Honda Civic Type R
|Honda Civic Type R|
|Body and chassis|
|Body style||3-door hatchback
|Related||Honda Civic Si|
The Honda Civic Type R is the highest performance version of the Honda Civic made by Honda Motor Company of Japan. It features a lightened and stiffened body, specially tuned engine and upgraded brakes and chassis. Red is also used in the interior to give it a special sporting distinction and to separate it from other Honda models. In Japan, there is a one-make series of Honda Type R cars where privateers can purchase an off-road Type R and compete in a series championship which is a stepping stone for many aspiring racing drivers.
- 1 1st generation (EK9 chassis) (1997-2000)
- 2 2nd generation (EP3 chassis) (2001-2005)
- 3 3rd generation (FD2/FN2 chassis) (2006-2011)
- 4 4th generation (FK2 chassis) (2015-present)
- 5 5th generation
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
1st generation (EK9 chassis) (1997-2000)
|Body and chassis|
|Body style||3-door hatchback|
|Engine||1.6 L 185 PS (136.1 kW) B16B I4|
|Wheelbase||2,620 mm (103 in)|
|Length||4,180.8 mm (164.6 in)|
|Width||1,694.2 mm (66.7 in)|
|Height||1,358.9 mm (53.5 in)|
|Curb weight||1,090 kg (2,400 lb)|
The first Civic to receive the 'Type R' name was based on the 6th-generation 'EK' Civic. The contributing base model was the JDM Civic 3-door hatchback called SiR, code named EK4. Like its big brother the Integra Type R DC2/JDM DB8, the Civic SiR's transformation into a Type R was achieved by working on the base model and improving it to Honda's idea of a car capable of high performance on the circuit.
The first Civic to receive the Type R badge was introduced in August 1997, as the EK9. The EK9 shared many characteristics with the Integra Type R DC2/ JDM DB8 such as omission of sound deadening and other weight-reduction measures, a hand-ported B16B engine, front helical limited-slip differential and close ratio gearbox. The B16B engine boasted one of the highest power output per litre of all time for a naturally-aspirated engine with 185 PS (136 kW; 182 hp) from 1.6L of engine displacement. For the first time, a strategically seam welded monocoque chassis was used to improve chassis rigidity. The interior featured red seats, red door cards, red Type R floor mats, a titanium shift knob, and a Momo leather-wrapped steering wheel.
In 1998, the Civic Type R Motor Sports edition was released. It came with steel wheels, no air conditioning, no power windows, no power steering, no radio, and came with the standard Type R interior.
Type Rx model was given a CD player, body coloured retractable electric door mirrors, power windows, auto air conditioning, keyless entry unlock system, aluminium sports pedals, and a carbon type centre panel.
2nd generation (EP3 chassis) (2001-2005)
|Assembly||Swindon, England (HIKM)|
|Body and chassis|
|Body style||3-door hatchback|
|Length||4,140.2 mm (163 in)|
|Width||1,694.2 mm (66.7 in)|
|Height||1,424.9 mm (56.1 in)|
|Curb weight||1,321 kg (2,912 lb)|
In 2001 Honda introduced the next generation of the Civic Type R (EP3) as a unique 3-door hatchback to the UK market, which was manufactured in Swindon, England. This EDM (European Domestic Market) Civic Type R featured a 200 PS (150 kW; 200 hp) 2.0L i-VTEC engine (K20A2) and the regular Type R treatment of seam welding, close ratio 6-speed transmission and uprated brakes, but did not include some of the other higher-end features, such as the helical LSD and red Recaro race-seats, that were standard in the previous generation EK9. However, Honda of Japan marketed a JDM (Japanese domestic market) version of the EP3 (which was exclusively manufactured in Swindon, UK and was shipped to Japan), which retained the highly renowned helical LSD similar to that of the EK9 and red Recaro race-seats. Other differences included a more track-oriented chassis/undercarriage settings as compared to the EDM, as well as a 215 PS (158 kW; 212 hp) i-VTEC engine (K20A) had a fully balanced crankshaft assembly with different intake manifold, exhaust manifold, higher-lift camshafts, higher-compression pistons, chrome-moly flywheel and ECU programming. All of the Japan-spec K20A Type-R powertain were built in Japan and shipped to the Swindon plant to be installed in the Japan-spec Type-R EP3. The JDM EP3 was also available in the traditional Type R championship white while the EDM was not. The EDM has more relaxed gear ratios and some high rpm torque traded for low rpm torque compared to the JDM . The JDM Civic was said to be the better of the two.
