay priest selected to Church of England Synod". telegraph.co.uk. Telegraph. Retrieved April 17, 2016.
- General Synod Shared Conversation 10-12 July 2016. Retrieved July 27, 2016.
- Conclusion of Shared Conversations Process, Retrieved July 27, 2016.
- correspondent, Harriet Sherwood Religion (2016-09-02). "Bishop of Grantham first C of E bishop to declare he is in gay relationship". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2016-09-02.
- "Top Anglican official backs Bishop of Grantham over sexuality | Christian News on Christian Today". www.christiantoday.com. Retrieved 2016-09-06.
- Synod), Central Communications Board of the General. "Church of Ireland - A Member of the Anglican Communion". ireland.anglican.org. Retrieved 2016-05-15.
- Daily Mirror, 28 September 2002, Lesbian couple get church blessing. Retrieved 24 January 2009.
- "The Consecration of V Gene Robinson as Bishop Coadjutor of New Hampshire in the Episcopal Church of the United States of America: A Statement from the Evangelical Fellowship of Irish Clergy". Evangelical Fellowship of Irish Clergy. 4 December 2003. Archived from the original on 9 August 2006. Retrieved 1 March 2009.
- Reform Ireland, 23 March 2004, The Creeping Acceptance of Same-sex Relationships in the Church of Ireland. Retrieved 13 June 2007.
- Irish Angle, 31 March 2006, Michael Burrows goes to Cashel. Retrieved 13 June 2007.
- "Other Churches supportive of LGBT Christians". Changing Attitude Ireland. Retrieved 2016-04-25.
- Irish Angle, 27 December 2004, "Mapping Attitudes to Sexuality". Retrieved 22 March 2007.
- Synod), Central Communications Board of the General. "Church of Ireland - A Member of the Anglican Communion". ireland.anglican.org. Retrieved 2016-04-30.
- "Minister Rev Tom Gordon partnership 'welcomed'". bbc.com. BBC. Retrieved January 11, 2016.
- "Same-sex marriage backed by Church of Ireland bishop - BBC News". Retrieved 2015-10-06.
- "Archbishops and leading theologian call for Yes vote". The Irish Times. Retrieved 2016-04-25.
- "Ireland set to approve gay marriage in public vote". 10NEWS. Retrieved 2016-04-12.
- Dublin, Henry McDonald in. "Ireland becomes first country to legalise gay marriage by popular vote". the Guardian. Retrieved 2015-10-06.
- "C of I bishops send pastoral letter to clergy on same-sex marriage" (PDF). churchnewsireland.org. Church of Ireland. Retrieved January 3, 2016.
- "REFORM Ireland's Response to Bishops' Pastoral Letter on Same Sex Marriage" (PDF). churchnewsireland.org. REFORM Ireland. Retrieved January 3, 2016.
- "Letter from Church of Ireland clergy in support of TEC following Primates gathering". episcopalcafe.com. Episcopal Cafe. Retrieved February 1, 2016.
- "Church of Ireland Gazette calls for blessings for same-sex marriages". newsletter.co.uk. Newsletter UK. Retrieved April 17, 2016.
- "Church of Ireland challenged by report on homosexuality | Christian News on Christian Today". www.christiantoday.com. Retrieved 2016-05-14.
- "Church in Wales looks at pension rights for clerics' partners.". walesonline. Retrieved 2016-02-25.
- Taylor, Jerome. "Archbishop of Wales publicly calls on Anglican stop support gay civil marriages". Independent.co.uk. Independent UK. Retrieved December 27, 2015.
- "Church in Wales to participate in LGBT film project | Christian News on Christian Today". www.christiantoday.com. Retrieved 2016-08-23.
- "Same-Sex Partnerships" (PDF). churchinwales.org.uk. Governing Body. Retrieved December 27, 2015.
- "Unofficial Blessings in Wales - The Living Church". www.livingchurch.org. Retrieved 2016-05-15.
