God in Islam

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In Islam, God (Arabic: الله‎, romanizedAllāh, contraction of الْإِلٰه al-ilāh, lit. "the God") is the absolute one, the all-powerful and all-knowing ruler of the universe, and the creator of everything in existence. Islam emphasizes that God is strictly singular (tawḥīd ): unique (wāḥid ), inherently One (aḥad ),[1] also all-merciful and omnipotent.[2] God is neither a material nor a spiritual being.[3] According to Islamic teachings, beyond the Throne[4] and according to the Quran, "No vision can grasp him, but His grasp is over all vision: He is above all comprehension, yet is acquainted with all things."[5]

Chapter 112 of the Quran, titled Al-'Ikhlās (The Sincerity) reads:

"He is God, [who is] One.
God, the Eternal Refuge.
He neither begets nor is born,
Nor is there to Him any equivalent."[6]

In Islam there is only one God and there are 99 names of that one God (al-asmāʼ al-ḥusná lit. meaning: "The best names"), each of which evokes a distinct attribute of God.[7][8] All these names refer to Allah, the supreme and all-comprehensive god.[9] Among the 99 names of God, the most familiar and frequent are "the Compassionate" (Ar-Raḥmān) and "the Merciful" (Ar-Raḥīm).[7][8] Creation and ordering of the universe is seen as an act of prime mercy for which all creatures praise God's attributes and bear witness to God's unity.

Allah[edit]

Allah is the Arabic word referring to God in Abrahamic religions.[10][11][12] In the English language, the word generally refers to God in Islam. The word is thought to be derived by contraction from al-ilāh, which means "the god", and is related to El and Elah, the Hebrew and Aramaic words for God.[13][14] It is distinguished from ilāh (Arabic: إله‎), the Arabic word meaning deity, which could refer to any of the gods worshipped in pre-Islamic Arabia.[15]

Other names[edit]

God is described and referred to in the Quran and hadith by 99 names that reflect his attributes.[16] The Quran refers to the attributes of God as "most beautiful names".[17][18] According to Gerhard Böwering,

They are traditionally enumerated as 99 in number to which is added as the highest Name (al-ism al-ʾaʿẓam), the Supreme Name of Allāh. The locus classicus for listing the Divine Names in the literature of Qurʾānic commentary is 17:110[19] “Call upon Allah, or call upon The Merciful; whichsoever you call upon, to Allah belong the most beautiful Names,” and also 59:22-24,[20] which includes a cluster of more than a dozen Divine epithets."

— Gerhard Böwering, God and God's Attributes[21]

Non-Arab Muslims may or may not use different names as much as Allah, for instance "God" in English.

Phrases and expressions[edit]

There are numerous conventional phrases and expressions invoking God.

