An honorary degree[note 1] is an academic degree for which a university (or other degree-awarding institution) has waived all of the usual requirements. It is also known by the Latin phrases honoris causa ("for the sake of the honour") or ad honorem ("to the honour"). The degree is typically a doctorate or, less commonly, a master's degree, and may be awarded to someone who has no prior connection with the academic institution or no previous postsecondary education. An example of identifying a recipient of this award is as follows: Doctorate in Business Administration (Hon. Causa).
The degree is often conferred as a way of honouring a distinguished visitor's contributions to a specific field or to society in general.
It is sometimes recommended that such degrees be listed in one's curriculum vitae (CV) as an award, and not in the education section. With regard to the use of this honorific, the policies of institutions of higher education generally ask that recipients "refrain from adopting the misleading title" and that a recipient of an honorary doctorate should restrict the use of the title "Dr" before their name to any engagement with the institution of higher education in question and not within the broader community. Theodore Hesburgh held the record for most honorary degrees, having been awarded 150 during his lifetime.
The practice dates back to the Middle Ages, when for various reasons a university might be persuaded, or otherwise see fit, to grant exemption from some or all of the usual statutory requirements for the award of a degree. The earliest honorary degree on record was awarded to Lionel Woodville in the late 1470s by the University of Oxford. He later became Bishop of Salisbury.
In the late 16th century, the granting of honorary degrees became quite common, especially on the occasion of royal visits to Oxford or Cambridge. On the visit of James I to Oxford in 1605, for example, forty-three members of his retinue (fifteen of whom were earls or barons) received the degree of Master of Arts, and the Register of Convocation explicitly states that these were full degrees, carrying the usual privileges (such as voting rights in Convocation and Congregation).
There were also some special cases: for example the critic John Ruskin suffered some kind of physical or mental breakdown in 1840 and dropped out of the University of Oxford. He returned to Oxford in 1842, and sat a single exam, and was awarded an honorary fourth-class degree.
Honorary degrees are usually awarded at regular graduation ceremonies, at which the recipients are often invited to make a speech of acceptance before the assembled faculty and graduates – an event which often forms the highlight of the ceremony. Generally, universities nominate several persons each year for honorary degrees; these nominations usually go through several committees before receiving approval. Nominees are generally not told until a formal approval and invitation are made; often it is perceived that the system is shrouded in secrecy, and occasionally seen as political and controversial.
The term honorary degree is a slight misnomer: honoris causa degrees are not considered of the same standing as substantive degrees earned by the standard academic processes of courses and original research, except perhaps where the recipient has demonstrated an appropriate level of academic scholarship that would ordinarily qualify him or her for the award of a substantive degree. Recipients of honorary degrees typically wear the same academic dress as recipients of substantive degrees, although there are a few exceptions: honorary graduates at the University of Cambridge wear the appropriate full-dress gown but not the hood, and those at the University of St Andrews wear a black cassock instead of the usual full-dress gown.
An ad eundem or jure officii degree is sometimes considered honorary, although these are only conferred on an individual who has already achieved a comparable qualification at another university or attained an office requiring the appropriate level of scholarship. Under certain circumstances, a degree may be conferred on an individual for both the nature of the office they hold and the completion of a dissertation. The "dissertation et jure dignitatis" is considered to be a full academic degree. See below.
Although higher doctorates such as Doctor of Science, Doctor of Letters, etc. are often awarded honoris causa, in many countries (notably England and Scotland, Ireland, Australia, and New Zealand) it is formally possible to earn such a degree as a substantive one. This typically involves the submission of a portfolio of peer-refereed research, usually undertaken over a number of years, which has made a substantial contribution to the academic field in question. The university will appoint a panel of examiners who will consider the case and prepare a report recommending whether or not the degree be awarded. Usually, the applicant must have some strong formal connection with the university in question, for example full-time academic staff, or graduates of several years' standing.
Some universities, seeking to differentiate between substantive and honorary doctorates, have a degree (often DUniv, or Doctor of the University) which is used for these purposes, with the other higher doctorates reserved for formally examined academic scholarship.
The Archbishop of Canterbury has the authority to award degrees. These "Lambeth degrees" are sometimes, erroneously, thought to be honorary; however the archbishops have for many centuries had the legal authority (originally as the representatives of the Pope, later confirmed by a 1533 Act of Henry VIII), to award degrees and regularly do so to people who have either passed an examination or are deemed to have satisfied the appropriate requirements.