- Prayers that may be said with a couple following the Celebration of Civil Partnership or Civil Marriage. Church in Wales. 2016. p. 1.
- Thinking Anglicans: Book review archives, 24 March 2005.More on Scotland. Retrieved 18 July 2007.
- "Scottish Synod opens church door to same-sex weddings". www.churchtimes.co.uk. Retrieved 2016-04-07.
- "Dundee cathedral hosts historic same-sex marriage". www.thecourier.co.uk. Retrieved 2016-04-07.
- "Scottish Episcopal Church takes first step towards same sex marriage". www.anglicannews.org. Retrieved 2016-06-10.
- Chillingworth: Same-sex Marriage (June 24, 2016) Retrieved 18 July 2016.
- "Rising cases of sexual abuse within the church in Kerala force clergy to rethink on homosexuality". indiatoday.intoday.in. Retrieved 2016-04-29.
- Cithara, Paul. "Protestants support gay rights". telegraphindia.com. Telegraph. Retrieved January 12, 2016.
- "Protestants cool with verdict on homosexuality". Retrieved 2016-08-26.
- Sitlhou, Makepeace. "A Theological Challenge to Christian Homophobia". thewire.in. The Wire. Retrieved January 12, 2016.
- "International Consultation on Church and Homophobia". Joseph N. Goh. 2014-12-08. Retrieved 2016-05-23.
- "Church split over homosexuality would be a failure - Welby". bbc.com. BBC. Retrieved January 12, 2016.
- Diocese of Singapore, 13 August 2003. Statement of Bishops of the Province of the Anglican Church in South East Asia. Retrieved 22 March 2007.
- "Hong Kong Anglican leader: Dialogue on Sexuality". www.speroforum.com. Retrieved 2016-05-23.
- Conger, George. "Hong Kong push for gay civil rights". geoconger.wordpress.com. The Church of England Newspaper. Retrieved January 25, 2016.
- Conant, Ariel; So, Melory. "HK's closet mindset on LGBT issues". yp.scmp.com. youngpost. Retrieved January 25, 2016.
- "BBC NEWS - Special Reports - Anglican Church around the world". bbc.co.uk.
- Conger, George. "Gay marriage rites recommended for New Zealand church". anglican.ink. Anglican Ink. Retrieved February 23, 2016.
- Ashford, Ron,A Right to a Rite?, 2006.
- "Anglican church to ordain gay deacon". www.gaynz.com. Retrieved 2016-05-11.
- "Gay deacon a threat to church unity, say opponents". New Zealand Herald. 2006-11-03. ISSN 1170-0777. Retrieved 2016-06-06.
- "Gay priest predicts a new conservatism | Otago Daily Times Online News : Otago, South Island, New Zealand & International News". www.odt.co.nz. Retrieved 2016-06-06.
- Coward, Colin. "Auckland Diocese Synod votes for full inclusion of lesbian and gay people in ministry". changingattitude.org.uk. Changing Attitude. Retrieved January 31, 2016.
- Lightfoot, Liz, Outspoken, 2011.
- Quiqcorp. "Anglican Taonga : New Zealand's Anglican News Leader". anglicantaonga.org.nz.
- "GayNZ.com Anglican Church rejects blessings of same-sex marriages". www.gaynz.com. Retrieved 2016-05-11.
- Quiqcorp. "Anglican Taonga : New Zealand's Anglican News Leader". anglicantaonga.org.nz. Retrieved 2016-05-12.
- "Marriage rites (and wrongs)?". 2016-08-30. Retrieved 2016-08-31.
- "Homosexuality". www.anglican.org.au. Anglican Church of Australia. Retrieved September 28, 2015.
- Sydney Diocesan Secretariat, General Synod Session 2004. Retrieved 8 August 2007.
- BBC News, 13 February 2007. BBC Factfile: Anglican Church around the world. Retrieved 18 July 2007.
- Attard, Monica. "The Primate of the Anglican Church of Australia, Dr Phillip Aspinall". abc.net.au. ABC. Retrieved April 11, 2016.
