Hong Kong Polytechnic University

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The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
香港理工大學
PolyU.svg
Motto開物成務 勵學利民[1]
Motto in English
To learn and to apply, for the benefit of mankind[2]
TypePublic
Established1937; 86 years ago (1937), as Government Trade School
1947; 76 years ago (1947), as Hong Kong Technical College
24 March 1972; 50 years ago (1972-03-24), as Hong Kong Polytechnic
25 November 1994; 28 years ago (1994-11-25), granted university status[3]
ChairmanLam Tai-fai
ChancellorJohn Lee Ka-chiu (as Chief Executive of Hong Kong)
PresidentTeng Jin-guang
Vice-presidentMiranda Lou[4]
Kwok-yin Wong[4]
Ben Young[4]
Christopher Chao[4]
ProvostWing-tak Wong[4]
Academic staff
1,230[5]
Students26,245 (2019/2020)[5]
Location
11 Yuk Choi Road, Hung Hom
, ,
22°18′18″N 114°10′48″E / 22.30500°N 114.18000°E / 22.30500; 114.18000Coordinates: 22°18′18″N 114°10′48″E / 22.30500°N 114.18000°E / 22.30500; 114.18000
CampusUrban
9.46 hectares (0.0946 km2)[6]
Colours    Red and grey[7]
Websitepolyu.edu.hk
PolyU Logo with wordmark.svg
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese香港理工大学
Traditional Chinese香港理工大學
Cantonese YaleHēunggóng Léihgūng Daaihhohk

The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU)[note 1] is a public research university located in Hung Hom, Hong Kong near Hung Hom station. The University is one of the eight government-funded degree-granting tertiary institutions in Hong Kong. Founded in 1937 as the first Government Trade School, it is the first institution to provide technical education in Hong Kong. In 1994, the Legislative Council of Hong Kong passed a bill which granted the former Hong Kong Polytechnic official university status.[9]

PolyU consists of 8 faculties and schools, offering programmes covering applied science, business, construction, environment, engineering, social science, health, humanities, design, hotel and tourism management. The university offers over 160 taught programmes for more than 25,800 students every year.[10] It is the largest public tertiary institution in terms of number of students.

As of 2022-23, PolyU ranks globally 79th by THE,[11] 65th by QS,[12] 100th in US News and 151~200th in ARWU. PolyU is among the top 10 young universities in the world as ranked by THE and QS. PolyU was 6th in the world's most international universities 2023 by THE. [13]

History[edit]

In 1937, the Government Trade School was founded at Wood Road, Wan Chai. The school was the first publicly funded, post-secondary technical institution in Hong Kong.[14] Under George White, the then principal, it ran classes in marine wireless operating, mechanical engineering and building construction.[15] The campus was a three-storey high Victorian architecture, and commonly referred to the “Red Brick House” by the locals.[16] After World War II, the Government Trade School became the Hong Kong Technical College in 1947, offering both full-time and part-time courses. In 1957, the new campus of the college located in Hung Hom was constructed. It was opened by Sir Alexander Grantham, the then Governor of Hong Kong.[15]

In 1965, Sir Chung Sze-yuen (S.Y. Chung) suggested to establish a polytechnic in Hong Kong to provide post-secondary technical education. Dr Tang Ping-yuen was appointed by the government at the chair of the Polytechnic Planning Committee in May 1969.[17] On 24 March 1972, the Legislative Council passed the Hong Kong Polytechnic Ordinance and the institute was established. Sir Chung assumed the first chair of the Polytechnic Board of Directors (later renamed Polytechnic Council in 1978). The Polytechnic's mandate was to provide professional-oriented education to meet the need for qualified workers. The institution launched its first five degree programmes in 1983, and introduced its first MPhil and PhD programmes in 1986 and 1989 respectively.[15]

Present form[edit]

