Hong Kong legislative election, 1991

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Hong Kong legislative election, 1991
Flag of Hong Kong (1959-1997).svg
← 1988 12 & 15 September 1991 1995 →

39 (of 60) seats to the Legislative Council
Turnout 39.15% (GC)
  First party Second party Third party
  Martin Lee LDF Chan Yat-sen
Leader Martin Lee Hu Fa-kuang Chan Yat-sen
Party United Democrats LDF FSHK
Alliance Pro-democracy Conservative bloc Conservative bloc
Leader's seat Island East Did not stand Did not stand
Last election New party New party New party
Seats won 14
(12 GCs + 2 FCs)
3
(0 GC + 3 FCs)
3
(1 GC + 2 FCs)
Seat change Increase12 Steady Increase2
Popular vote 618,209 70,697 30,871
Percentage 45.15% 5.16% 2.25%

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
  Anthony Cheung Leong Che-hung BPF
Leader Anthony Cheung Leong Che-hung Vincent Lo
Party Meeting Point DF BPF
Alliance Pro-democracy Pro-democracy Conservative bloc
Leader's seat Did not stand Medical Did not stand
Last election 0 seat New party New party
Seats won 2
(2 GCs)
2
(0 GC + 2 FCs)
2
(2 FCs)
Seat change Increase2 Decrease1 Increase1
Popular vote 98,588 19,806 N/A
Percentage 7.20% 1.45% N/A

LegCoElection1991.svg
Elected candidates by each geographical constituency

– United Democrats – Meeting Point – ADPL

– Independent

The 1991 Hong Kong Legislative Council election was held for members of the Legislative Council of Hong Kong (LegCo). The election of the members of functional constituencies was held on 12 September 1991 and the election of geographical constituency seats was held on 15 September respectively. It was the first ever direct election of the Legislative Council in Hong Kong history. There were 18 members from directly elected Geographical Constituencies, 21 members from Functional Constituencies, 17 members appointed by the Governor, and 3 official members.

A coalition of the United Democrats and the Meeting Point, together with other smaller parties, groups and independents in the pro-democracy camp had a landslide victory, getting 16 of the 18 geographical constituency seats. Two-seat constituency two vote system was used with two seats to be filled in each constituency. The voting system helped the pro-democracy coalition win with landslide success and faced criticisms. In the end, the government prescribed simple plurality in the next election.

Background[edit]

After the Sino-British Joint Declaration signed in December 1984 stated the sovereignty of Hong Kong would be transferred from the United Kingdom to the People's Republic of China, the pace of the democratisation towards a government of high autonomy towards 1997 became a major political debate. The Hong Kong government denied the demand of the pro-democracy groups of introducing direct elections in the 1988 Legislative Council elections, due to the main opposition from Beijing and the conservative business and professional elites. As a result, the electoral methods of the Functional Constituencies being elected by different business and professional sectors and the Electoral Colleges being elected by the District Boards and the two municipal councils (Urban Council and Regional Council) remained in the 1988 elections but it was promised by the government that direct elections would be introduced in the 1991 elections.

Overview[edit]

The Hong Kong government's assumed the two-seat constituencies would produce a mixture of liberal, rural conservative and business representatives as well as some members of the "united front" organisations which supported by Beijing, as the voters would cast their ballots for prominent individuals rather than a "party" label.[1] However, the two-seat and two-vote system benefited the pro-democracy coalition in the end.

The election was largely affected by the events in May and June 1989 in China when the Tiananmen Square protest was bloodily cracked down by the Beijing government. The events sparked the great fear among the Hong Kong population who closely concerned or enthusiastically supported the student movement. The pro-democracy groups supported the student protests by forming the Hong Kong Alliance in Support of Patriotic Democratic Movements in China in May 1989. After the crackdown, the liberal leaders, Martin Lee and Szeto Wah had been labelled as "subversives" by the Beijing government and expelled form the Hong Kong Basic Law Drafting Committee. In 1990, members of the three major pro-democracy groups, the Meeting Point, the Hong Kong Affairs Society and the Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood came together under the banner of the United Democrats of Hong Kong, which self-proclaimed as the first political party in Hong Kong.

The pro-democracy liberals won a landslide in the geographical constituency direct elections. The United Democrats led by Martin Lee became the largest party, by winning 12 of the 18 seats in the geographical constituencies. Two other seats went to its ally Meeting Point headed by Anthony Cheung. Frederick Fung, Chairman of the ADPL won a seat in Kowloon West. Of the remaining seats, one went to a liberal independent Emily Lau, one to an independent incumbent Andrew Wong and the other to an incumbent rural conservative Tai Chin-wah.[1]

The conservative Liberal Democratic Federation of Hong Kong, newly founded in 1990 mainly by business and professional groups favouring collaboration with Beijing, polled only 5.1% of the vote. None of its candidates were elected in the direct elections. The pro-Beijing "united front" organisations received only 7.9% of the vote and were also very easily defeated. Chan Yuen-han, the Hong Kong Federation of Trade Unions (FTU) candidate in Kowloon Central polled about 11,000 votes fewer than the second place United Democrat, Dr. Conrad Lam and was about 23,000 votes behind the winner, United Democrat Lau Chin-shek. In Island East, Cheng Kai-nam who had the support of a pro-Beijing group, Hong Kong Citizen Forum, polled 29,902 against the United Democrats' leader Martin Lee, who received 76,831 votes.[1]

The advantage of the liberals was balanced with the functional constituency indirectly elected by the limited electorates of the business and professional sectors as well as the appointed members by the government. the Chief Secretary Sir David Ford said on television that the elections should be seen in the context of a 50% registration rate, of whom perhaps only 50% might turn out at the polls therefore the majority who were not represented would be reserved by appointing members who might be thought to represent those who had not registered or had not voted.[1]

General results[edit]

e • d Overall Summary of the 12 & 15 September 1991 Legislative Council of Hong Kong election results
Political Affiliation Geographical constituencies Functional
constituencies
Seats gained
Total seats gained
Candidates Seats Votes % of votes
United Democrats of Hong Kong 14 12 618,209 45.15 2 14
Meeting Point 3 2 98,588 7.20 2
Hong Kong Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood 3 1 60,770 4.44 1
Hong Kong Democratic Foundation 1 0 19,806 1.45 2 2
Independents and others 3 1 91,356 6.67 1
Total for Liberals 24 16 888,729 64.91 4 20
Hong Kong Federation of Trade Unions 1 0 44,894 3.28 1 1
Hong Kong Citizen Forum 1 0 29,902 2.18 0
Kwun Tong Man Chung Friendship Promotion Association 1 0 21,225 1.55 0
New Hong Kong Alliance 2 0 11,934 0.87 1 1
Independents and others 1 0 29,413 2.15 0
Total for pro-China 6 0 137,368 10.03 2 2
Liberal Democratic Federation of Hong Kong 6 0 70,697 5.16 3 3
Federation for the Stability of Hong Kong 1 1 30,871 2.25 2 3
Business and Professionals Federation of Hong Kong 2 2
Independents and others 1 0 23,389 1.71 3 4
Total for Conservatives 8 1 124,957 9.13 8 9
Hong Kong Civic Association 2 0 35,616 2.60 0
Progressive Hong Kong Society 1 0 30,095 2.20 0
Reform Club of Hong Kong 1 0 8,257 0.60 0
Hong Kong and Kowloon Trades Union Council 1 0 3,393 0.25 1 1
Independents and others 11 1 140,898 10.29 6 7
Total (turnout 39.15%) 54 18 1,369,313 99.97 21 39

Note: There were also 17 members appointed by the Governor and 3 Ex-Officio members.

Votes summary[edit]

Popular vote
United Democrats
  
45.15%
Meeting Point
  
7.20%
LDF
  
5.16%
ADPL
  
4.44%
FTU
  
3.28%
Civic
  
2.60%
FSHK
  
2.25%
PHKS
  
2.20%
CF
  
2.18%
KCMCFPA
  
1.55%
DF
  
1.45%
NHKA
  
0.87%
Reform
  
0.60%
TUC
  
0.25%
Independent
  
20.82%

Seats summary[edit]

Seats
United Democrats
  
35.90%
LDF
  
7.69%
FSHK
  
7.69%
Meeting Point
  
5.13%
DF
  
5.13%
BPF
  
5.13%
ADPL
  
2.64%
FTU
  
2.64%
NHKA
  
2.64%
TUC
  
2.64%
Independent
  
30.77%

Result breakdown[edit]

Geographical Constituencies[edit]