Name Phrase Citation
(Quran or Sunnah)
Takbīra
allāhu ʾakbaru 9:72, 29:45, 40:10
أَللّٰهُ أَكْبَرُ
God is greater (than anything you see, hear, or do)
Tasbīḥa
subḥāna llāhi 23:91, 28:68, 37:159, 52:43, 59:23
سُبْحَانَ اللّٰهِ
Glory to God
Taḥmīda
al-ḥamdu li-llāhi 1:2, 6:1, 29:63, 31:25, 34:1, 35:1, 35:34, 39:29, 39:74, 39:75, 40:65
أَلْحَمْدُ لِلّٰهِ
Praise be to God
Tahlīla
lā ʾilāha ʾillā llāhu 37:38, 47:19
لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلّٰا اللّٰهُ
(There is) no god but Allah
Shahada
muḥammadun rasūlu llāhi 48:29
مُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ اللّٰهِ
Muhammad is the messenger of God
Basmala
bi-smi llāhi r-raḥmāni r-raḥīmi 1:1
بِسْمِ اللّٰهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحْيم[22]
in the name of God, the Beneficent, the Merciful
Insha'Allah
ʾin shāʾa llāhu 2:70, 12:99, 18:69, 28:27, 48:27
إِنْ شَاءَ اللّٰهُ
if God is willing
Mashallah
mā shāʾa llāhu 6:128, 7:188, 10:49, 18:39, 87:7
مَا شَاءَ اللّٰهُ
God wills that
ʿAlayhi as-salām
ṣallā llāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallama
صَلَّىٰ اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِہِ وَسَلَّمَ[23]
God bless him and give him salvation
Rahimahullah
raḥimahu llāhu / raḥimaka llāhu
رَحِمَهُ اللّٰهُ / رَحِمَكَ اللّٰهُ
May God have mercy upon him / you
ʾAstaghfiru llāh
ʾastaġfiru llāhi 12:98, 19:47
أَسْتَغْفِرُ اللّٰهِ
I seek forgiveness from God
Ḥawqala
ʾlā ḥawla wa lā quwwata illā bi-llāhi Riyad as-Salihin 16:36
لا حول ولا قوة إلا بالله
There is no might nor power except in God
Inna Lillahi wa inna ilaihi raji'un
ʾinnā li-llāhi wa-ʾinnā ʾilayhi rājiʿūna 2:156, 2:46, 2:156
إِنَّا لِلّٰهِ وَإِنَّا إِلَيْهِ رَاجِعُونَ
Indeed, (we belong) to God and indeed to Him we shall return
Jazaka llāh
jazaka llāhu ḫayran Riyad as-Salihin 17:32, Tirmidhi 27:141, Bukhari 7:3
جَزَاكَ اللّٰهُ خَيْرًا
May God reward you well
ʾAʿūdhu bi-llāh
ʾaʿūḏu bi-llāhi mina š-šayṭāni r-rajīmi Riyad as-Salihin 1:46
أَعُوْذُ بِاللّٰهِ مِنَ الشَّيْطٰانِ الرَّجِيْمِ
I seek refuge with God from Satan, the accursed
Fī sabīli llāh
fī sabīli llāhi 2:154, 2:190, 2:195, 2:218, 2:244, 2:246, etc.
فِي سَبِيلِ اللّٰهِ
in the cause (way) of God
Yarḥamuka-llāhu
yarḥamuka llāhu Bukhari 78:248, Riyad as-Salihin 6:35
يَرْحَمُكَ اللّٰهُ
May God have mercy on you
Honorifics often said or written alongside Allah
Subḥānahu wa-taʿālā
subḥānahu wa-taʿālā[24] 6:100, 10:18, 16:1, 17:43, 30:40, 39:67
سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعَالَىٰ
May He be praised and exalted[25][26]
Jalla jalālahu
jalla jalālahu
جَلَّ جَلَالَهُ[27]
May His glory be glorified
ʿAzza wa-jalla
ʿazza wa-jalla
عَزَّ وَجَلَّ
the Glorified/Exalted/Mighty and Sublime

Attributes[edit]

Oneness[edit]

Islam's most fundamental concept is a strict monotheism called tawhid, affirming that God is one and incomparable (wāḥid). The basic creed of Islam, the Shahada[28] (recited under oath to enter the religion), involves لا إله إلا الله (lā ʾilāha ʾillallāh), or, "I testify there is no god other than God."

Muslims reject the Christian doctrine of the Trinity and divinity of Jesus, comparing it to polytheism.[29] Jesus is instead believed to be a prophet. See Jesus in Islam.

According to Vincent J. Cornell,[citation needed] the Quran also provides a monist image of God by describing the reality as a unified whole, with God being a single concept that would describe or ascribe all existing things: "He is the First and the Last, the Evident and the Immanent: and He has full knowledge of all things."[30]

Tawhid constitutes the foremost article of the Muslim profession.[31] The deification or worship of anyone or anything other than God (shirk) is the biggest sin in Islam. The entirety of the Islamic teaching rests on the principle of Tawhid.[32]

Creator[edit]

God is the creator of the universe and all the creatures in it.[33]

Praise be to Allah, the Creator of the heavens and the earth, Who appointeth the angels messengers having wings two, three and four. He multiplieth in creation what He will. Lo! Allah is Able to do all things.

We have built the heaven with might, and We it is Who make the vast extent (thereof).

Verily We created man from a product of wet earth; Then placed him as a drop (of seed) in a safe lodging; Then fashioned We the drop a clot, then fashioned We the clot a little lump, then fashioned We the little lump bones, then clothed the bones with flesh, and then produced it as another creation. So blessed be Allah, the Best of creators!