In 1994, the University gained approval from the University and Polytechnic Grants Committee (UPGC; now UGC) for self-accreditation of degree programmes, without the restrictions from the Post Secondary Colleges Ordinance .[18] With that, the Institution assumed full university status on 25 November 1994, changing its name to “The Hong Kong Polytechnic University”.[15]

Campuses[edit]

Main campus[edit]

Hung Hom campus, viewed from the west in July 2016

PolyU's main campus, in Hung Hom, Kowloon,[19] was designed by a team led by James Kinoshita from P&T Group in 1972.[20] It has over 20 buildings with red-brick walls, many of which are inter-connected and raised one floor above the podium, creating sheltered open-air spaces for multi-purposes such as logistics and parking.[21] Apart from buildings named after donors, the rotundas which connects the buildings are identified in English letters (from cores and blocks A to Z, without K, O and I). It is one of the largest and densest educational campus in the world.[22]

Block Z is the eighth phase of the campus expansion project. It is situated across the northwestern side of the main campus, separated by Chatham Road. It can be accessed through a pedestrian tunnel or a 80-meter-long footbridge, which was proposed in 2016 and built in 2019.[23]

In addition to classrooms, laboratories and other academic facilities, the university provides a multi-purpose auditorium, recreational and catering facilities, medical facilities, as well as a bookstore and banks. The Jockey Club Auditorium began operation in 2000, its balcony and main floor seating accommodate up to 1,084 persons. It is specially designed as a multi-purpose venue for the hosting of conferences, seminars, ceremonies, corporate meetings, as well as the increasing number of cultural activities and performances, operas, chamber music, dramas, dances, film shows, variety shows, mini concerts etc.[24]

There are multiple sports facilities, including two swimming pools (Block X and Michael Clinton Swimming Pool), 2 indoor sports grounds (Shaw Sports Complex and Kwong On Jubilee Sports Centre), an outdoor sports ground (Keith Legg Sports Field) with basketball and soccer fields and jogging track, 2 outdoor tennis courts, and a joint-sports centre.

Landscape of the main campus in Hung Hom in January 2016

Innovation Tower[edit]

Innovation Tower in August 2013

The Innovation Tower is located on the northwestern side of the university campus. This 15-story building provides 15,000 square meters of net floor area. It houses facilities for the School of Design, including exhibition areas, multi-functional classrooms and lecture theatres, design studios and workshops, as well as a communal lounge. The tower was designed by Zaha Hadid.

According to QS World University Rankings, PolyU school of design is ranked 20th globally in Art and Design [25]

Teaching and research hotel[edit]

The Hotel Icon was officially opened on 21 September 2011. The hotel is wholly owned by the university as a teaching and research hotel of the School of Hotel and Tourism Management.

Hung Hom Bay and West Kowloon Campus[edit]

Hung Hom Bay Campus and West Kowloon Campus are the two satellite campuses which host the College of Professional and Continuing Education. The College is formed by two subsidiaries, the Hong Kong Community College (HKCC) and School of Professional Education and Executive Development (SPEED).

Established in 2001 under the auspices of PolyU, HKCC is a self-financed post-secondary institution which offers associate degree and higher diploma programmes spanning the domains of arts, science, social sciences, business, health care and design for senior secondary school leavers. HKCC classes are conducted at the Hung Hom Bay and West Kowloon.[26]

Academics[edit]

Faculties and schools Founded
Faculty of Engineering
1937
Faculty of Construction and Environment
1937
Faculty of Science
2022
School of Design
1964
Faculty of Humanities
1974
Faculty of Health and Social Sciences
1977
School of Hotel and Tourism Management
1979
Faculty of Business
2002
College of Professional and Continuing Education
2002
Graduate School
2020
School of Fashion and Textiles
2022

As of 2020, the university had 915 sub-degree students, 14,961 undergraduate students and 10,369 postgraduate students. Higher diploma, Bachelor's degrees with honours and all postgraduate programmes, in a total of over 150 are offered through 8 faculties, and schools, including Faculty of Applied Science and Textiles, Faculty of Business, Faculty of Construction and Environment, Faculty of Engineering, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, Faculty of Humanities, School of Design and School of Hotel and Tourism Management.[27]

