Hong Kong Science and Technology Parks Corporation

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Hong Kong Science and Technology Parks Corporation
Native name
香港科技園公司
Statutory Body
IndustryScience and Technology
FoundedMay 2001
Headquarters5/F, Building 5E, 5 Science Park East Avenue, Hong Kong Science Park (with effect from 21 January 2019),
Hong Kong
Key people
Sunny Chai Ngai Chiu (Chairperson)
WebsiteOfficial website
Hong Kong Science and Technology Parks Corporation
Traditional Chinese香港科技園公司
Simplified Chinese香港科技园公司

The Hong Kong Science and Technology Parks Corporation (HKSTP) is a public corporation set up by the Hong Kong Government in 2001 to foster the development of innovation and technology in Hong Kong.

Roles and Responsibilities[edit]

HKSTP is committed to fostering the growth of the innovation and technology sector in Hong Kong.[1] It has a vision to develop Hong Kong to become the regional centre which generates both social and economic gain.[1][2] It has a mission to be the facilitator of knowledge exchange, connection between stakeholders and breeding of talents.[2]

HKSTP manages facilities and provides value-added services for the technology, research and development sector in Hong Kong.[3] These facilities include Hong Kong Science Park (for technology companies), InnoCentre (for design enterprises), and three industrial estates at Tai Po, Yuen Long and Tseung Kwan O (for a range of skill-intensive business sectors).[3] According to the Government, Hong Kong Science Park is the ‘flagship technology infrastructure’ in Hong Kong.[4] Considerable R&D office space (330,000 square metres) and job opportunities (15,000) are provided.[4]

Source of Powers[edit]

Hong Kong Science and Technology Parks Corporation Ordinance (Cap. 565) takes effect at the establishment of Hong Kong Science and Technology Parks Corporation (in Chinese 香港科技園公司). The Ordinance states the functions, purposes, rights and obligations of HKSTP.[5] As HKSTP is the merger of the Hong Kong Industrial Estates Corporation, the Hong Kong Industrial Technology Centre Corporation and the Provisional Hong Kong Science Park Company Limited, it has inherited the rights, obligations, assets and liabilities of the above organisations.[5]

Section 8 of the Ordinance confers power on HKSTP to serve its purposes by means which are ‘expedient’, ‘conducive’, ‘reasonably incidental’ and consequential’.[5] Under section 8, some examples of the power vested are acquisition of property, entering into contract and carrying out works for founding, enhancement or development of its premises.[5]

Internal Structure[edit]

The Board is responsible for formulating overall strategic directions and policies of the Corporation and overseeing management of the business.

The Board consists of 17 Non-Executive Directors. Among the 17 Directors, there are 16 Board Members and 1 chairperson who is currently Sunny Chai Ngai Chiu.[6] The Chairperson is appointed by the Chief Executive of HKSAR and the Board members are appointed by the Financial Secretary[6] All Board Members do not receive honorarium for their work.[6] When a term of service ends, the Board Members may be reappointed.[6]

The Board performs its role by devising the key strategic plan, monitoring the execution of such plan, approves the ‘annual budget’, ‘corporate key performance indicators’, ‘10-year financial projection’ and major development plans.[7] In particular, the Board safeguards HKSTP from potential risks by making sure effective controls are in practice.[7]

The Board supervises five standing Committees, namely Business Development and Admission Committee, Finance and Administration Committee, Projects and Facilities Committee, Audit Committee, as well as Senior Staff Administration Committee.[7] Investment Committee and two subsidiary companies namely were set up in 2015.[8]

Investment Committee and two subsidiary companies, namely STP Corporate Venture Limited and STP Asset Holding Limited were set up in 2015.[8] The two subsidiary companies are the investment holding companies of the Corporate Venture Fund.[8] They are responsible for the administering of the Fund and reporting to the Finance and Administrative Committee regularly.[8] The Investment Committee supervises the work of Corporate Venture Fund and approves its investment and divestment decisions.[8]

Finance[edit]

The Hong Kong Government is the sole shareholder of HKSTP.[9] The Financial Secretary may inject equity into the authorized capital of HKSTP by publishing in the Gazette.[10] At the same time, HKSTP may issue its share to the Government.[11]

HKSTP says it will operate according to "prudent commercial principles".[12] There plan is for the Hong Kong Government to not need to continually fund the HKSTP.[13]