Between the two extremes of honoring celebrities and formally assessing a portfolio of research, some universities use honorary degrees to recognize achievements of intellectual rigor. Some institutes of higher education do not confer honorary degrees as a matter of policy—see below. Some learned societies award honorary fellowships in the same way as honorary degrees are awarded by universities, for similar reasons.
A typical example of university regulations is, "Honorary graduates may use the approved post-nominal letters. It is not customary, however, for recipients of an honorary doctorate to adopt the prefix 'Dr.'" In some universities, it is however a matter of personal preference for an honorary doctor to use the formal title of "Doctor", regardless of the background circumstances for the award. Written communications where an honorary doctorate has been awarded may include the letters "h.c." after the award to indicate that status.
The recipient of an honorary degree may add the degree title postnominally, but it should always be made clear that the degree is honorary by adding "honorary" or "honoris causa" or "h.c." in parentheses after the degree title. In some countries, a person who holds an honorary doctorate may use the title "Doctor" prenominally, abbreviated "Dr.h.c." or "Dr.(h.c.)". Sometimes, they use "Hon" before the degree letters, for example, "Hon DMus".
In recent years, some universities have adopted entirely separate postnominal titles for honorary degrees. This is in part due to the confusion that honorary degrees have caused. For example, an honorary doctorate from the Auckland University of Technology takes the special title HonD since it is now common in certain countries to use certain degrees, such as LLD or HonD, as purely honorary. Some universities, including the Open University, grant Doctor of the University (DUniv) degrees to selected nominees, while awarding PhD or EdD degrees to those who have fulfilled the academic requirements.
Most American universities award the degrees of LLD (Doctor of Laws), LittD (Doctor of Letters), LHD (Doctor of Humane Letters), ScD (Doctor of Science), PedD (Doctor of Pedagogy) and DD (Doctor of Divinity) only as honorary degrees. American universities do not have the system of "higher doctorates" used in the UK and some other universities around the world.
Customary degrees (ad eundem or jure officii degrees)
This section needs additional citations for verification. (March 2013)
Some universities and colleges have the custom of awarding a master's degree to every scholar appointed as a full professor, who had never earned a degree there. At the universities of Oxford, Dublin and Cambridge, many senior staff are granted the degree of Master of Arts after three years of service, and at Amherst College all tenured professors are awarded a Master of Arts degree at an academic convocation in the autumn, even though the school only offers an earned Bachelor of Arts degree (Amherst awards honorary doctorates at commencement in the spring to notable scholars and other special invitees). Schools such as Brown University, the University of Pennsylvania and Harvard University also award tenured faculty, who do not have a degree from their respective schools, the AM ad eundem.
These ad eundem or jure officii degrees are earned degrees, not honorary, because they recognize formal learning.
Similarly, a jure dignitatis degree is awarded to someone who has demonstrated eminence and scholarship by being appointed to a particular office. Thus, for example, a DD (Doctor of Divinity) might be conferred upon a bishop on the occasion of his consecration, or a judge created LLD (Legum Doctor) or DCL (Doctor of Civil Law) upon his or her appointment to the judicial bench. These, also, are properly considered substantive rather than honorary degrees.
Institutions not awarding honorary degrees
Some US universities such as the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cornell University, Stanford University, and Rice University, do not award honorary degrees as a matter of policy. The University of Virginia (founded in 1819) was probably the first US university to explicitly have a policy of not awarding honorary degrees at the behest of its founder, Thomas Jefferson. In 1845, William Barton Rogers, then chairman of the faculty, vigorously defended this policy; in 1861, he founded MIT in Boston and continued this practice. The University of Virginia does annually award Thomas Jefferson Medals in Architecture and in Law, as the highest honors accorded by that institution.
The Stanford Alumni Association occasionally awards the Degree of Uncommon Man/Woman to individuals who have given "rare and exceptional service" to the university. Though UCLA has imposed a moratorium on awarding honorary degrees, it honors notable people with the UCLA Medal instead. St. John's College has not granted honorary degrees since 1936, but its alumni association occasionally offers honorary membership to retiring faculty, staff, and other close associates of the college.
Some universities and colleges have been accused of granting honorary degrees in exchange for large donations. Honorary degree recipients, particularly those who have no prior academic qualifications, have sometimes been criticized if they insist on being called "Doctor" as a result of their award, as the honorific may mislead the general public about their qualifications. It can be similarly misleading when respected individuals are referred to as "Professor", especially in a university or government context.