Mercy[edit]

The most commonly used names in the primary sources are Al-Rahman, meaning "Most Compassionate" and Al-Rahim, meaning "Most Merciful".[34] The former compasses the whole creation, therefore apply to God's mercy, that gives every necessary condition to make life possible. The latter apply to God's mercy, that gives favor for good deeds. Thus Al-Rahman includes both the believers and the unbelievers, but Al-Rahim the believers.[35][36] God is said to love forgiving, with a hadith stating God would replace a sinless people with one who sinned but still asked repentance.[37] Also the word Rahman comes from the word Rahm which means the womb of the mother so it is a comparison between God's mercy to the mercy of a mother with her child.[38]

His mercy takes many forms from as he say in the Quran "and My Mercy embraces all things.” [7:156] this is shown by a in Muslim narrated from Abu Hurairah said the Prophet said : “Allah has one hundred parts of mercy, of which He sent down one between the jinn, mankind, the animals and the insects, by means of which they are compassionate and merciful to one another, and by means of which wild animals are kind to their offspring. And Allah has kept back ninety-nine parts of mercy with which to be merciful to His slaves of the Day of Resurrection.”[39][40] Also God's mercy according to Islamic theology is what gets a person into paradise. According to hadith in Sahih Al Bukhari “No one’s deeds will ever admit him to Paradise.” They said, “Not even you, O Messenger of Allah?” He said, “No, not even me unless Allah showers me with His Mercy. So try to be near to perfection. And no one should wish for death; he is either doing good so he will do more of that, or he is doing wrong so he may repent.”[40][41]

Omniscience[edit]

God is fully aware of everything that can be known.[42] This includes private thoughts and feelings. The Qur'an asserts that one can not hide anything from God:[original research?]

And, [O Muhammad], you are not [engaged] in any matter or recite any of the Qur'an and you [people] do not do any deed except that We are witness over you when you are involved in it. And not absent from your Lord is any [part] of an atom's weight within the earth or within the heaven or [anything] smaller than that or greater but that it is in a clear register.

— Quran, Sura 10 (Yunus), ayat 61[43]

And indeed We have created man, and We know what his ownself whispers to him. And We are nearer to him than his jugular vein.

— Quran, Sura Qaf: 50:16

Relationship with creation[edit]

Muslims believe that God is the only true reality and the creation including its creatures are just a derivative reality created out of love and mercy by God's command,[44] "..."Be," and it is."[2][45] and that the purpose of existence is to worship or to know God.[46][47][48] It is believed that God created everything for a divine purpose; the universe governed by fixed laws that ensure the harmonious working of all things. Humans must live in accordance with these laws to live to find peace and reproduce God's benevolence in their own society to live in accordance with the nature of all things, known as surrender to God in the Islamic sense.[49] As in the other Abrahamic religions, God is believed to communicate with his creation via revelations given to prophets to remind people of God. The Quran in particular is believed by Muslims to be the verbatim word of God as revealed to Muhammad. Hadith are the records of Muhammad's sayings and example, and Hadith Qudsi is a sub-category of hadith, which Muslims regard as the words of God repeated by Muhammad. According to Ali ibn Mohammed al-Jurjani, the Hadith Qudsi differ from the Quran in that the former are "expressed in Muhammad's words", whereas the latter are the "direct words of God".[50] There are no intermediaries, such as clergy, to contact God who states in the Quran, "It was We Who created man, and We know what dark suggestions his soul makes to him: for We are nearer to him than (his) jugular vein."[51] People may enter a particular relationship with God any time and in different circumstances through the divine names or attributes. Thus God is also a personal God who responds whenever a person in need or distress calls Him.[2][52] Muhammad al-Bukhari, in his Ṣaḥīḥ Bukhārī, narrates a ḥadīth qudsī that God says, "I am as My servant thinks (expects) I am."[53][54] When Sufis claim union with God, it is not that they become one in essence, rather the will of the Sufi is fully congruent to God.[55]

Concepts in Islamic theology[edit]

Isma'ilism - Shia[edit]

According to Isma'ilism, God is absolutely transcendent and unknowable;[56] beyond matter, energy, space, time, change, imaginings, intellect, positive as well as negative qualities. All attributes of God named in rituals, scriptures or prayers refers not to qualities God possesses, but to qualities emanated from God, thus these are the attributes God gave as the source of all qualities, but God does not consist on one of these qualities.[57] Since God is beyond all wordings, Isma'ilism also denies the concept of God as the first cause.[58]

Muʿtazila[edit]