PolyU Graduate School, established in September 2020, oversees the administration of research postgraduate education of the university, though the academic supervision of students is still managed by the respective faculties, schools or department.[28]

The College of Professional and Continuing Education (CPEC), founded in 2002, is a subsidiary of the university. As of 2019, the college had 13,032 students. It is formed by Hong Kong Community College (HKCC) and School of Professional Education and Executive Development (SPEED), both of which offer self-financed degree programmes and sub-degrees programmes in the name of the college.[29]

Notable academics[edit]

As of 2020, PolyU employed 1,182 academic faculty members and 1,504 research staff, with additional staff at the CPEC. The faculty includes scholars such as Swedish systemic functional linguist C.M.I.M. Matthiessen, electrical and electronic engineer Philip Chan, mechanical engineer Timothy W. Tong. Some politicians in Hong Kong serve as faculty in PolyU, including current or former member of the Legislative Council Fernando Cheung, Lau Siu-lai, Helena Wong and Cheng Chung-tai.

Research[edit]

PolyU's research focus areas include: aerospace, aviation, big data and AI, food safety, health science, infrastructure monitoring, intelligent construction, sustainability and smart city. To facilitate the implementation of cross-disciplinary research through collaborations among faculties and schools and other local and overseas institutions and partners, PolyU established a wide variety of research laboratories, institutes and centres, for instance, the Aviation Services Research Centre with Boeing.[30][31]

The Hong Kong Research Institute of Textiles and Apparel established by PolyU in 2006 acts as a focal point to enhance technological innovation in textiles and apparel industry for the development of highly competitive industrial clusters in Hong Kong.[32]

Pao Yue-kong Library[edit]

Pao Yue-Kong Library in August 2013

The PolyU Library was established on 1 August 1972.[33] Two centres operated in Hung Hom and Quarry Bay until 1976, when they eventually merged into the present building. It was named after shipping entrepreneur and philanthropist Yue-Kong Pao in 1995.

In 2014, there were over 2.77 million of library holdings in total, with nearly 600,000 electronic resources. The six-storey library provides 3,900 study spaces and is equipped with a 24-hour study centre and audio-visual information areas. In 2017, the 3/F and 4/F of the library was transformed into the "i-space" which contains services such as VR Experience Zone, Internet of Things (IoT), Laser Cutting / Engraving, 3D Scanning, Book Scanning, Large Format Printing, Vinyl Cutting and 3D Printing. Video production facilities such as the One button studio and Digital Studio are also available on the 3/F.

Rankings and reputation[edit]

University rankings
Global – Overall
ARWU World[34]151-200 (2022)
QS World[35]65 (2023)
QS Under 50[36]6 (2021)
THE World[37]79 (2023)
THE Reputation[38]126-150 (2022)
THE Young Universities[39]5 (2022)
USNWR Global[40]100 (2023)
Regional – Overall
QS Asia[41]25 (2022)
THE Asia[42]15 (2022)
USNWR Asia[43]13 (2023)

Overall Rankings[edit]

PolyU ranked 65th worldwide in the QS World University Rankings 2023, 79th worldwide in the Times Higher Education (THE) World University Rankings 2023, 100th worldwide in the US News 2022-2023 Best Global Universities Rankings, and 151-200th worldwide in ARWU 2022.

The Aggregate Ranking of Top Universities (ARTU), which sorts universities based on their aggregate performance across THE, QS, and ARWU, ranked PolyU 94th worldwide in 2022. [44]

In the QS "Top 50 Under 50" list of world's top young universities (2021), PolyU ranked 6th in the world, 3rd in Hong Kong.[45] Times Higher Education's Young University Rankings 2022 ranked PolyU 5th in the world.[46]

PolyU is the 6th most international university in the world, according to a ranking published by THE in Jan 2023.