In 1985, as a deliberate snub, the University of Oxford voted to refuse Margaret Thatcher an honorary degree in protest against her cuts in funding for higher education. This award had previously been given to all prime ministers who had been educated at Oxford.
The Philosophy Faculty at Cambridge courted controversy among the academic community in March 1992, when three of its members posed a temporary veto against the awarding of an honorary doctorate to Jacques Derrida; they and other non-Cambridge proponents of analytic philosophy protested against the granting on the grounds that Derrida's work "did not conform with accepted measures of academic rigor." Although the university eventually passed the motion, the episode did more to draw attention to the continuing antipathy between the analytic (of which Cambridge's faculty is a leading exponent) and the post-Hegelian continental philosophical traditions (with which Derrida's work is more closely associated).
In 1996, Southampton College at Long Island University (now a campus of Stony Brook University) awarded an Honorary Doctorate of Amphibious Letters to Muppet Kermit the Frog. Although some students objected to awarding a degree to a Muppet, Kermit delivered an enjoyable commencement address and the small college received considerable press coverage. The degree was conferred in recognition of efforts in the area of environmentalism. Said the university: "His theme song, 'It's Not Easy Bein' Green,' has become a rallying cry of the environmental movement. Kermit has used his celebrity to spread positive messages in public service announcements for the National Wildlife Federation, National Park Service, the Better World Society, and others."
The awarding of an honorary degree to political figures can prompt protests from faculty or students. In 2001, George W. Bush received an honorary degree from Yale University, where he had earned his bachelor's degree in history in 1968. Some students and faculty chose to boycott the university's 300th commencement. Andrew Card, who served as Bush's Chief of Staff from 2001 to 2006, ultimately chose not to speak when the University of Massachusetts Amherst awarded him an honorary degree in 2007, in response to protests from students and faculty at the commencement ceremonies.
Few people object when an honorary degree is awarded in a field for which the honorand is noted. McGill University's decision to grant musician Joni Mitchell an honorary Doctor of Music in 2004 was unopposed, although it was timed to coincide with a symposium about Mitchell's career.
In 2005 at the University of Western Ontario, Henry Morgentaler, a gynecologist involved in a legal case decriminalizing abortion in Canada (R. v. Morgentaler), was made an honorary Doctor of Laws. Over 12,000 signatures were acquired asking the UWO to reverse its decision to honor Morgentaler. Several protest rallies were held, including one on the day the honorary degree was bestowed (a counter petition to support Morgentaler's degree gained 10,000 signatures).
In 2007, protesters demanded that the University of Edinburgh revoke an honorary degree awarded to Zimbabwean leader Robert Mugabe in 1984. The university subsequently revealed plans to review its honorary degree policy and strip certain figures of their honorary degrees who did not deserve them. When considering revoking the honorary degree of a political figure, such reasons as human rights abuse or political corruption would be considered. As a result, it was announced that Mugabe had been stripped of his honorary degree. The university also planned to have a more rigorous selection procedure regarding potential recipients of honorary degrees, in an attempt to rectify the trend of awarding degrees to celebrities. Students at the University of Massachusetts Amherst also asked the university to revoke the honorary degree that was awarded to Mugabe over twenty years ago, and on 12 June 2008 the trustees unanimously rescinded Robert Mugabe's honorary degree. Michigan State University has also rescinded its honorary degree.
In April 2009, Arizona State University's president, Michael M. Crow, refused to give an honorary degree to US President Barack Obama for his lack of adequate qualifying achievements thus far. Also, controversy was ignited about Notre Dame awarding Obama an honorary degree, as the institution is Roman Catholic and Obama holds pro-choice views on abortion and supports embryonic stem cell research.
In February 2012, Rosmah Mansor, the wife of the Prime Minister of Malaysia, Najib Razak was controversially awarded an honorary doctorate by the Curtin University for "services to childhood education". The university honored Rosmah for founding and driving the Permata early childhood centres in Malaysia although some alumni and students contended that the government-funded centres are "an abuse of taxpayers' money".
Use of title associated with honorary doctorates
By convention, recipients of honorary doctorates do not use the title "Dr" in general correspondence, although in formal correspondence from the university issuing the honorary degree it is normal to address the recipient by the title, at least in the United States. However, this social convention is not always scrupulously observed. Notable people who have used the honorary prefix include:
- Maya Angelou, a memoirist and poet who had no earned degrees, but she received dozens of honorary ones and she preferred to be called "Dr. Angelou" by people other than family and close friends.