The EDM EP3 Civic Type R was much acclaimed by motoring journalists across the UK, winning 'Hot Hatch of the Year' awards more than once from Top Gear, Fifth Gear and What Car?. The Civic Type R became a popular alternative for mainstream drivers clocking huge sales numbers. The 2001 release of this CTR (Civic Type R), as it is commonly referred to, also indicated Honda's return to Formula One after almost 10 years as an engine supplier to the Jordan and BAR teams - this eventually led to the full-fledged comeback as a dedicated F1 works team in 2005 with Honda gaining full ownership of British American Racing.
2004 saw this successful CTR updated with many improvements - revised EPS with quicker steering, revised suspension settings, projector headlamps (JDM came equipped with halogens only while the EDM came with an option for HIDs with self-levelling motors), lighter clutch and flywheel assembly etc.; based on Honda literature, this facelifted (FL) model was targeted at addressing customers' and critics' feedback such as understeer on the limit (due to the front MacPherson strut setup), numb steering response and lack of low end torque.
Performance (all figures are manufacturer claims)
0-60 mph in 5,8/5,8seconds (JDM/EDM pre-FL), 5,8/5,8secs (JDM/EDM FL) 0-100 mph in 15.1/16 secs (JDM/EDM FL) Top speed 112 mph (180 km/h) and 146 mph (235 km/h) (JDM/EDM)
Mugen made an upgraded version of the JDM Civic Type R, it has a sport exhaust system and an engine tuning, special Mugen Grille, and anti-roll bars for pro racing activities.
30th Anniversary Special Edition
In 2003 - 2004 facelift and pre facelift Honda decided to celebrate 30 years of producing the Civic by offering a special edition 30th Anniversary Type-R. The special edition features special red and black sports seats Type R from world-renowned seat maker Recaro, air conditioning and privacy glass on the rear windows. It also has a lighter fly-wheel and clutch. The JDM addition has red bucket seats from Recaro, red carpet and door cards, a leather MOMO steering wheel, and also comes in the famous championship white. 30th Anniversary models were available in Nighthawk Black, Satin Silver and Milano Red and the JDM addition comes in championship white. Only 300 of these models were produced, 100 in each colour.
Premier Special Edition
In 2005 Honda introduced the Premier edition which had Recaro Trendline seats (similar to those found in the Anniversary Edition, only in red and black rather than all red), a darker shade of fabric on the rear seat centre sections, a Momo Steering Wheel, Red Carpet, Door Linings, "Type R" embossed into the front brake callipers and privacy glass on the rear windows. Air conditioning was an option. They were available in Milano Red, Nighthawk Black, Cosmic Grey and Satin Silver.
In 2004 Honda introduced the "C Package" option (¥330,000 JPY) to Japan's Civic Type R line-up which included an additional colour, Satin Silver Metallic, HID lighting, rear privacy glass, automatic air conditioner and outside air temperature sensor.
3rd generation (FD2/FN2 chassis) (2006-2011)
|Body and chassis|
The third generation Civic Type R was offered in two distinct forms: one developed for the European market and one for the Japanese domestic market, matching the availability of their regular 8th gen. counterpart.
FD2 chassis (Asian version)
The Japanese market Civic Type R (FD2) went on sale on March 30, 2007. For the first time, the JDM Civic Type R was sold as a four-door sports sedan rather than a three-door hot hatch. Using the Japanese market four-door sedan as a base model meaning the new Type R is now bigger, wider and heavier. More importantly, the wheelbase has grown from 2,570 mm (101.2 in) to 2,700 mm (106.3 in), giving the FD2R a more stable stance in high speed cornering. The new Japanese model's engine output is higher than the European version's, with 225 PS (165 kW; 222 hp) being developed at 8400 RPM and 215 N·m (159 lb·ft) of torque peaking at 6100 RPM (versus 201 metric horsepower (148 kW; 198 hp) at 7800 RPM and 193 N·m (142 lb·ft) at 5600 RPM for the European model). The base engine itself is borrowed from the Accord Euro R CL7 with its longer intake manifold. Changes have been made to the block in terms of mounting points for ancillary parts making it different from previous K20A. New technology such as drive-by-wire throttle and porting of the intake valve ports using techniques from the NSX are implemented. Honda says mid-range is increased by 10 PS (7 kW; 10 hp). Drive is fed through a close-ratio six-speed gearbox, and a helical limited slip differential is fitted as standard. The front brake discs increased from the DC5R's 300 mm (11.8 in) to 320 mm (12.6 in) fitted with four pot Brembo callipers. Tire size is now 225/40 R18 running on Bridgestone Potenza RE070.