The Muʿtazilites reject the anthropomorphic attributes of God because an eternal being "must be unique". Accordingly, attributes would make God comparable. The descriptions of God in the Quran are considered to be allegories.[59] Nevertheless, the Muʿtazilites thought, God contains oneness (tawhid) and justice. Other characteristics like knowledge are not attributed to God; rather they describe his essence. Otherwise eternal attributes of God would give rise to multiplicity entities existing eternal besides God.[60]

Maturidi and Ash'ari - Sunnism[edit]

Ash'ari and Maturidi are in agreement about God's attributes are eternal but neither hold to be metaphorically (unlike Mu'tazilla) nor literally.[61] References to anthropomorphic attributes can probably not be understood correctly by humans.[62] Although God's existence is considered to be possibly known by reason, human mind can not fully understand God's attributes. For example, when humans in paradise see God, they do not see God in the way humans are able to see on Earth.[62] Ashʿari asserts, since God is the creator of everything that exists and creation does not affect nor alter God, the Throne of God is not a dwelling place for God.[63] Accordingly, God is above his Throne means, God exist unattached of any place

Sufism[edit]

Since God in Islam is transcendental and sovereign but also immanent and omnipresent, the Sufi view holds that in reality, only God exists. Thus everything in creation is reflecting an attribute of God's names. Yet these forms are not God themselves.[64] The Sufi Saint Ibn Arabi stated: There is nothing but God. This statement was mistakenly equalized to Pantheism by critics, however, Ibn Arabi always made a clear distinction between the creation and the creator.[65] Since God is the Absolute Reality,[66] the created worlds and their inhabitants are merely illusions. They just exist because of Gods command Kun, but everything that would be, was already known by God.[67]

Salafism and Wahhabism -[edit]

Salafism and Wahhabism refuse interpretations on Quran to avoid altering of its message, thus taking the descriptions of God literally and oppose widespread theological concepts including the Ash'ari view.[68] Therefore, descriptions such as "God's hands" or "sitting on (above) a throne, should be taken at their linguistic meaning, without asking how, as we don't know how, but we know what they are based on linguistic meaning.[69]

Comparative theology[edit]