- Stephen Colbert, who received an honorary doctorate in fine arts from Knox College in 2006, frequently made light of the concept of an "honorary doctor" by offering up scurrilous medical advice in a segment called "Cheating Death" on his television program The Colbert Report after being awarded a D.F.A.
- Benjamin Franklin, who received an honorary master's degree from The College of William and Mary in 1756, and doctorates from the University of St. Andrews in 1759 and the University of Oxford in 1762 for his scientific accomplishments. He thereafter referred to himself as "Doctor Franklin".
- Alan García, former Peruvian president and politician, who for many years held the title of Dr. in official presentations as head of state and as a civilian throughout his political career. Heavily criticized by the media when discovering his last degree to be a master's in economic development and not completing his doctoral studies in law, he was awarded an honorary doctorate from the University of Delhi in 1987, while making an official visit to India in his first term as president.
- Samuel Johnson, an author and lexicographer, who had some years earlier been unable (due to financial considerations) to complete his undergraduate studies at Pembroke College, Oxford, was awarded the degree of Master of Arts by diploma in 1755, in recognition of his scholarly achievements. In 1765, Trinity College, Dublin awarded him the degree of Doctor of Laws and in 1775 Oxford bestowed upon him the degree of Doctor of Civil Law by diploma.
- Edwin H. Land, who invented the Land Camera instant camera, and was a co-founder of the Polaroid Corporation, received an honorary doctorate from Harvard University and was often referred to as "Dr. Land", though he did not have any earned degree.
- Richard Stallman, the founder of the Free Software Foundation in the field of information technology, has been awarded fourteen honorary doctorates from various international educational institutions from 1996 through 2014 including the North American Lakehead University in 2009, and now refers to himself as "Dr. Richard Stallman" in speeches, talks, videos, and email.
- Sukarno, the first president of Indonesia, was awarded 26 honorary doctorates from various international universities including Columbia University, the University of Michigan, the University of Berlin, the Al-Azhar University, the University of Belgrade, the Lomonosov University and many more; and also from domestic universities, including the Universitas Gadjah Mada, the Universitas Indonesia, the Bandung Institute of Technology, and the Universitas Padjadjaran. He had often been referred to by the Indonesian Government at the time as "Dr. Ir. Sukarno", combined with his engineer's degree (Ir.) from Bandung Institute of Technology.
- Jeremiah Wolfe, a respected elder of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians, taught at the Oconaluftee Job Corps in Cherokee for more than 20 years, and subsequently worked in outreach and education at the Museum of the Cherokee Indian, where he shared his extensive knowledge of tribal history and culture with thousands of visitors. He was awarded an honorary doctorate of humane letters at the commencement at Western Carolina University, 2017. 
- "The Honorary Degree". Honorarydegrees.wvu.edu. Archived from the original on 30 March 2015.
- "Honorary Degrees: A Short History". Brandeis University. Archived from the original on 25 June 2014. Retrieved 1 November 2014.
- "Honorary Degrees". Archived from the original on 16 September 2009. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- McNeilage, Amy (4–5 October 2014). "Ian Thorpe now Dr Thorpedo, man of letters". The Sydney Morning Herald. p. 31. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- "Honorary Doctorate Guidelines". University of Southern Queensland. 2012. Archived from the original on 25 July 2017.
- TMP/ENR // Marketing Communications: Web // University of Notre Dame. "Honorary Degrees". Father Hesburgh. Archived from the original on 15 February 2016. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
- Buxton, L. H. Dudley and Gibson, Strickland, Oxford University Ceremonies, Oxford University Press (1935)
- "Woodville, Lionel, bishop of Salisbury". oxforddnb.com. Archived from the original on 15 July 2014. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
- Bradley, Alexander. "Ruskin at Oxford: Pupil and Master", pp. 749-750, Studies in English Literature, 1500-1900 32, no. 4 (1992): 747–64. doi
- "What are Honorary Doctorate Degrees?". Education-portal.com. Archived from the original on 1 October 2014. Retrieved 18 June 2014.
- "Doctorates a dime a dozen?". Archives.dailynews.lk. 11 November 2008. Archived from the original on 27 January 2015. Retrieved 18 June 2014.
- "Doctorates of the University". universidadazteca.net. Archived from the original on 5 May 2021. Retrieved 18 June 2014.
- "Archbishop of Canterbury awards Lambeth Degrees". rowanwilliams.archbishopofcanterbury.org. 16 October 2012. Archived from the original on 17 July 2014. Retrieved 18 June 2014.