- Eddington, Bill (2001-07-01). "In Brief... Ordination of Gay Priests Defining Issue for Anglicans in Australia". United Church of God. Retrieved 2016-04-29.
- "Acts 103A28 NRSV - - Bible Gateway". www.biblegateway.com. Retrieved 2015-10-06.
- Barney Zwartz, The Age, 3 February 2006. Church imperilled by gays: archbishop. Retrieved 22 July 2007.
- Patrick Goodenough, CNSNews.com, 30 June 2003, Anglican leaders in Australia at odds over homosexuality issue. Retrieved 22 March 2007.
- "Perth Anglicans vote to recognise same-sex relationships". www.abc.net.au. www.abc.net.au. Retrieved September 28, 2015.
- Jean, David. "New Anglican Bishop welcomes homosexual ministry". adelaidenow.com.au. The Advertiser. Retrieved February 24, 2016.
- "Bishop defends gay priest appointment". www.abc.net.au. www.abc.net.au. Retrieved September 28, 2015.
- "Australian bishop backs same-sex marriage". Anglican Ink. Retrieved September 28, 2015.
- DOW, AISHA (2012-11-19). "Gays to wed at St Matthew's?". Retrieved 2016-07-08.
- Porter, Muriel. "First woman diocesan for Australia consecrated". churchtimes.org.uk. Church Times. Retrieved February 24, 2016.
- "Welcoming Congregations". changingattitude.org.au. Changing Attitude. Retrieved April 11, 2016.
- McCarthy, Joanne. "Hunter bishops pragmatic about same-sex marriage". theherald.com.au. The Herald. Retrieved February 24, 2016.
- "Same-sex marriage: Arm of Anglican Church supports civil unions in Queensland". couriermail.org.au. Couriermail. Retrieved April 11, 2016.
- "Ballarat's Anglican Bishop declares support for same-sex marriage". 2016-09-15. Retrieved 2016-09-16.
- Anglican Communion News Service, 12 January 2004. Statement from the Province of the Southern Cone. Retrieved 22 March 2007.
- "Curas uruguayos se reconocen gay a pesar de mantenerse célibes". LARED21 (in Spanish). Retrieved 2016-06-06.
- Guiame. "Anglicanos dividem opiniões sobre homossexualidade, Notícias Gospel". Guiame (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2016-04-13.
- D. Orlando Santos de Oliveira, 17 June 2005. Canonical Trial # 001/2005 of Bishop Edward Robinson de Barros Cavalcanti. Retrieved 22 July 2007.
- "Primaz convoca GT sobre Gênero, Sexualidades e Direitos « SNIEAB". Retrieved 2016-07-12.
- In Depth Same-sex rights Canada timeline
- "Same-sex blessings available in Rupert's Land". anglicanjournal.com.
- statement from the Rupert's Land Province house of bishops on the ordination of a gay man
- "Anglicans pass same-sex marriage resolution after vote error discovered". Retrieved 2016-07-12.
- "Niagara, Ottawa to offer same-sex marriages; Toronto to consider". www.anglicanjournal.com. Retrieved 2016-07-12.
- "Diocese elects three new suffragan bishops". The Diocese of Toronto. Retrieved 2016-09-19.
- The Archives of the Episcopal Church, Acts of Convention: Resolution #1976-A069. Retrieved 20013-7-14.
- Steinfels, Peter (1991-06-06). "LESBIAN ORDAINED EPISCOPAL PRIEST". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-08-02.
- Jill Lawless, Associated Press, 21 June 2005. U.S. Episcopals Defend Openly Gay Bishop. Accessed 17 July 2007.
- Goodstein, Laurie (16 July 2009). "Episcopal Bishops Give Ground on Gay Marriage". The New York Times.
- "Gays make advances at Episcopal confab". Edge Media Network. 24 July 2009.
|last1=in Authors list (help)
- Advocate:Two Lesbian Priests Tie the Knot
- Goodstein, Laurie (2012-07-10). "Episcopalians Approve Rite to Bless Same-Sex Unions". The New York Times.