Islamic theology identifies God as described in the Quran as the same God of Israel who covenanted with Abraham.[70] It rejects the belief once held by pre-Islamic Arabians that God has daughters. Islam and Judaism alike reject the Trinity of Christianity. But the Islamic concept of God is less personal than in the Judeo-Christian tradition, [47] and is known only from natural signs and can only be spoken about in parables.[71]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ John L. Esposito, Islam: The Straight Path, Oxford University Press, 1998, p.88
  2. ^ a b c "Allah." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopædia Britannica
  3. ^ Benjamin W. McCraw, Robert Arp Philosophical Approaches to Demonology Taylor & Francis 2017 ISBN 9781315466767 page 138
  4. ^ Britannica Encyclopedia, Islam, p. 3
  5. ^ Quran 6:103 (Translated by Yusuf Ali)
  6. ^ "The Noble Qur'an".
  7. ^ a b Bentley, David (September 1999). The 99 Beautiful Names for God for All the People of the Book. William Carey Library. ISBN 0-87808-299-9.
  8. ^ a b Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa, Allah
  9. ^ Annemarie Schimmel,The Tao of Islam: A Sourcebook on Gender Relationships in Islamic, SUNY Press, p.206
  10. ^ "God". Islam: Empire of Faith. PBS. Archived from the original on 2014-03-27. Retrieved 18 December 2010.
  11. ^ "Islam and Christianity", Encyclopedia of Christianity (2001): Arabic-speaking Christians and Jews also refer to God as Allāh.
  12. ^ Gardet, L. "Allah". In Bearman, P.; Bianquis, Th.; Bosworth, C.E.; van Donzel, E.; Heinrichs, W.P. (eds.). Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Brill Online. Retrieved 2 May 2007.
  13. ^ Zeki Saritoprak (2006). "Allah". In Oliver Leaman (ed.). The Qur'an: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. p. 34.
  14. ^ Vincent J. Cornell (2005). "God: God in Islam". In Lindsay Jones (ed.). Encyclopedia of Religion. 5 (2nd ed.). MacMillan Reference USA. p. 724.
  15. ^ "God". Islam: Empire of Faith. PBS. Retrieved 2010-12-18.
  16. ^ Bentley, David (September 1999). The 99 Beautiful Names for God for All the People of the Book. William Carey Library. ISBN 0-87808-299-9.
  17. ^ Quran 7:180, Quran 17:110, Quran 20:8, Quran 59:24
  18. ^ "Names of God - Oxford Islamic Studies Online". www.oxfordislamicstudies.com. Retrieved 2018-08-13. Encouraged by the Quran (7:180; 17:110; 20:8), Muslims selected ninety-nine attributes of God, describing His perfection, from the Quran and traditions. Referred to as “the most beautiful names of God,” they describe a range of characteristics that balances the power of God (the Creator, the Sovereign, and the All-Knowing) with His love and mercy (the All-Loving, the Most Gracious, and the All-Forgiving). The names are frequently memorized and used in supplications. Preceded by the words Abd or Amat (male or female servant), they are often used in proper names (e.g., Abd al-Rahman, “servant of the Merciful”).
  19. ^ Quran 17:110
  20. ^ Quran 59:22–24
  21. ^ Böwering, Gerhard. "God and God Attributes". Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān.
  22. ^ The phrase is encoded at Unicode code point U+FDFD
  23. ^ The phrase is encoded as a ligature at Unicode code point FDFA
  24. ^ Often abbreviated "SWT" or "swt".
  25. ^ Grob, Eva Mira (2010). Documentary Arabic private and business letters on papyrus: form and function, content and context. New York, N.Y.: De Gruyter. p. 26. ISBN 3110247046.
  26. ^ Reynolds, Gabriel Said, ed. (2011). New perspectives on the Qur'an: The Qur'an in its historical context 2. London: Routledge. p. 259. ISBN 1136700781.
  27. ^ The phrase is encoded as a ligature at Unicode code point U+FDFB
  28. ^ Hossein Nasr The Heart of Islam, Enduring Values for Humanity (April., 2003), pp 3, 39, 85, 27–272
  29. ^ The concise Oxford dictionary of world religions. Bowker, John, 1935-, Oxford University Press. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2000. ISBN 9780191727221. OCLC 49508601.CS1 maint: others (link)
  30. ^ Quran 57:3 (Translated by Yusuf Ali)
  31. ^ D. Gimaret, Tawhid, Encyclopaedia of Islam
  32. ^ Tariq Ramadan (2005), p.203
  33. ^ "Islam: An Overview - Oxford Islamic Studies Online". www.oxfordislamicstudies.com. Retrieved 2018-08-13. Allah is believed to be the transcendent, all-powerful, and all-knowing creator, sustainer, ordainer, and judge of the universe.
  34. ^ Bentley, David (September 1999). The 99 Beautiful Names for God for All the People of the Book. William Carey Library. ISBN 0-87808-299-9.
  35. ^ Prince Sorie Conteh Traditionalists, Muslims, and Christians in Africa: Interreligious Encounters and Dialogue Cambria Press 2009 ISBN 978-1-604-97596-3 page 80