- "Oxford Brooks University Regulations" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 August 2020. Retrieved 3 April 2012.
- University of Cambridge. "Statutes and Ordinances II.6: Status of Master of Arts". Archived from the original on 3 July 2013. Retrieved 8 March 2013.
- "Master in Arts (jure officii) form" (PDF). University of Dublin. Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 July 2014. Retrieved 19 April 2015.
- "No honorary degrees is an MIT tradition going back to ... Thomas Jefferson". MIT News Office. 8 June 2001. Archived from the original on 14 April 2006. Retrieved 7 May 2006.:"MIT's founder, William Barton Rogers, regarded the practice of giving honorary degrees as 'literary almsgiving ... of spurious merit and noisy popularity...' Rogers was a geologist from the University of Virginia who believed in Thomas Jefferson's policy barring honorary degrees at the university, which was founded in 1819."
- Dear Uncle Ezra, Cornell University. "Dear Uncle Ezra – Questions for Thursday, 15 May 2003 – Cornell University". Ezra.cornell.edu. Archived from the original on 25 August 2010. Retrieved 5 September 2010.
- "Stanford Bulletin: Conferral of Degrees". Registrar.stanford.edu. Archived from the original on 28 December 2011. Retrieved 5 September 2010.
- "Stanford Bulletin 2008/2009: Conferral of Degrees". Stanford.edu. Archived from the original on 26 June 2010. Retrieved 5 September 2010.
- "The Rice Thresher Online | NEWS | Cosby to speak at '02 graduation". Rice.edu. 11 May 2002. Archived from the original on 18 June 2010. Retrieved 5 September 2010.
- Rector and Visitors of The University of Virginia (1995). "Chapter 4: University Regulations: Honorary Degrees". Rector and Visitors of The University of Virginia. Archived from the original on 31 August 2006. Retrieved 7 May 2006. "The University of Virginia does not award honorary degrees. In conjunction with the Thomas Jefferson Memorial Foundation, the University presents the Thomas Jefferson Medal in Architecture and the Thomas Jefferson Award in Law each spring. The awards, recognizing excellence in two fields of interest to Jefferson, constitute the University's highest recognition of scholars outside the University."
- Andrews, Elizabeth; Murphy, Nora; Rosko, Tom. "William Barton Rogers: MIT's Visionary Founder". Exhibits: Institute Archives & Special Collections: MIT Libraries. Archived from the original on 12 May 2008. Retrieved 16 May 2008.
- "U.Va. To Bestow Annual Thomas Jefferson Medals For Architecture And Law". University of Virginia News. Rector and Visitors of the University of Virginia. 3 April 2001. Archived from the original on 8 October 2012. Retrieved 8 March 2013.
- "Stanford University—Degree of Uncommon Man and Uncommon Woman Award". Stanfordalumni.org. Archived from the original on 16 June 2010. Retrieved 3 April 2012.
- "UCLA Policy 140: Awarding of the UCLA Medal". Adminpolicies.ucla.edu. Archived from the original on 6 July 2010. Retrieved 5 September 2010.
- "Honorees of the Alumni Association". St. John's College. Archived from the original on 25 February 2015. Retrieved 28 March 2015.
- Mannheim, Markus (19 November 2014). "Universities tell Finance Department head Jane Halton to stop calling herself 'professor'". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 20 November 2014. Retrieved 19 November 2014.
- BBC News "On this day archive" 29 January 1985 Thatcher snubbed by Oxford dons Archived 6 November 2018 at the Wayback Machine, BBC News. Retrieved 9 April 2007.
- Wheen, Francis (2006). How Mumbo-Jumbo Conquered the World. HarperCollins. p. 77. ISBN 0-00-714097-5.
- "Southampton College News: Kermit's Commencement Address at Southampton College". southampton.liu.edu. Archived from the original on 30 January 2008. Retrieved 5 September 2010.
- "Kermit the Frog named 1996 Commencement Speaker at Southampton College". southampton.liunet.edu. Archived from the original on 15 February 1997. Retrieved 10 June 2008.
- "Yale Boycott". Washingtonpost.com. 22 May 2001. Archived from the original on 10 August 2018. Retrieved 5 September 2010.
- "UMass faculty, students boo Card". The Boston Globe. 26 May 2007. Archived from the original on 28 May 2007. Retrieved 28 March 2015.