HKSTP plans to send annual financial reports to the Secretary.[14] The Secretary in turn sends a copy of the financial report to the Legislative Council (LegCo).[15]

In March 2018, Paul Chan Mo-po announced HK$40 billion funding for the science park, including HK$20 billion for building in the Lok Ma Chau Loop the first phase of the Hong Kong-Shenzhen Innovation and Technology Park, owned by HKSTP; and HK$10 billion allocated to the park for supporting its tenants and building infrastructure and facilities.[16]

In October 2018, HKSTP announced the launch of first phase of roll-outs utilising the HK$10 billion funding support provided by the HKSAR Government. The measures focus on achieving a few key objectives: nurturing start-ups of different stages to achieve their next level of growth; enhancing the Park’s current suite of value-added services to attract talent and funding; building a strong and robust portfolio of I&T companies, thereby creating new opportunities for business and employment and eventually strengthening the whole I&T ecosystem in Hong Kong.[17]

Financial Position of HKSTP on 31 March 2018[18][edit]

Items Amount (HK$)
Surplus and total comprehensive income for the year $148.958 m
Net Current Asset $9.786 b
Total Equity $15.463 b

Major Government Financial Support to HKSTP (in chronological order)[edit]

LegCo refers to Financial Committee of Legislative Council. FS refers to the Financial Secretary.

Items Amount (HK$) Types of Financial Support Date (Approved by LegCo/ FS)
Construction of Phase 1, Science Park $1,982.7 m[19][20] Public Works Programme 21 Jan 2000

(LegCo)

$1,712.7 m[21][22] 25 May 2001

(LegCo)

Construction of Phase 2, Science Park[23] $2,435 m

(62% of the total cost)

Equity Injection,

Capital Investment Fund  

6 July 2001

(LegCo)

$1,043 m

(27% of the total cost)

Loan,

Capital Investment Fund

To Accommodate the Equity injection in 2001[24] $2,401 m An Increase in the

Authorized Capital

14 Jan 2005

(FS)

Development of the Science Park Phase 3[25] $1,463 m

(30% of the total cost)

Equity Injection,

Capital Investment Fund  

23 Apr 2010

(LegCo)

$1,220 m

(25% of the total cost)

Loan,

Capital Investment Fund

$1,707 m

(35% of the total cost)

A Guarantee for Commercial Loan, Capital Investment Fund  
To Accommodate the Equity Injection in 2010[24] $1,563 m An Increase in the

Authorized Capital

28 Jan 2011

(FS)

Construction of Stage 1, Science Park Expansion Programme[26] $2,878 m[27]

(65% of the total cost)

Equity Injection,

Capital Investment Fund

27 May 2016

(LegCo)

$1,107 m

(25% of the total cost)

A Guarantee for Commercial Loan, Capital Investment Fund
Development of an Advanced Manufacturing Centre and a Data Technology Hub in Tseung Kwan O Industrial Estate[28] $6,598 m

(65% of the total cost)

Equity Injection,

Capital Investment Fund

27 May 2016

(LegCo)

$ 1,650 m

(25% of the total cost)

Commercial Loan, Capital Investment Fund  
To Accommodate the Equity Injection

made in 2016[29]

$9,476 m An increase in the Authorized Capital 21 Oct 2016

(FS)

Projects[edit]

Current Projects[edit]

HKSTP currently manages and operates the following:

  • Hong Kong Science Park
  • Three Industrial Estates (including Tai Po, Tseung Kwan O and Yuen Long Industrial Estate)
  • InnoCentre[30]

HKSTP has also held a number of incubation programmes. Corporate Venture Fund is announced by the Financial Secretary in 2015-16 Budget Speech.[31] Other Incubation programmes include:

Future Planning[edit]

In 2014, Hong Kong Government and HKSTP conducted a review on the usage and past development of the Science Park and Industrial Estates.[32] HKSTP is implementing the suggestions given in the review by the Science Park Expansion Project and revised Industrial Estates Policy. Finance Committee of the Legislative Council have approved the funding proposal of stage 1 of the Expansion Project and the two pilot projects at Tseung Kwan O Industrial Estate on 27 May 2016.[33] The Government has retained a piece of land of 56-hectare near Liantang/ Heung Yuen Wai Boundary Control Point for setting up a new Industrial Estate and the preliminary planning study is scheduled to finish by Quarter 4 of the year 2017-18.[34]