- Episcopal News Service staff, “General Convention wrap-up: Historic actions, structural changes” (July 7, 2015). Online at http://episcopaldigitalnetwork.com/ens/2015/07/07/general-convention-wrap-up-historic-actions-structural-changes/.
- http://www.cubaencuentro.com/, Cubaencuentro.com,. "La Iglesia Episcopal ordena en Cuba a la primera mujer obispo de América Latina". www.cubaencuentro.com. Retrieved 2016-07-02.
- Afrol News, 2 September 2003. Ugandan Church attacks gay community. Retrieved 18 July 2007.
- "Korean Catholic priests become Anglican and marry". ncronline.org. National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved February 22, 2016.
- "Why Korea's Christians are leading the anti-gay charge: And how a handful of LGBT-affirming churches are fighting back". dailyxtra.com. Daily Xtra. Retrieved February 22, 2016.
- Hodges, Sam (20 March 2009). "Church of Nigeria in full communion with Anglican Church of North America". The Dallas Morning News. Retrieved 11 September 2009.
- "La formación de un ministerio para los HBT en El Salvador". Episcopal News Service. Retrieved 2016-03-01.
- "Iglesia de Costa Rica toma pasos para dar la bienvenida a la comunidad LGBTQ". 2014-03-06. Retrieved 2016-07-06.
- "Anglicanos y mormones contra matrimonios gay". Vanguardia. Retrieved 2016-06-18.
- "SCOTLAND: Primus becomes co-patron of Inclusive Church | Episcopal Church". www.episcopalchurch.org. Retrieved 2016-07-06.
- Figueroa, Héctor. "Habrá obispo mexicana en unos años: Iglesia Anglicana". excelsior.com.mx. Excelsior. Retrieved February 10, 2016.
- Qureshi, Yakub (2007-10-03). "Archbishop's gay plea". Retrieved 2016-07-06.
- Ramírez, Mariana Viayra. "Anglicanos mexicanos rechazan unirse a la Iglesia católica". cronica.com.mx. La Crónica. Retrieved February 10, 2016.
- "List Churches by Country - GayChurch.org". GayChurch.org. Retrieved 2016-04-30.
- "Anglicanos y mormones contra matrimonios gay". Retrieved 2016-07-06.
- "Que Dios bendiga a pareja gay que se casó: Arzobispo". GlobalMedia Noticias (in Spanish). Retrieved 2016-06-17.
- "Anglicanos abren las puertas a gays en SLP; bendición de parejas homosexuales, en análisis - Pulso Diario de San Luis". pulsoslp.com.mx. Retrieved 2016-06-17.
- "Poco probable, que Iglesia católica modifique código canónico para bendecir a gays: Cabrero - Pulso Diario de San Luis". pulsoslp.com.mx. Retrieved 2016-06-17.
- Archbishop Desmond Tutu, 1 February 2004.Sermon at Southwark Cathedral. Accessed 22 March 2007.
- "Archbishop Njongonkulu of Cape Town declares same-sex marriages unchristian 9 December 2004". changingattitude.org.uk.
- Communications, United Methodist. "Support for the Religious Coalition for Reproductive Choice - The United Methodist Church". The United Methodist Church. Retrieved 2016-02-25.
- "Bishop Backs Same-sex Marriage - The Living Church". www.livingchurch.org. Retrieved 2016-05-24.
- "South African Archbishop Desmond Tutu Blesses Gay Union of His Daughter - How Africa". How Africa. 2016-01-05. Retrieved 2016-06-12.
- "Global trend: World's oldest Protestant churches now ordain gays and lesbians". ucc.org. United Church of Christ. Retrieved February 21, 2016.
- "Churchgoers embrace gay priest". News24. Retrieved 2016-04-12.
- Mlangeni, Bongiwe (November 9, 2003). "South Africa: Priest Outs Himself Before Sermon". allafrica.com. Sundaytimes.co.uk. Retrieved June 30, 2016.