Honda claims the chassis is 50% more rigid than the previous Japan-only DC5 Integra Type R, and the new model features an independent rear suspension rather than the torsion beam configuration used on the latest European Civic Type-R. To save weight, aluminium is used extensively and bonded with adhesive instead of welded. Though the chassis is larger and more rigid than JDM Integra Type R, it is only 1.8 kg (4 lb) heavier.
Exterior wise, the front bumper is wider and different from the standard Civic designed aerodynamically. The rear bumper features a diffuser built into the bumper and completing the aero package with a huge rear wing. Inside, the trademark black and red bucket seats are no longer made by Recaro as with previous versions, but designed in house by Honda. Also gone is the Momo made steering wheel, instead replaced by a Honda made version. The familiar red-on-black colour scheme or black-on-black scheme is offered on Championship White and Super Platinum Metallic Silver while a black-on-black scheme with red stitching is for the Vivid Blue Pearl only.
In October 2008, the Civic received a minor face lift. The standard and hybrid versions now had a similar front bumper as the Type R while the head lamps gets a smoked tint and also redesigned tail lamps changes the round insets into octagons. The Type R also received new colours, with Premium White Pearl, Premium Deep Violet Pearl and Crystal Black Pearl being added and Vivid Blue Pearl dropped.
In a back to back test on the United Kingdom TV program 5th Gear, the FD2 Type-R was three seconds quicker than the equivalent FN2 UK version around Castle Combe Circuit in the wet.
Only about 13,000 units FD2 Civic Type R were produced until it ceased production in August 2010 due to failure to meet the upcoming emission requirements. Following the previous success following the introduction of the FN2 Civic Type R from Europe in 2009, another batch of FN2 Type R with minor updates were available in fall 2010. The FN2 Type R has 197 hp (147 kW) vs the 225 hp (168 kW) output in the FD2 Type R.
Civic Mugen RR (Honda ABA-FD2)
In addition to Civic Type R, 300 Honda Civic Mugen RR cars available exclusively in Milano Red had also been produced for Japanese market, which reduced weight to 1,255 kg (2,767 lb) using CFRP bumpers and aluminium for the bonnet. The engine is rated 240 PS (180 kW; 240 hp) at 8000 RPM and 218 N·m (161 lb·ft) torque at 7000 RPM achieved through Mugen parts such as camshafts, exhaust system and ECU. Other exclusive items that make this a collector's item are Recaro SP-X seats and other Mugen items inside while special 18 inch Mugen 7-spoke wheels come equipped as standard. This version costs ¥4,777,500 (4,550,000+tax) (US$38,750) and went on sale on September 13, 2007.
Mugen also debuted Civic Type-RR Experimental Spec concept car in Tokyo Auto Salon, which features 2157 cc K20A engine rated with horsepower of 260 PS (190 kW; 260 hp) at 8250 RPM and torque of 237 N·m (175 lb·ft) at 6750 RPM. Weight is further reduced using aluminium hood (4.6 kg (10 lb)), as well as the new titanium exhaust system (7.6 kg (17 lb)). Interior was replaced with more carbon fiber parts. The car also features Intelligent-Tire Condition Monitoring System (i-TCMS) and Recaro seats.
The Honda Civic Mugen RR Advanced Concept was debuted during 2009 Tokyo Auto Salon, based on the face-lifted FD2. It has the weight of 1,095 kg (2,414 lb). Brake disc was increased to 340 mm (13.4 in) diameter (320 mm (12.6 in) in Type R/RR).
Civic Mugen RC (2008-)
A race version called Honda Civic Mugen RC has also been produced, designed for the 2008 Honda Exciting Cup Civic One-Make Race-Civic Series. The engine is the stock K20A engine from FD2 Honda Civic Type R. It comes with following models:
- Basic: ¥6,247,500 (5,950,000+tax).