In 2017 Policy Address, the Government expressed support in building an InnoCell next to the Science Park.[35][36] InnoCell is residential units with innovative design and supporting facilities.[37][38] Staff of the incubatees and other tenants at the Science Park will be eligible to rent them at an affordable rate.[39][40]

In January 2017, the Hong Kong and Shenzhen Government signed a memorandum to co-develop ‘Hong Kong-Shenzhen Innovation and Technology Park’ at the Lok Ma Chau Loop.[41] In the near future, HKSTP will set up a subsidiary company which is responsible for the 'construction, operation, maintenance and management' of the new technology park.[42]

Comments[edit]

HKSTP has faced criticism that the development of Hong Kong Science Park is a white elephant.[43] Legislative councillor Lam Tai-fai stated that the cost of the first stage and second stage of construction of the Park were 2.9 billion and 3.8 billion respectively, but the third stage was 4.8 billion.[43] He cast doubt over the soaring construction cost of the Park.[43] Another councillor Regina Ip argued that HKSTP had prioritised the outlook of the infrastructure over the construction cost which leads to high rental rate and management fee.[43] She raised the icon building, “Gold Egg” as an example.[43] In response to such comments, Rita Lau, the Secretary for Commerce and Economic Development emphasized that they did not consider the outlook as a top priority and a considerable portion of construction cost was spent on high-tech laboratories and sterile rooms which are necessary for the purposes of the Park.[43]

In an article in Apple Daily, a representative of the tenants at the Science Park reflected that a lot of tenants were moving out due to the soaring and unaffordable rental rate.[44]

Fanny Law, the previous chairperson of the Board of HKSTP, responded to the ‘white elephant’ claim and affirmed the value of HKSTP by sharing the viewpoint of Tien Chan-Lin.[45] Tien Chan-Lin is a former University of California Berkeley chancellor who pushed forward the establishment of Hong Kong Science Park in late 1990s.[45] He once raised that the Government should be responsible for the availability of comprehensive and continuous support to the research and development sector at different levels.[45] However, Law acknowledged that HKSTP had not reached its full potential in both providing supports the industry at all levels and gaining support from all relevant stakeholders in the community, industry and academia. She observed that these two key elements were absent in the past 14 years, hence the HKSTP did not perform up to what the public has anticipated.[45]