- Germond, Paul (1997-01-01). Aliens in the Household of God: Homosexuality and Christian Faith in South Africa. New Africa Books. ISBN 9780864863300.
- "Resolution of the Diocese of Cape Town on Ministry to Gays and Lesbians in Covenanted Partnerships". anglicanchurchsa.org. Anglican Church of Southern Africa. Retrieved February 21, 2016.
- "Church makes key decision on gay couples | IOL". Retrieved 2016-07-08.
- "Desmond Tutu's reverend daughter marries a woman and loses church licence". The Telegraph. Retrieved 2016-05-24.
- "Synod of Bishops of the Anglican Church of Southern Africa". 2016-02-23. Retrieved 2016-07-24.
- Digital, TMG. "Anglican bishops declare gay‚ lesbian couples 'full members' of the church". Times LIVE. Retrieved 2016-07-24.
- "Southern African synod to consider blessing same-sex civil unions". www.anglicannews.org. Retrieved 2016-08-18.
- "Anglican Church of Southern Africa rejects blessing of same-sex civil unions". 2016-09-30. Retrieved 2016-09-30.
- "Why This Archbishop Wept When His Church Rejected Same-Sex Blessings | Christian News on Christian Today". www.christiantoday.com. Retrieved 2016-10-05.
- admin. "Sermon Upon the Retirement of Dean Rowan Smith | Diocese of False Bay". Retrieved 2016-09-30.
- Schjonberg, Mary Frances (22 July 2008). "Sudanese primate wants Robinson's resignation". New York, NY, USA: The Episcopal Church. Archived from the original on 3 August 2008. Retrieved 4 October 2008.
- Afrol News, 13 November 2003. Church of Tanzania breaks ties with US church. Retrieved 22 March 2007.
- Church of Uganda. "Church of Uganda Declares itself in Full Communion with Anglican Church in North America". Anglican Church in North America. Retrieved 11 September 2009.
- Brown, Terry (2000). "Further Reflections on Homosexuality, Christian Faith and the Church". rci.rutgers.edu. Rutgers. Retrieved May 3, 2016.
- "Another Gay bishop". Episcopal Cafe. 2007-09-07. Retrieved 2016-05-03.
- Brittain, Christopher Craig and Andrew McKinnon, "Homosexuality and the Construction of ‘Anglican Orthodoxy’: The Symbolic Politics of the Anglican Communion", Sociology of Religion, vol.72, no.3, pp. 351–373 (2011).
- Hassett, Miranda, Anglican Communion in Crisis: How Episcopal Dissidents and Their African Allies Are Reshaping Anglicanism, Princeton: Princeton University Press (2007).
- Jay Emerson Johnson, "Sodomy and Gendered Love: Reading Genesis 19 in the Anglican Communion", in Michael Lieb, Emma Mason and Jonathan Roberts (еds), The Oxford Handbook of the Reception History of the Bible (Oxford, OUP, 2011), pp413–432.
- McKinnon, Andrew, Marta Trzebiatowska and Christopher Brittain. (2011) "Bourdieu, Capital and Conflict in a Religious Field: The Case of the Anglican Communion", Journal of Contemporary Religion, vol.26, no.3, pp. 355–370.
- Integrity A witness of GBLT persons in the Episcopal Church and to the world.
- American Anglican Council (a leading conservative group in the Episcopal Church)
- Top bishop's vision – a world without gays
- Gay cleric installed at St Albans
- UnEnglish and unmanly: Anglo-Catholicism and homosexuality, by David Hilliard
- Episcopal Dissidents, African Allies: The Anglican Communion and the Globalization of Dissent (on Homosexuality), by Miranda K. Hassett.
- The Meanings of Communion: Anglican Identities, the Sexuality Debates, and Christian Relationality, Extensive consideration of homosexuality and Anglicanism, using data from empirical research with gay and lesbian Anglicans from around the world, by Robert Vanderbeck et al.
Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance