Honorary whites

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Honorary whites is a term that was used by the apartheid regime of South Africa to grant almost all of the rights and privileges of whites to various ethnic groups. Most notably, Japanese, Koreans and Taiwanese were granted the honorary white status, while the Chinese and individually designated figures were later added as well.

Japanese[edit]

The designation was applied to Japanese people (who were also once considered Honorary Aryans) in the 1960s to assist a trade pact formed between South Africa and Japan in the early 1960s, when Tokyo's Yawata Iron & Steel Co. offered to purchase 5,000,000 tons of South African pig iron, worth more than $250,000,000, over a ten-year period.[1]

With such a huge deal in the works, Prime Minister Hendrik Verwoerd determined that it would be tactless and disadvantageous to their trade arrangements to subject the Japanese people to the same restrictions as other ethnicities, since trade delegations from Japan would now regularly visit South Africa for business.

Thenceforth, Pretoria's Group Areas Board publicly announced that all Japanese people would be considered white. Johannesburg's city officials even decided that "in view of the trade agreements" the municipal swimming pools would be open to all Japanese guests.[1]

The designation gave Japanese almost all of the same rights and privileges as whites (except for the right to vote; they were also exempt from conscription). Until the early 1970s, opposition party politicians and the press questioned why Japanese were granted special privileges, citing inconsistencies with apartheid. [2]

Chinese[edit]

The new designation granted to the Japanese seemed grossly unfair to South Africa's small Chinese community (roughly 7,000 at that time), who it seemed, would enjoy none of the new benefits given to the Japanese. As Time wrote:

If anything, we are whiter in appearance than our Japanese friends.' huffed one of Cape Town's leading Chinese businessmen. Demanded another indignantly: 'Does this mean that the Japanese, now that they are [considered] White, cannot associate with us without running afoul of the Immorality Act?'[1]

Inclusion of other East Asians as honorary whites (Japanese and South Korean), and eventually Taiwanese, complicated matters on how the Chinese were treated, and apartheid regulation on Chinese varied from department to department and province to province, as locals could not distinguish them apart from each other.

In 1984 the Group Areas Act was amended to allow Chinese South Africans to live in areas the government had declared white areas and use the facilities within them.[3] Chinese South Africans were required to apply for a permit from the government in order to move into a white area. Permission had to be obtained from all the neighbours in the suburb for the application to be accepted.[4][5]

South Koreans[edit]

Unlike Japan, South Korea was unwilling to establish diplomatic relations with South Africa because of apartheid.[6] South Africa offered honorary white status to Koreans when the two countries negotiated diplomatic relations in 1961. South Korea severed ties with South Africa in 1978 in protest against apartheid, and full diplomatic relations between the two countries were not established until 1992.[7]

Taiwanese[edit]

The inclusion of Taiwanese was due to the good and important relations between South Africa and Taiwan.[3][8] By 1979, Taiwan had become South Africa's fifth largest trading partner. As South Africa continued to support the Chinese Nationalists even after the Chinese Communist Party gained control of the mainland, the relations of the two warmed, as both were isolated from the international community.[2]

Others[edit]

The "honorary white" status was given to other special visitors belonging to other races, including:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c South Africa: Honorary Whites, TIME, 19 January 1962
  2. ^ a b Afro-Hispanic Review: White, Honorary White, or Non-White: Apartheid Era Constructions of Chinese, Dr. Yoon Jung Park (Univ of Johannesburg), Spring 2008
  3. ^ a b "In South Africa, Chinese is the New Black". WSJ. 19 June 2008. Retrieved 24 June 2013. 
  4. ^ Gerardy, Justine (21 June 2008). "Chinese have trod murky path as 'non-people'". IOL News. Retrieved 2 January 2016. they had to get permission right down to the neighbours 
  5. ^ Ho, Ufrieda (24 April 2015). "Alan Ho's death stirs hope out of tragedy". The M&G Online. Retrieved 2 January 2016. Still, a family that wanted to move into a nice white suburb had to ask the permission of their neighbours – 10 houses to the front, 10 to the back and 10 on each side of the house they intended to call home. 
  6. ^ In Search of a Better Life: A History of Korean Migration to Cape Town, Kim Mino, University of Cape Town, page 7
  7. ^ The Embassy of the Republic of Korea to the Republic of South Africa
  8. ^ Taiwan Review (Taiwan State Information Service, Premier Sun Yun-suan visit to South Africa 1980)
  9. ^ ISBN 978-0-370-10357-0
  10. ^ "'Yagga' Rowe Tackles Apartheid", CaribbeanCricket.com
  11. ^ Reid, Neil (9 May 2010). "Bee Gee: I never felt I was an honorary white". Sunday News. Retrieved 3 October 2011. 
  12. ^ Brown, Michael (18 April 2010). "Rugby: Once was hatred". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 3 October 2011. 
  13. ^ http://sports.jrank.org/pages/1677/Goolagong-Evonne-Goolagong-Impact.html