For the Lok Ma Chau Loop development plan, Legislative councilor Charles Peter Mok argued that it may not benefit local companies due to the remote location of Lok Ma Chau Loop.[46]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b HKSTP Official Website. The Corporation. Retrieved 21 November 2017 from https://www.hkstp.org/en/about-hkstp/the-corporation/about-hkstp/
  2. ^ a b HKSTP Official Website. Mission, Vision and Core Values. Retrieved 21 November 2017 from (https://www.hkstp.org/zh-hk/about-hkstp/the-corporation/mission-vision-core-values/)
  3. ^ a b GovHK Website. Hong Kong Science & Technology Parks Corporation (HKSTPC). Retrieved 21 November 2017 from https://www.gov.hk/en/business/supportenterprises/innovation/index.htm
  4. ^ a b Report of the Advisory Committee on Innovation and Technology, p15. March 2017. Advisory Committee on Innovation and Technology. Retrieved 19 November 2017 from http://www.itc.gov.hk/en/doc/ACIT_Report_Eng.pdf
  5. ^ a b c d Hong Kong Science and Technology Parks Corporation Ordinance, §§ Cap. 565 (2001).
  6. ^ a b c d Hong Kong Science and Technology Parks Corporation. (2018, September 12). Hong Kong Science and Technology Parks Corporation 2017-2018 Annual Report. Retrieved from https://www.hkstp.org/media/4405/e_hkstp-ar18.pdf
  7. ^ a b c Hong Kong Science and Technology Parks Corporation, p33. (2017). HKSTP Annual Report 2016/2017. Retrieved November 19, 2017, from https://www.hkstp.org/media/2625/hkstpc-annual-report-2016-17-eng_wca.pdf.
  8. ^ a b c d e [Hong Kong Science and Technology Parks Corporation, p5. (2016). HKSTP Corporate Governance Report 2015/2016. Retrieved November 29, 2017, from https://www.hkstp.org/media/1861/201516_corporate_governance_report_eng.pdf].
  9. ^ Hong Kong Science and Technology Parks Corporation Ordinance, §§ Cap. 565-17-17 (2001).
  10. ^ Hong Kong Science and Technology Parks Corporation Ordinance, §§ Cap. 565-17(2)-17(2) (2001).
  11. ^ Hong Kong Science and Technology Parks Corporation Ordinance, §§ Cap. 565-17(5)- 17(5) (2001).
  12. ^ Hong Kong Science and Technology Parks Corporation Ordinance, §§ Cap. 565-7-7 (2001).
  13. ^ Innovation and Technology Commission, Commerce and Economic Development Bureau. (2010, April 23). Item for Finance Committee: CAPITAL INVESTMENT FUND HEAD 962 - INDUSTRY; New Subhead "Equity in the Hong Kong Science and Technology Parks Corporation"; New Subhead "Load to the Hong Kong Science and Technology Parks Corporation". Retrieved from http://www.legco.gov.hk/yr09-10/english/fc/fc/papers/f10-03e.pdfFCR(2010-11)3
  14. ^ Hong Kong Science and Technology Parks Corporation Ordinance, §§ Cap. 565-22(1)-23(6) (2001).
  15. ^ Hong Kong Science and Technology Parks Corporation Ordinance, §§ Cap. 565-24-24 (2001).
  16. ^ "All eyes on Science Park after massive HK$40 billion budget handout". South China Morning Post. 2 March 2018. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  17. ^ Hong Kong Science and Technology Parks Corporation. (2018, October 26). HKSTP Accelerates the Growth of Hong Kong’s Technology Start-ups and Innovation & Technology Sector with the HKSAR Government’s $10 billion Injection. Retrieved December 31, 2018, from https://www.hkstp.org/en/about-us/press-room/hkstp-accelerates-the-growth-of-hong-kong-s-technology-start-ups-and-innovation-technology-sector-with-the-hksar-government-s-10-billion-injection/
  18. ^ Hong Kong Science and Technology Parks Corporation. (2018, September 12). Hong Kong Science and Technology Parks Corporation 2017-2018 Report of the Directors and Financial Statements. Retrieved from https://www.hkstp.org/media/4405/e_hkstp-ar18.pdf
  19. ^ Public Works Subcommittee, Legislative Council. (2000, January 21). Item for Finance Committee: Recommendations of the Public Works Subcommittee on Public Works Programme and Capital Subvention Projects. Retrieved from http://www.legco.gov.hk/yr99-00/english/fc/fc/papers/f99-60e.pdf FCR(1999-2000)60
  20. ^ Trade and Industry Bureau . (1999, December 15). Item for Public Works Subcommittee of Finance Committee: HEAD 703 - BUILDINGS; Support - Others; 3GA - Science Park at Pak Shek Kok - phase 1. Retrieved from http://www.legco.gov.hk/yr99-00/english/fc/pwsc/papers/p99-77e.pdf PWSC(1999-2000)77
