Honestiores and humiliores
Honestiores and humiliores are two categories of the population of Ancient Rome, roughly high and low castes. The division first appeared in the end of the 2nd century A.D. The first category consisted of senators, equites, decuriones and some other social classes, the second of all other people. Honestiores had many privileges: they could not be tortured and would be killed by beheading and not damnatio ad bestias or crucifixion.
- A. H. M. Jones (1964). The Later Roman Empire, 284-602: A Social Economic and Administrative Survey. Taylor & Francis.
- Krause, Jens-Uwe (Munich). "Honestiores/Humiliores". Brill's New Pauly.