Constituency Candidates Affiliation No. of votes given (%)
Hong Kong Island East Martin Lee Chu-ming United Democrats 76,831 (74.6%)
Man Sai-cheong United Democrats 43,615 (42.3%)
Cheng Kai-nam Citizen Forum 29,902 (29.0%)
Chan Ying-lun DF 19,806 (19.2%)
Diana Leung Wai-tung Independent (DF) 15,230 (14.8%)
Jennifer Chow Kit-bing Independent 5,805 (5.6%)
Hong Kong Island West Yeung Sum United Democrats 45,108 (65.4%)
Huang Chen-ya United Democrats 31,052 (45.0%)
David Chan Yuk-cheung Independent 29,413 (42.6%)
Alexander Chang Yau-hung LDF 12,145 (17.6%)
Ronnie Wong Man-chiu NHKA 6,113 (8.9%)
Winnie Cheung Wai-sun NHKA 5,821 (8.4%)
Kowloon East Szeto Wah United Democrats 57,921 (70.3%)
Li Wah-ming Meeting Point 49,643 (60.2%)
Hau Shui-pui KTMCA 21,225 (25.8%)
Poon Chi-fai Independent 16,625 (20.2%)
Chan Cheong October Review 3,431 (4.2%)
Li Ting-kit TUC 3,393 (4.1%)
Philip Li Koi-hop Nonpartisan (LDF) 865 (1.0%)
Kowloon Central Lau Chin-shek United Democrats 68,489 (62.2%)
Conrad Lam Kui-shing United Democrats 56,084 (51.0%)
Chan Yuen-han FTU 44,894 (40.8%)
Peter Chan Chi-kwan Independent (HKCA) 14,145 (12.9%)
Cecilia Yeung Lai-yin Independent (HKRC) 8,257 (7.5%)
John Dragon Young Independent (HKAS/UDHK) 6,273 (5.7%)
Justin Cheung Chung-ming Independent 2,158 (2.0%)
Kowloon West Frederick Fung Kin-kee ADPL 36,508 (52.5%)
James To Kun-sun United Democrats 26,352 (37.9%)
Desmond Lee Yu-tai Independent (HKCA/UDHK) 21,471 (30.9%)
Kingsley Sit Ho-yin Independent 18,634 (26.8%)
Law Cheung-kwok ADPL 17,145 (24.7%)
Ng Kin-sun LDF 6,098 (8.8%)
New Territories East Emily Lau Wai-hing Independent 46,515 (48.1%)
Andrew Wong Wang-fat Independent 39,806 (41.2%)
Tony Kan Chung-nin Independent 37,126 (38.4%)
Lau Kong-wah United Democrats 26,659 (27.6%)
Johnston Wong Hong-chung United Democrats 26,156 (27.1%)
Choi Man-hing Independent 348 (0.4%)
Eric Leung Ka-ching Independent 306 (0.3%)
New Territories South Lee Wing-tat United Democrats 52,192 (56.9%)
Albert Chan Wai-yip United Democrats 42,164 (45.9%)
Leung Yiu-chung NWSC 38,568 (42.0%)
Yeung Fuk-kwong Independent (PHKS) 30,095 (32.8%)
New Territories West Ng Ming-yam United Democrats 42,319 (51.9%)
Tai Chin-wah FSHK 30,871 (37.9%)
Zachary Wong Wai-yin Meeting Point 27,243 (33.4%)
Tang Siu-tong Independent 23,389 (28.7%)
Tso Shiu-wai LDF 20,018 (24.6%)
New Territories North Fung Chi-wood United Democrats 23,267 (49.9%)
Tik Chi-yuen Meeting Point 21,702 (46.5%)
Cheung Hon-chung Independent (LDF) 16,221 (34.8%)
Johnny Wong Chi-keung LDF 15,350 (32.9%)
Ronald Chow Mei-tak ADPL 7,117 (15.3%)
Tong Wai-man Independent 1,449 (3.1%)

Functional Constituencies[edit]

Constituency Candidates Affiliation No. of votes given (%)
First Commercial James David McGregor DF 487 (53.9%)
Paul Cheng Ming-fun BPF 416 (46.1%)
Second Commercial Philip Wong Yu-hong NHKA Uncontested
First Industrial Stephen Cheong Kam-chuen BPF Uncontested
Second Industrial Ngai Shiu-kit LDF 216 (56.5%)
Szeto Fai Independent 166 (43.5%)
Engineering Samuel Wong Ping-wai Independent 1,334 (89.8%)
Hogan Tang Ka-fat LDF 151 (10.2%)
Architectural, Surveying and Planning Edward Ho Sing-tin BPF 552 (53.7%)
Francis Lau Shiu-kwan LDF 246 (23.9%)
Kan Fook-yee NHKA 136 (13.2%)
Charles Nicholas Brooke Independent 94 (9.1%)
Real Estate and Construction Ronald Joseph Arculli Independent Uncontested
Teaching Cheung Man-kwong United Democrats 15,193 (89.8%)
Ho King-on Independent 886 (5.2%)
Walter Won Tchong-hong Independent 836 (4.9%)
Tourism Howard Young LDF 338 (40.7%)
Harold Wu Tan LDF 318 (38.3%)
Ronnie Yuen Ka-chai Independent 175 (21.1%)
Accountancy Peter Wong Hong-yuen LDF Uncontested
Engineering Simon Ip Sik-on Independent 542 (77.4%)
John William Miller Independent 158 (22.6%)
Social Services Hui Yin-fat Independent Uncontested
Health Michael Ho Mun-ka United Democrats Uncontested
Medical Leong Che-hung DF Uncontested
Finance David Li Kwok-po Independent Uncontested
Financial Services Chim Pui-chung Independent 281 (47.6%)
Alex Wong Po-hang Independent 200 (33.9%)
Cham Yau-tong Independent 59 (10.0%)
Peter Chan Po-fun Independent 36 (6.1%)
Chum Ting-pong Independent 9 (1.5%)
Wong Wun-wing Independent 5 (0.8%)
Labour Pang Chun-hoi TUC Uncontested
Tam Yiu-chung FTU Uncontested
Urban Council Elsie Tu Independent Uncontested
Regional Council Gilbert Leung Kam-ho FSHK 20 (40.0%)
Chow Yick-hay United Democrats 15 (30.0%)
Lam Wai-keung FSHK 10 (20.0%)
Chau Chun-wing Independent 5 (10.0%)
Rural Lau Wong-fat FSHK Uncontested

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Scott, Ian (1991). "An Overview of the Hong Kong Legislative Council Elections of 1991" (PDF). Asian Journal of Public Administration. 13 (2): 11–37. 

Bibliography[edit]