  21. ^ Public Works Subcommittee, Legislative Council. (2001, May 25). Item for Finance Committee: Recommendations of the Public Works Subcommittee on Public Works Programme and Capital Subvention Projects. Retrieved from http://www.legco.gov.hk/yr00-01/english/fc/fc/papers/f01-05e.pdf FCR(2001-02)5
  22. ^ Commerce and Industry Bureau. (2001, April 25). Item for Public Works Subcommittee of Finance Committee: HEAD 703 - BUILDINGS; Support - Commerce and Industry; 3GA - Science Park at Pak Shek Kok - phase 1c. Retrieved from http://www.legco.gov.hk/yr00-01/english/fc/pwsc/papers/p01-18e.pdf PWSC(2001-02)18
  23. ^ Commerce and Industry Bureau. (2001, July 6). Item for Finance Committee: CAPITAL INVESTMENT FUND; HEAD 962 - INDUSTRY; New Subhead "Equity in the Hong Kong Science and Technology Parks Corporation"; New Subhead "Loan to the Hong Kong Science and Technology Parks Corporations". Retrieved from http://www.legco.gov.hk/yr00-01/english/fc/fc/papers/f01-28e.pdf FCR(2001-02)28
  24. ^ a b The 2012-13 Budget. (2012, February 1). Capital Investment Fund: Memorandum (Hong Kong Special Administrative Region). Retrieved from https://www.budget.gov.hk/2012/eng/pdf/cif.pdf
  25. ^ Innovation and Technology Commission, Commerce and Economic Development Bureau. (2010, April 23). Item for Finance Committee: CAPITAL INVESTMENT FUND HEAD 962 - INDUSTRY; New Subhead "Equity in the Hong Kong Science and Technology Parks Corporation"; New Subhead "Load to the Hong Kong Science and Technology Parks Corporation". Retrieved from http://www.legco.gov.hk/yr09-10/english/fc/fc/papers/f10-03e.pdf FCR(2010-11)3
  26. ^ Innovation and Technology Commission, Innovation and Technology Bureau. (2016, May 27). Item for Finance Committee: CAPITAL INVESTMENT FUND HEAD 962 – INDUSTRY; New Subhead “Equity in the Hong Kong Science and Technology Parks Corporation for Stage 1 of the Science Park Expansion Programme” and “Loan to the Hong Kong Science and Technology Corporation for Stage 1 of the Science Park Expansion Programme”. Retrieved from www.legco.gov.hk/yr15-16/english/fc/fc/papers/f16-30e.pdf FCR(2016-17)30
  27. ^ Innovation and Technology Commission, Innovation and Technology Bureau. (2015, December 15). Legislative Council Panel on Commerce and Industry: Further Development of Hong Kong Science Park. Retrieved from http://www.legco.gov.hk/yr15-16/english/panels/ci/papers/ci20151215cb1-279-5-e.pdf LC Paper No. CB(1)279/15-16)05
  28. ^ Development of an Advanced Manufacturing Centre and a Data Technology Hub in Tseung Kwan O
  29. ^ The 2016-17 Budget. (2012, February 24). Capital Investment Fund: Memorandum (Hong Kong Special Administrative Region). Retrieved from https://www.budget.gov.hk/2017/eng/pdf/cif.pdf
  30. ^ Hong Kong Science and Technology Parks Corporation. (2017). About HKSTP. Retrieved November 05, 2017, from https://www.hkstp.org/zh-hk/about-hkstp/the-corporation/about-hkstp/
  31. ^ Innovation and Technology Commission, Innovation and Technology Bureau. (2015, December 15). Legislative Council Panel on Commerce and Industry: Further Development of Hong Kong Science Park. Retrieved from http://www.legco.gov.hk/yr15-16/english/panels/ci/papers/ci20151215cb1-279-5-e.pdf LC Paper No. CB(1)279/15-16)05
  32. ^ Innovation and Technology Commission, Innovation and Technology Bureau. (2016, May 27). Item for Finance Committee: CAPITAL INVESTMENT FUND HEAD 962 – INDUSTRY; New Subhead “Equity in the Hong Kong Science and Technology Parks Corporation for Stage 1 of the Science Park Expansion Programme” and “Loan to the Hong Kong Science and Technology Corporation for Stage 1 of the Science Park Expansion Programme”. Retrieved from www.legco.gov.hk/yr15-16/english/fc/fc/papers/f16-30e.pdf FCR(2016-17)30
  33. ^ Innovation and Technology Commission, Innovation and Technology Bureau. (2016, May 27). Item for Finance Committee: CAPITAL INVESTMENT FUND HEAD 962 – INDUSTRY; New subhead “Equity in the Hong Kong Science and technology Parks Corporation for an Advanced Manufacturing Centre and a Data Technology Hub”. Retrieved from www.legco.gov.hk/yr15-16/english/fc/fc/papers/f16-30e.pdf FCR(2016-17)31