Rankings by Subjects / Areas[edit]

QS Subject Rankings[edit]

In the QS World University Rankings by Subject 2022: [47]

Ranker Year Subject PolyU's world rank [47]
QS 2022 Hospitality and Leisure Management 10
QS 2022 Engineering - Civil & Structural 15
QS 2022 Architecture / Built Environment 15
QS 2022 Art & Design 16
QS 2022 Environmental Sciences 46
QS 2022 Business and Management Studies 48
QS 2022 Linguistics 55
QS 2022 Accounting and Finance 57
QS 2022 Engineering - Mechanical, Aeronautical and Manufacturing 74
QS 2022 Engineering - Electrical and Electronic 76
QS 2022 Computer Science and Informative Systems 92
QS 2022 Geography 51-100
QS 2022 Nursing 51-100
QS 2022 Statistics and Operational Research 51-100
Ranker Year Broad Subject Area PolyU's world rank [47]
QS 2022 Social Sciences and Management 50
QS 2022 Engineering and Technology 69

THE Subject Rankings[edit]

In the Times Higher Education World University Rankings by Subjects (2023) [48] which ranked universities in 11 different subjects, PolyU's performance is shown below:

Ranker Year Subject PolyU's world rank [48]
THE 2023 Business and Economics 27
THE 2023 Engineering 40
THE 2023 Social Sciences 68
THE 2023 Arts & Humanities 73
THE 2023 Computer Science 79
THE 2023 Physical Sciences 101-125
THE 2023 Life Sciences 126-150
THE 2023 Clinical & Health 151-175

Other rankings[edit]

The Faculty of Business is ranked 1st in shipping research in the world, based on 2016 to 2018 data from Thomson Reuters' ISI Web of Science. 55th in the Top 100 World Rankings of Business Schools by University of Texas at Dallas, based on research contributions to 24 leading business journals from 2012 to 2016.[49]

The School of Design is among top 3 design schools in Greater China, according to Business Week (Oct 2009 issue) and top 25 design schools in the world and is the only selected design school in Asia, according to Business Insider magazine (Dec 2012 issue).

The School of Hotel and Tourism Management (SHTM) is ranked 1st in the subject of hospitality and tourism management by the ShanghaiRanking's Global Ranking of Academic Subjects 2020, 1st in the category of commerce, management, tourism and services, University Ranking by Academic Performance (URAP) 2019/20, [50] and 2nd in research and scholarly activities among institutions specializing in hospitality and tourism, according to the World Ranking of Top 100 Hospitality and Tourism Programs by Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research (Nov 2009 issue).[51]

Graduate employability rankings[edit]

PolyU graduates ranked 71st worldwide in the QS Graduate Employability Rankings 2022 [52][53] and 133rd worldwide in the Times Higher Education's Global University Employability Ranking 2022.

Governance[edit]

The governing body of the PolyU is the Council, established in accordance with the PolyU Ordinance. The President and the Deputy President are ex officio members. There are also 17 external members from the business and professional sectors, three elected staff members, one alumni member and two elected student members.[54]The highest advisory body of the Council is the University Court, which is responsible for providing opinions on the direction of the university to promote the development of the university.[55]

Presidents[edit]

List of presidents of PolyU and their predecessors (known as the director of the Hong Kong Polytechnic before 1994):

Cooperation[edit]

The PolyU has established cooperative relations with more than 280 universities or institutions in 39 countries and regions around the world, and signed about 445 agreements in the areas of student exchange arrangements to joint research cooperation.[56]

Student life[edit]

Student organization[edit]

Block VA, the building for the PolyU Students’ Union in March 2014.

The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Students’ Union (HKPUSU) is a student-run organization that is autonomous from the University administration for promoting the interests and welfare of full-time undergraduates (excluding postgraduate and College of Professional and Continuing Education students).