- Standard: ¥7,192,500 (6,850,000+tax). It adds racing wheel package (Mugen RC 18-inch wheel with Yokohama tire), brake package (front+rear brake pads), seat and steering (Recaro bucket seat, seat rail, steering wheel with box, TAKATA harness), carbon inner part option A (carbon fibre right floor cover panel, footrest, door lining) over BASIC.
- Complete: ¥7,822,500 (7,450,000+tax). It adds carbon inner part option B (carbon-fibre console box, left floor cover panel, centre pillar cover), engine package (engine rebalancing and calibration)
Civic Mugen RC was built in Mugen's M-TEC factory.
FN2 chassis (European version)
The European market Civic Type R is offered only as a three-door hatch back and uses a different chassis and internal layout (notably tank placement below the driver's seat), which will serve as base for the next European Jazz. The rear suspension, formerly a double wishbone setup, has been changed to a less complex torsion beam axle. The drive train is largely the same as the outgoing model, offering 201 PS (148 kW; 198 hp) at 7,800 rpm and 193 N·m (142 lb·ft) of torque at 5,600 rpm, with 90 percent of peak torque is available from 2,500 rpm. It runs on 225/40 R18 Y88 Bridgestone Potenza RE050A tyres, while optional 19-inch Rage alloys run on Yokohama Advan Sport 225/35 ZR19 88Y tyres. The car has a curb weight of 1,320 kg (2,910 lb).
Type R GT includes, dual zone climate control (Left:right independent), rain sensing windscreen wipers, refrigerated glove box, automatic headlights with dusk sensor, front fog lights, power folding door mirrors, cruise control, front and rear curtain airbags. It is finished in the same three colours as the standard FN2, and a new addition the range, deep sapphire blue pearl. As often, names and trims vary even within domain markets down to local ones, and a Heritage version replaces GT version in some of them, adding Xenon/HID lights to the mix. The topping Heritage Navi version adds Bluetooth telephone system and voice recognition DVD satellite navigation. A more radical version dubbed Race differs from the Heritage by removing components (incl. HID, AC, fog lights, audio system, sound proofing, some airbags) to reduce weight as much as 40 kg (88 lb). Finally, together with the 2009 revision to all 8th gen. EDM Civic variants (adding for example a USB iPod-compatible plug to the audio system), a special edition called Championship White comes in the eponyme Honda colour, with the same alloys only with matching white colour, 18" wheels (19" white Rage optional). This edition adds an exclusive limited slip differential to a Heritage trim level, which Honda touted at Paris Motor Show as helping the car shave off more than a second to its undisclosed Tsukuba lap time. In addition models made from 1 March 2010 have LSD fi'
Production of the current generation of the Civic Type R hot hatch for the European market finished in October 2010. The car’s high-revving 2.0-litre VTEC engine is to blame, as it does not meet forthcoming Euro V emissions regulations. Instead of re-engineering the unit to meet the stricter standards, which come into force for all new cars in January 2011, the UK market Type R will be axed and replaced by a new model when the all-new Civic arrives in late 2011.
Over 12,000 Civic Type Rs have been sold in the UK since January 2007, and although the last UK cars will be sold by December, Honda’s Swindon plant will continue to build the car for the Australian markets. It is also exported to Japan and marketed as Civic Type-R EURO in limited edition in fall 2010, following a successful run in November 2009. According to Autocar, Euro V emission requirement also caused the demise of Alfa Brera with 3.2 V6, Ford Focus ST, Mazda RX-8 and the VW Group’s 5.0 V10 turbodiesel.
Top Gear Magazine awarded the European Civic Type R its 'Hot Hatch of 2007', praising the car's controls and comparing it favourably as a driver's car to its rivals, the Stig qualifying it as 'an utter gem'. However the television show Top Gear later criticized the new FN2 Chassis version, due to the different suspension and added weight. Jeremy Clarkson said it "just doesn't feel that quick" and that "all the poise and controllability that you used to get in the old car is just sort of... gone".
The FN2 Civic Type R had been available in Australia from mid-2007 until 2011 .
