Honestiores and humiliores
Honestiores and humiliores are two categories of the population of Ancient Rome, roughly high and low casts. The division first appeared in the end of the 2-nd century A.D. The first category consisted of senators, equites, decuriones and some other social classes, the second of all other people. Honestiores had many privileges like they can not be tortured and can be killed by beheading and not damnatio ad bestias or crucifixion.
- A. H. M. Jones (1964). The Later Roman Empire, 284-602: A Social Economic and Administrative Survey. Taylor & Francis.
- Krause, Jens-Uwe (Munich). "Honestiores/Humiliores". Brill’s New Pauly.