Hoop crown

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Bavarian hoop crown, which used to carry the Wittelsbach Diamond[1]

A hoop crown (German: Bügelkrone or Spangenkrone,[2] Latin: faislum),[3] arched crown, or closed crown, is a crown consisting of a "band around the temples and one or two bands over the head".[4] First used by the Carolingian dynasty,[5] hoop crowns became increasingly popular among royal dynasties in the Late Middle Ages,[6] and the dominant type of crown in the Modern Era.[7]

Origins[edit]

Hoop crowns were introduced to Germanic Europe by the Carolingian dynasty,[5] who usurped the throne of the Frankish Empire from the Merovingian dynasty in 751. However their use dates back to the end of the Roman Empire and the Byzantine Empire.[8] The Carolingian hoop crown was most probably[3] derived from the contemporary Germanic hoop helmet (German: Spangenhelm).[5] The oldest such crown is the Crown of Saint Faith in Conques, worn either by Pepin I (797–838) or Pepin II (823–864) of Aquitaine.[3] Other Carolingians known to have worn hoop crowns are Louis II "the German" (806–876), Charles II "the Bald" (823–877) and Odo of Vermandois (910–946).[3] Charlemagne (742–814) possibly wore a hoop crown, although the obscurities of contemporary portraits, in particular on seals, mean that this cannot be stated with certainty.[9] Sometimes, the Carolingian hoop crowns were combined with a cap, worn beneath.[4]

Though hoop crowns were characteristic for Carolingian kings, there were several other types of crowns worn by the members of this dynasty.[4] For example, Charlemagne also wore a crown shaped like a collar with an attachment on the front side.[9] The features most Carolingian crowns had in common were "cap or bands over the head, edge-bands, and pendilia".[4] Some of the Carolingian crowns were imitations of contemporary Byzantine Imperial crowns,[4] which had the shape of a closed cap (kamelaukion).[3] In turn, Byzantine Emperor Justinian I "the Great" (483–565) had hoops attached to his crown to carry a cross above it, creating the prototype of later hoop crowns.[2]

Spread[edit]

Hoop crowns became popular in late medieval Europe.[6] The Holy Roman Imperial crown was a hoop crown.[6] Norman king William the Conqueror wore a hoop crown, and in the 12th century, the kings of Hungary amended their collar with two hoops.[6] In both cases, the object of adopting a hoop crown was not to appear to occupy a position of inferiority to the Holy Roman Emperor.[6] William's crown was modelled after the crown of emperor Otto I and similarly decorated with twelve types of gems.[10] In addition, William had sceptre and virga created, resembling the imperial insignia.[10]

However, not all late medieval crowns had hoops. For example, the 15th-century kings of France wore crowns of the lilly type, a collar decorated with four lilies.[7] The hoop crown became the prevalent type of crown in the Early Modern Age.[7]

See also[edit]

Sources[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Schulz (2010)
  2. ^ a b Hartmann online, entries "Spangenkrone, Bügelkrone"
  3. ^ a b c d e Lohrmann (1973), p. 764
  4. ^ a b c d e Kornbluth (1990), p. 61
  5. ^ a b c Schramm (1956), p. 888
  6. ^ a b c d e Schramm (1959), p. 562
  7. ^ a b c Schramm (1959), p. 561
  8. ^ Grierson, P. (1993). Catalogue of the Byzantine Coins in the Dumbarton Oaks Collection and in the Whittemore Collection, 2: Phocas to Theodosius III, 602-717. Universidad de Harvard. Estados Unidos.
  9. ^ a b RGA V (1984), p. 371
  10. ^ a b Schramm (1956), p. 756

Bibliography[edit]