The FD2 Civic Type R was officially launched to the Malaysian market on August 2, 2007. It was the first time that any Type R JDM model was launched outside Japan. The Civic Type R was priced at about RM199,800 when it was first launched in Malaysia.
The FD2 sedan was initially available in Japan, but as of November 2009, Honda imported the FN2 hatchback (which is also sold in Europe) in limited numbers (about 2,010 units), giving it the name Civic Type R EURO. A second batch of 1,500 was imported in fall 2010 due to the initial sales success. The colour Crystal Black Pearl was added, shortly later stopped.
4th generation (FK2 chassis) (2015-present)
||This section contains content that is written like an advertisement. (August 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
|Assembly||Swindon, England (HIKM)|
|Body and chassis|
|Body style||5-door hatchback|
|Engine||2.0 L K20C1 turbo I4|
|Wheelbase||2,594 mm (102 in)|
|Length||173 in (4,390 mm)|
|Width||81 in (2,065 mm)|
|Height||58 in (1,466 mm)|
In September 2012, Autocar made a report about the confirmation of the next-generation Honda Civic Type R at Paris Motor Show. The preview took place at Geneva Motor Show in March 2014. Owing to the history of Honda Civic Type R, this merged as the first factory turbocharged Civic Type R thus allowing to compete healthily with rivals as such of Volkswagen Golf R and Ford Focus RS.
In January 2015, Honda announced that the production-ready model of the 4th Generation Civic Type R would debut at the 85th Geneva Motor Show alongside the European debut of the NSX. In March 2015, Honda debuted the 4th generation Civic Type R at the Geneva Motor Show.
Engine Performance and Specifications
The Honda Civic Type R is powered by K20C1 Direct Fuel Injection 2.0-litre VTEC Turbocharged engine with Earth Dreams Technology. An R+ button is provided to increase the responsiveness of the chassis, throttle and engine for enhanced driving thrills. Maximum power is 228 kW (310 PS; 306 bhp) at 6500 RPM and maximum torque of 400 N·m (300 lb·ft) at 2500-4500 RPM. The engine is mated to a 6-speed manual transmission with a factory equipped helical limited slip differential. Honda quotes that the Type R does 0-62 mph in 5.7 second although users reached it in 5.2 seconds and produced a 1/4 mile time of 14.1s at 105.6 mph (169.9 km/h). It has a top speed of 177 mph (285 km/h).
The engine is manufactured at Honda's Anna Engine Plant in Ohio before being exported to the UK.
The hot hatchback has ample boot capacity despite its size, with the rear seats up the Civic Type R has 498 L (30,400 cu in), while flat rear seats down it combines 1,214 L (74,100 cu in) of boot space. It rides on 19 inch alloy wheels with 235/35 R19 tyres.
A full refill of an empty fuel tank is 50 L (13 US gal) and fuel consumption is 30.1/46.3 mpg and 38.7 mpg combined. Combined CO2 is 170g/km and the Civic Type R has achieved Euro 6 Emission Standard.
The Civic Type R is equipped with dual front airbags, front side airbags and front and rear side curtain airbags. For braking performance, it is fitted with front brake of 18 inch vented and drilled disk and rear brake of 16 inch solid disk. Anti-lock braking system, electronic brake-force distribution, hill start assist, and vehicle stability assist are standard across the variants.
The British got to witness its sale as of July 2015 with price tags of GBP 29,995 for the base Type R model and £32,295 for the Type R GT model. Although they both were priced differently, differences are limited to additional equipment and amenities. Key specifications related to power figures remain the same for both variants.
The 2016 Honda Civic Type R is sold in Hong Kong through the official dealer. Like the previous generation Japan market only Civic Type R FD2, import car dealers are also offering grey market Japanese FK2 imports. Due to strong demand, FK2s reserved through the official dealer has a car delivery wait time of 4 months.
As of 2016, one unit of Honda Civic Type R is seen at one of the showrooms located in Beribi, Brunei Darussalam. It is however not imported by official distributor of Honda (Happy Motoring Sdn Bhd) rather being imported by grey market. Price starts at B$92,000 (US$64,000).
The 2016 Honda Civic Type R is also officially sold in South Africa throughout dealerships in the country.