Sports teams[edit]

  • Athletics
  • Badminton
  • Basketball
  • Fencing
  • Handball
  • Karate-do
  • Rowing
  • Rugby
  • Soccer
  • Squash
  • Swimming
  • Table Tennis
  • Taekwondo
  • Tennis
  • Volleyball
  • Woodball

Student halls[edit]

Hung Hom Bay Student Halls of Residence, Jockey Club Wing in March 2013.

There are two student halls of residence buildings provided by the university, in Hung Hom Bay and Ho Man Tin. The residential halls include:

  • Hung Hom Bay – Research Postgraduate: Boyan Hall (19,20/F). Undergraduates: Kaiyuan Hall (17,18/F), Wuhua Hall (15,16/F), Chengde Hall (13,14/F), Wuxian Hall (11,12/F), Lizhi Hall (9,10/F), Lisheng Hall (5,6/F), Minyin Hall (3,4/F). Female residents: Xuemin Hall (7,8/F).
  • Ho Man Tin – Co-ed halls for both all students: 3-7/F (Purple), 5-9/F (Blue), 10-14/F (Green), 12-16/F (Yellow), 17-21/F (Orange), 19-23/F (Red), 24-25/F is warden's floor.

The university also provides three off-campus housing sites, located in Sham Shui Po, Mong Kok, and Tsim Sha Tsui. It offers around 250 residential places at urban areas, as an accommodation option for non-local students.

Incidents[edit]

Democracy wall controversy[edit]

The university's faculty-led Student Discipline Committee, with the support of the university council chairman Lam Tai-fai,[57] expelled one student and suspended another for one year in response to an October 2018 incident arising from a dispute over postings by students on the "Democracy Wall" bulletin board then managed by the students' union. The students had posted messages in commemoration of the fourth anniversary of the "Umbrella Movement" democracy occupation protests of 2014 and calling for Hong Kong independence from the CCP-ruled People's Republic of China. Another two students were ordered to serve terms of community service. The students had been ordered by management to take them down.[58]

The evidence called at the disciplinary committee hearing, at which the students were denied legal representation, included video footage in which the students were observed shouting and knocking on doors. It was alleged that they had made defamatory comments, assaulted a staff member and damaged property, all of which accusations were denied by the students. The university described their behaviour as "unruly". Among them were a former student union leader, an elected member of the school's governing council and a former external vice-president of the student union. No avenue for appeal from a decision of the committee is available.[59]

Numerous pro-democracy groups, including more than a dozen legislators and 19 student organisations, protested the decision of the committee. The 90,000-strong Hong Kong Professional Teachers' Union described the punishments as excessive.[60]

2019 campus siege[edit]

In November 2019, the university was occupied by protesters as part of the 2019–20 Hong Kong protests; confrontation with the Hong Kong Police Force occurred from 17 November to 19 November. On 16 November, police attempted to enter the campus, but failed as protestors barricaded the entrance and used petrol bombs to attack them.[61][62][63][64] The police then blocked all exits of the university campus and requested all protesters inside to surrender. On 18 November, the police attempted to enter the campus again using tear gas, rubber bullets, bean bags, and sponge grenades.[65] Protestors responded by throwing petrol bombs at police.[66] The university has been described as being a battleground during the conflict.[67] The university was later sealed off by police, only several protesters managed to escape.[68] This resulted in a 3-days long standoff. More than 280 protesters were injured while more than 1,000 persons were arrested.[69]

Notable alumni[edit]

Notable alumni of PolyU included former Chief Executive of Hong Kong Leung Chun-ying, former Hong Kong Legislator Lam Tai-fai and Chan Kam-lam, explorer Rebecca Lee, film director Wong Kar-wai and Raman Hui, musician Paul Wong, singer Gigi Leung, fashion designer Vivienne Tam and software engineer Lui Kim-man.