  36. ^ Mahmoud Ayoub The Qur'an and Its Interpreters, Volume 1 SUNY Press 1984 ISBN 978-0-873-95727-4 page 43
  37. ^ "Allah would replace you with a people who sin". islamtoday.net. Archived from the original on October 14, 2013. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
  38. ^ Lessons From Surah Ar Rahman - Nouman Ali Khan, retrieved 2015-10-04
  39. ^ "My Mercy Prevails Over My Wrath". www.onislam.net. Retrieved 2015-10-04.
  40. ^ a b "The Mercy of Allah Towards His slaves - islamqa.info". islamqa.info. Retrieved 2015-10-04.
  41. ^ "The Spiritual Season Part 3: Ramadan | Al-Madina Institute Blog". Retrieved 2015-10-04.
  42. ^ "BBC - Religions - Islam: Basic articles of faith". Archived from the original on 13 August 2018. Retrieved 2018-08-13.
  43. ^ "Surah Yunus - The Noble Qur'an - القرآن الكريم". quran.com.
  44. ^ Sachiko Murata The Tao of Islam: A Sourcebook on Gender Relationships in Islamic Thought SUNY Press 1992 ISBN 978-0-791-40913-8 page 77
  45. ^ Quran 2:117
  46. ^ "Human Nature and the Purpose of Existence". Patheos.com. Retrieved 2011-01-29.
  47. ^ a b David Leeming The Oxford Companion to World Mythology Oxford University Press 2005 ISBN 978-0-195-15669-0 page 209
  48. ^ Quran 51:56
  49. ^ Rebecca Stein, Philip L. Stein The Anthropology of Religion, Magic, and Witchcraft Routledge 2017 ISBN 9781315532158 chapter: Islam
  50. ^ [1] Archived 2015-10-15 at the Wayback Machine, 3rd paragraph, October 2015
  51. ^ Quran 50:16
  52. ^ Quran 2:186
  53. ^ "I am as My Servant Thinks (expects) I am". hadithaday.org. Retrieved 2014-07-31.
  54. ^ "Center for Muslim-Jewish Engagement". usc.edu. Archived from the original on 2017-05-15. Retrieved 2014-11-01.
  55. ^ Maha Elkaisy-Friemuth God and Humans in Islamic Thought: Abd Al-Jabbar, Ibn Sina and Al-Ghazali Routledge 2006 ISBN 978-1-134-14676-5 page 146
  56. ^ Farhad Daftary Ismaili History and Intellectual Traditions Routledge 2017 ISBN 978-1-351-97503-2
  57. ^ Gnostic, Ismaili (2016-01-22). "Ismaili Teachings on the Oneness of God (Tawhid): Beyond Personalist Theism and Modern Atheism – Ismaili Gnosis". Ismailignosis.com. Retrieved 2019-01-29.
  58. ^ Arzina R. Lalani Degrees of Excellence: A Fatimid Treatise on Leadership in Islam I.B.Tauris 2009 ISBN 978-0-857-71202-8 page 3
  59. ^ John Renard Islamic Theological Themes: A Primary Source Reader Univ of California Press 2014 ISBN 978-0-520-95771-8 page 138
  60. ^ Patrick Hughes, Thomas Patrick Hughes Dictionary of Islam Asian Educational Services, 1995 ISBN 978-8-120-60672-2 page 425
  61. ^ Abdullah Saeed Islamic Thought: An IntroductionRoutledge 2006 ISBN 978-1-134-22564-4 chapter legal thought
  62. ^ a b Andrew Rippin Muslims: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices Psychology Press 2005 ISBN 978-0-415-34888-1 page 86
  63. ^ Imam Al-Bayhaqi Allah's Names and Attributes ISCA 1999 ISBN 978-1-930-40903-3 page 19
  64. ^ Karin Jironet The Image of Spiritual Liberty in the Western Sufi Movement Following Hazrat Inayat Khan Peeters Publishers 2002 ISBN 978-9-042-91205-2 page 32
  65. ^ J. I. Laliwala Islamic Philosophy of Religion: Synthesis of Science Religion and Philosophy Sarup & Sons 2005 ISBN 978-8-176-25476-2 page 39
  66. ^ Jean-Louis Michon, Roger Gaetani Sufism: Love & Wisdom World Wisdom, Inc, 2006 ISBN 978-0-941-53275-4 page 207
  67. ^ William C. Chittick Ibn 'Arabi: Heir to the Prophets Oneworld Publications 2012 ISBN 978-1-780-74193-2
  68. ^ Alexander Thurston Salafism in Nigeria Cambridge University Press 2016 ISBN 978-1-107-15743-9 page 6
  69. ^ Quintan Wiktorowicz The Management of Islamic Activism: Salafis, the Muslim Brotherhood, and State Power in Jordan SUNY Press 2001 ISBN 978-0-791-44835-9 page 115
  70. ^ According to Francis Edward Peters, "The Quran insists, Muslims believe, and historians affirm that Muhammad and his followers worship the same God as the Jews [see Quran 29:46]. The Quran's Allah is the same Creator God who covenanted with Abraham".
  71. ^ Rebecca Stein, Philip L. Stein The Anthropology of Religion, Magic, and Witchcraft Routledge 2017 ISBN 9781315532158 chapter: Islam

Bibliography[edit]

  • Al-Bayhaqi (1999), Allah's Names and Attributes, ISCA, ISBN 1-930409-03-6
  • Hulusi, Ahmed (1999), "Allah" as introduced by Mohammed, Kitsan, 10th ed., ISBN 975-7557-41-2
  • Muhaiyaddeen, M. R. Bawa (1976), Asmāʼul-Husnā: the 99 beautiful names of Allah, The Bawa Muhaiyaddeen Fellowship, ISBN 0-914390-13-9
  • Netton, Ian Richard (1994), Allah Transcendent: Studies in the Structure and Semiotics of Islamic Philosophy, Theology and Cosmology, Routledge, ISBN 0-7007-0287-3

External links[edit]