Malaysia local private car dealers also reselling the imported Type-R with unofficial price (RM299,999.00).
|Body and chassis|
|Body style||5-door hatchback|
|Engine||2.0 L K20C1 turbo I4|
The design is based on Civic hatchback, with a winged carbon fibre splitter with red accent line, slatted ducts, diamond-mesh air intakes, red 'H' badge above a new air vent at the nose of the car, new intake on the bonnet, an air scoop sited centrally in a trapezoidal recess, smoked lenses for the LED headlights and indicators and side repeaters, carbon fibre side skirts, 20-inch piano black alloy wheels with red accents, 245-section high-performance tyres, enlarged wheel arches, carbon fibre diffuser runs below the wider rear bumper, 3 tailpipes with a pair of directional strakes at each side, central tailpipe in bright metallic red, unique peaks at the roof flanks point backwards.
- "Honda Civic Type R (EP3) 212 hp - Specs & Performance". ZePerfs.
- "マイナーモデルチェンジ(2004.01.22)". Honda.co.jp. Retrieved 2010-11-02.
- "PistonHeads Headlines". Pistonheads.com. 2007-03-29. Retrieved 2010-11-02.
- "Meaden, Richard (September 2007), "Honda Civic Type R", evo:". Evo.co.uk. 2007-09-06. Retrieved 2010-11-02.
- “”. "Vicki Butler-Henderson". YouTube. Retrieved 2010-11-02.
- Andrei Costea (2010-11-01). "Honda Civic Type R Euro Launched in Japan". Autoevolution.
- "Sayonara, Sedan: Honda Putting Civic Type R Sedan Out to Pasture - Wide Open Throttle - Motor Trend Magazine". Wot.motortrend.com. 2010-04-19. Retrieved 2010-11-02.
- Nunez, Alex (2007-06-28). "Officially Official: Japan gets Honda Civic Mugen RR". Autoblog.com. Retrieved 2010-11-02.
- Lavrinc, Damon (2008-01-17). "2008 Tokyo Auto Salon: Mugen Type-RR Experimental Spec". Autoblog.com. Retrieved 2010-11-02.
- "Mugen Rolls Out Trio Of Hard-Tuned Hondas At Tokyo Auto Salon". Themotorreport.com.au. 2009-01-13. Retrieved 2010-11-02.
- Honda Civic Mugen RR Advanced Concept
- "Honda Civic Type R at Genewa Motor Show". Hargahondamobilio.com. 2015-01-30. Retrieved 2015-02-02.
- "Honda Civic Type R 'One Make Race' Versions". Blog.e-kereta.com. 2007-09-14. Retrieved 2010-11-02.
- Honda CIVIC MUGEN RC
- "埼玉工廠直擊 Honda Civic 【MUGEN無限RC】上". Icar.yam.com. Retrieved 2010-11-02.
- "Civic Type R Euro specifications". Honda Motor Company Japan.
- Britten, Tim (Jun 18, 2007). "Honda unleashes Australia's first Civic Type R". Go Auto (Australia).
- "Honda Civic Type R (2007) CAR review". CAR Magazine site.
- Zach Bowman (2010-04-22). "Honda to release new limited-edition Civic Type-R three-door in Japan". Autoblog. Retrieved 2010-08-22.
- "Ford Focus ST axed". Autocar. 2010-08-20. Retrieved 2010-08-22.
- Top Gear Magazine (URL last checked August 15, 2008); Top Gear Magazine Feb '08 Issue
- Top Gear Magazine (URL last checked August 15, 2008); Top Gear
- Tisshaw, Mark (Jul 18, 2012). "Civic Type R gets Honda go-ahead". Autocar.
- "2015 Honda Civic Type R concept revealed in Geneva". Motorauthority.
- Auto Express: Honda Civic Type R 2015: price, release date and specs
- "Honda Plans To Debut New Civic Type R and New NSX at Geneva". carspecwall.com. Retrieved 28 January 2015.
- "Honda CEO on the future: 'competitive' next-gen CR-V, Accord; Civic Type R coming to Japan this autumn". paultan.org. Retrieved 7 July 2015.
- New Civic Type R Prototype breaks cover in Paris
- Mother Of God: The Next Honda Civic Type R Looks Absolutely Insane
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Honda Civic Type R.|
- Honda Japan Civic Type-R Honda Motor Co. site (Japanese)
- Honda Japan Civic Type-R Euro Honda Motor Co. site (Japanese)