- Perusse, Bernard (28 October 2004). "A Doctor's Advice". Montreal Gazette. JoniMitchell.com. Archived from the original on 10 February 2015. Retrieved 26 February 2014.
- Martin, Sandra (29 May 2013). "Abortion rights crusader Henry Morgentaler, revered and hated, dead at 90". The Globe and Mail (obituary). Toronto. Archived from the original on 15 November 2013. Retrieved 4 August 2013.
- "Abortion access has helped make society safer: Morgentaler". CBC. 16 June 2005. Archived from the original on 1 February 2008. Retrieved 28 March 2015.
- MacLeod, Murdo (14 January 2007). "Degree of anger at roll of dishonour". The Scotsman. Edinburgh. Archived from the original on 31 October 2016. Retrieved 30 October 2016.
- Vaznis, James (6 April 2007). "UMass students aim to revoke honorary degree for Mugabe". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on 2 December 2008. Retrieved 15 May 2007.
- Contact:Robert P. Connolly617-287-7073 (12 June 2008). "UMass Mugabe". Umass.edu. Archived from the original on 13 March 2012. Retrieved 5 September 2010.
- "Things you may not know about Robert Mugabe". Sowetan Live. 2 April 2014. Archived from the original on 30 September 2015. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
- "Obama turns controversy into jokes, lesson at commencement". CNN. 14 May 2009. Archived from the original on 17 May 2009. Retrieved 16 May 2009.
- controversy Archived 17 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine, How the Gold Dome Tarnished, TFP Student Action, 05-21-09.
- Storin, Matthew V. (17 May 2009). "Church and state; Obama and Notre Dame". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on 20 May 2009. Retrieved 17 May 2009.
- "Honorary doctorate to Najib Razak's wife creates controversy". The Australian. 22 February 2012. Archived from the original on 22 February 2012. Retrieved 11 July 2012.
- "Students protest over Malaysia doctorate". Archived from the original on 25 February 2012. Retrieved 11 July 2012.
- "The Honorary Degree". West Virginia University. Archived from the original on 30 March 2015. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
[H]onorary degree recipients should not refer to themselves as "Doctor", nor should they use the title on business cards or in correspondence. However, the recipient is entitled to use the appropriate honorary abbreviation behind his or her name
- "How to Address Those With Honorary Degrees". Protocol School of Washington. Archived from the original on 11 March 2015. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
- Gillespie, Marcia Ann, Rosa Johnson Butler, and Richard A. Long. (2008). Maya Angelou: A Glorious Celebration. New York: Random House. ISBN 978-0-385-51108-7
- "Farewell to 'Cheating Death with Dr. Stephen Colbert,' one of late-night's funniest bits". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 7 April 2018. Retrieved 10 June 2017.
- Honorary degree recipients Archived 5 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine on the Special Collections Research Center Wiki
- "Abogado de García: Ex presidente obtuvo doctorado de forma "no convencional"". América Noticias. Archived from the original on 8 August 2020. Retrieved 11 March 2018.
- "About Samuel Johnson". Thesamueljohnsonprize.co.uk. Archived from the original on 16 May 2015. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
- "Dr. Johnson". britannica.com. Archived from the original on 23 July 2014. Retrieved 23 June 2022.
- "Brute Johnson: A Critical Look at the Life of Dr. Samuel Johnson, L.L.D." hamiltoninstitute.com. 12 August 2008. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
- Bonanos, Christopher (2012). Instant: The Story of Polaroid, Princeton Architectural Press, p.13. ISBN 978-1616890858
- "Richard Stallman given first honorary doctorate by a North American university". Youtube.com. 30 May 2009. Archived from the original on 30 October 2021. Retrieved 5 March 2012.
- "Richard Stallman responding to an email list using "Dr. Richard Stallman"". Lists.gnu.org. Archived from the original on 14 January 2012. Retrieved 5 March 2012.
- "At 1:22 introduced as 'Dr. Stallman'". Youtube.com. 13 September 2011. Archived from the original on 24 March 2012. Retrieved 5 March 2012.
- "Ketetapan Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat Sementara Republik Indonesia No.XXXIII/MPRS/1967 Tentang Pencabutan Kekuasaan Pemerintah Negara Dari Presiden Sukarno" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 August 2013. Retrieved 7 September 2013.
- "WCU honors revered Cherokee elder during spring commencement". citizen-times.com. 19 May 2017. Archived from the original on 3 July 2022.
- Media related to Honoris causa at Wikimedia Commons