Gallery[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The university itself only spells its short form as "PolyU"; other spellings such as HKPU are unrecognised by the university.[8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "校訓、願景及使命 (Chinese)". The Hong Kong Polytechnic University. Retrieved 17 July 2014.
  2. ^ "Motto, Vision and Mission (Chinese)". www.polyu.edu.hk. Retrieved 17 July 2014.
  3. ^ "Four stages of development". www.polyu.edu.hk. Retrieved 29 November 2019.
  4. ^ a b c d e "Leadership". www.polyu.edu.hk. Retrieved 9 October 2021.
  5. ^ a b "Facts and Figures". www.polyu.edu.hk. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
  6. ^ "About the Campus – The Hong Kong Polytechnc University". Retrieved 2 April 2013.
  7. ^ "The Hong Kong Polytechnic University – Identity Guidelines". www2.polyu.edu.hk. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
  8. ^ "Brand Communication Guidelines". Communications and Public Affairs Office. The Hong Kong Polytechnic University. Retrieved 31 January 2021.
  9. ^ "Cap. 1075 The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Ordinance". Hong Kong e-Legislation. Hong Kong Department of Justice. Retrieved 8 February 2021.
  10. ^ "Facts and figures PolyU". www.polyu.edu.hk. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
  11. ^ "The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (THE)". Times Higher Education (THE). 1 August 2022. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  12. ^ "The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (QS)". www.topuniversities.com. 2022. Retrieved 1 August 2022.
  13. ^ "Most international universities in the world 2023". Student. 25 January 2023. Retrieved 25 January 2023.
  14. ^ Waters, Deric Daniel (2000). "A brief history of technical education in Hong Kong 1863 to 1980 : a paper presented on the occasion of the 30th Anniversary: 12 October 2000". A brief history of technical education in Hong Kong. Hong Kong. pp. 1–16.
  15. ^ a b c d "Four stages of development". www.polyu.edu.hk. Retrieved 8 February 2021.
  16. ^ Leung, Yung; Tse, Wai Chi Vivian (May 2018). "An Exploration of the History of Vocational Education in Hong Kong". US-China Education Review B. 8 (5): 213–220. Retrieved 8 February 2021.
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  19. ^ "Yau Tsim Mong District" (PDF). Electoral Affairs Commission. Retrieved 30 August 2019.
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  22. ^ Group, P&T. "Hong Kong Polytechnic University - P&T Group". web.p-t-group.com. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
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  28. ^ "Vision and Mission". PolyU Graduate School. Retrieved 22 January 2021.
  29. ^ "Student Enrolment Numbers - Key Figures - About CPCE - College of Professional and Continuing Education". College of Professional and Continuing Education. The Hong Kong Polytechnic University. Archived from the original on 18 January 2021. Retrieved 22 January 2021.
  30. ^ "About". The Aviation Services Research Centre. Retrieved 9 December 2014.
  31. ^ "Research Labs, Institutes and Centres | Research | PolyU". www.polyu.edu.hk. Retrieved 6 September 2022.
  32. ^ "HKRITA". www.hkrita.com. Retrieved 18 January 2022.
  33. ^ "History". Lib.polyu.edu.hk: The University Learning Hub. Retrieved 9 December 2014.
  34. ^ "2022 Academic Ranking of World Universities". www.shanghairanking.com. Retrieved 12 October 2022.
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  36. ^ "QS Top 50 Under 50 2021". www.topuniversities.com. 12 December 2022. Retrieved 12 December 2022.
  37. ^ "World University Rankings 2023". 12 October 2022. Retrieved 12 October 2022.
  38. ^ "World Reputation Rankings". Times Higher Education (THE). 6 October 2022.
  39. ^ "Young University Rankings". Times Higher Education (THE). 8 February 2022.
  40. ^ "Hong Kong Polytechnic University". US News Best Global Universities. U.S. News & World Report L.P. Retrieved 23 January 2021.