  34. ^ Innovation and Technology Commission, Innovation and Technology Bureau. (2017, October 17). Legislative Council Panel on Commerce and Industry: The Chief Executive’s 2017 Policy Address Policy Initiatives of Innovation and Technology Bureau . Retrieved from http://www.legco.gov.hk/yr17-18/english/panels/ci/papers/ci20171017cb1-32-3-e.pdf LC Paper No. CB(1)32/17-18(03)
  35. ^ Innovation and Technology Commission, Innovation and Technology Bureau. (2017, July 18). Legislative Council Panel on Commerce and Industry: Development of the InnoCell adjacent to Hong Kong Science Park. Retrieved from http://www.legco.gov.hk/yr16-17/english/panels/ci/papers/ci20170718cb1-1293-3-e.pdf LC Paper No. CB(1)1293/16-17(03)
  36. ^ Innovation and Technology Commission, Innovation and Technology Bureau. (2017, November 21). Legislative Council Panel on Commerce and Industry: Development of the InnoCell adjacent to Hong Kong Science Park. Retrieved from https://www.legco.gov.hk/yr17-18/english/panels/ci/papers/ci20171121cb1-212-3-e.pdf LC Paper No. CB(1)212/17-18(03)
  37. ^ Innovation and Technology Commission, Innovation and Technology Bureau. (2017, July 18). Legislative Council Panel on Commerce and Industry: Development of the InnoCell adjacent to Hong Kong Science Park. Retrieved from http://www.legco.gov.hk/yr16-17/english/panels/ci/papers/ci20170718cb1-1293-3-e.pdf LC Paper No. CB(1)1293/16-17(03)
  38. ^ Innovation and Technology Commission, Innovation and Technology Bureau. (2017, November 21). Legislative Council Panel on Commerce and Industry: Development of the InnoCell adjacent to Hong Kong Science Park. Retrieved from https://www.legco.gov.hk/yr17-18/english/panels/ci/papers/ci20171121cb1-212-3-e.pdf LC Paper No. CB(1)212/17-18(03)
  39. ^ Innovation and Technology Commission, Innovation and Technology Bureau. (2017, July 18). Legislative Council Panel on Commerce and Industry: Development of the InnoCell adjacent to Hong Kong Science Park. Retrieved from http://www.legco.gov.hk/yr16-17/english/panels/ci/papers/ci20170718cb1-1293-3-e.pdf LC Paper No. CB(1)1293/16-17(03)
  40. ^ Innovation and Technology Commission, Innovation and Technology Bureau. (2017, November 21). Legislative Council Panel on Commerce and Industry: Development of the InnoCell adjacent to Hong Kong Science Park. Retrieved from https://www.legco.gov.hk/yr17-18/english/panels/ci/papers/ci20171121cb1-212-3-e.pdf LC Paper No. CB(1)212/17-18(03)
  41. ^ Innovation and Technology Bureau, Development Bureau, Education Bureau, Commerce and Economic Development Bureau and Security Bureau. (2017, March 6). Legislative Panel on Commerce and Industry and Panel on Information Technology and Broadcasting: Hong Kong-Shenzhen Innovation and Technology Park in the Lok Ma Chau Loop. Retrieved from http://www.legco.gov.hk/yr16-17/english/panels/ci/papers/cidevitb20170306cb1-624-1-e.pdf LC Paper No. CB(1)624/16-17(01)
  42. ^ Innovation and Technology Bureau, Development Bureau, Education Bureau, Commerce and Economic Development Bureau and Security Bureau. (2017, March 6). Legislative Panel on Commerce and Industry and Panel on Information Technology and Broadcasting: Hong Kong-Shenzhen Innovation and Technology Park in the Lok Ma Chau Loop. Retrieved from http://www.legco.gov.hk/yr16-17/english/panels/ci/papers/cidevitb20170306cb1-624-1-e.pdf LC Paper No. CB(1)624/16-17(01)
  43. ^ a b c d e f Oriental Daily. (2010). 耗48億科學園「愈起愈貴」. Retrieved November 18, 2017, from http://orientaldaily.on.cc/cnt/news/20100317/00176_018.html
  44. ^ Apple Daily. (2012). 租金狂升 配套不足 科學園爆大逃亡 零科研僅剩空殼. Retrieved November 18, 2017, from https://hk.news.appledaily.com/local/daily/article/20121019/18043958
  45. ^ a b c d SCMP. (2015). The woman behind Hong Kong's big push to drive technological innovation. Retrieved November 18, 2017, from http://www.scmp.com/tech/science-research/article/1772017/former-politician-behind-hong-kongs-big-push-drive
  46. ^ Standnews. (2017). 【河套科技園】莫乃光質疑位置偏遠「為誰而建?」 胡志偉憂變相輸入專 才.Retrieved November 18, 2017, from https://www.thestandnews.com/politics/%E6%B2%B3%E5%A5%97%E7%A7%91%E6%8A%80%E5%9C%92-%E8%8E%AB%E4%B9%83%E5%85%89%E8%B3%AA%E7%96%91%E4%BD%8D%E7%BD%AE%E5%81%8F%E9%81%A0-%E7%82%BA%E8%AA%B0%E8%80%8C%E5%BB%BA

External links[edit]