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  42. ^ "Asia University Rankings". 1 June 2022. Retrieved 1 June 2022.
  43. ^ "2022 Best Global Universities in Asia". U.S. News & World Report L.P. Retrieved 17 January 2022.
  44. ^ "Full Rankings | Rankings". research.unsw.edu.au. Retrieved 24 January 2023.
  45. ^ "QS Top 50 Under 50 2021". www.topuniversities.com. Retrieved 6 September 2022.
  46. ^ "The Times Higher Education Young University Rankings 2022". 15 February 2022.
  47. ^ a b c "About PolyU - University Ranking". Retrieved 16 October 2022.
  48. ^ a b "World University Rankings by subject". Times Higher Education (THE). Retrieved 11 December 2022.
  49. ^ "The UTD Top 100 Worldwide Business School Rankings Based on Research Contributions (All Journals)". Retrieved 6 September 2022.
  50. ^ "QS World University Rankings by Subject 2020 - Hospitality & Leisure Management". www.topuniversities.com. Retrieved 29 July 2020.
  51. ^ "A World Ranking of the Top 100 Hospitality and Tourism Programs" (PDF). Retrieved 10 June 2015.
  52. ^ "QS Graduate Employability Rankings 2022". Top Universities. Retrieved 15 October 2022.
  53. ^ "Best universities for graduate jobs: Global University Employability Ranking 2021". Student. 24 November 2021. Retrieved 15 October 2022.
  54. ^ "The Council". www.polyu.edu.hk. Retrieved 7 November 2021.
  55. ^ "The University Court". www.polyu.edu.hk. Retrieved 7 November 2021.
  56. ^ "Partners List – Global Engagement Office". www.polyu.edu.hk. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
  57. ^ "PolyU chair backs action on students in Democracy Wall protest". EJ Insight. Hong Kong Economic Journal. 4 March 2019. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  58. ^ "Hong Kong Student Is Expelled Over 'Democracy Wall' Protest". Bloomberg. 2 March 2019. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  59. ^ Chan, Holmes (4 March 2019). "Hong Kong Polytechnic University sees backlash after student expelled over 'free speech' protest". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  60. ^ Leung, Mimi (4 March 2019). "Anger at punishment for students' pro-independence posts". University World News. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  61. ^ Wong, Edward; Ives, Mike; Mays, Tiffany; Li, Katherine (17 November 2019). "Hong Kong Violence Escalates as Police and Protesters Clash at University". The New York Times. Retrieved 18 November 2019.
  62. ^ Moritsugu, Ken (18 November 2019). "Hong Kong police battle protesters trying to escape arrest". AP News. Retrieved 18 November 2019.
  63. ^ Pang, Jessie; Pomfret, James (17 November 2019). "Choking and crying, Hong Kong protesters pinned back on campus". Reuters. Retrieved 18 November 2019.
  64. ^ "Hong Kong riot police carry out dawn raid on university after battle with protesters". TheGuardian.com. 17 November 2019.
  65. ^ "Hong Kong Polytechnic University: Protesters still inside as standoff continues". BBC News. 19 November 2019. Archived from the original on 20 November 2019. Retrieved 20 November 2019.
  66. ^ Prescott, Katie (15 November 2019). "Hong Kong: 'I was tear gassed getting my lunch'". BBC News. Archived from the original on 16 November 2019. Retrieved 20 November 2019.
  67. ^ "Hong Kong Polytechnic University: Protesters arrested as they run from campus". BBC. 18 November 2019. Retrieved 18 November 2019. ...In the past week, Polytechnic University has turned into a "battleground" as the long-running Hong Kong protests become more violent...'
  68. ^ "At embattled Hong Kong university, a dramatic escape". Reuters. 18 November 2019. Retrieved 18 November 2019.
  69. ^ "Hong Kong protests: 1,100 people arrested in a day, 3,900 petrol bombs found at university". Channel News Asia. 19 November 2019. Archived from the original on 20 November 2019. Retrieved 22 November 2019.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]