The Hopetoun Cup was established as a perpetual rugby union trophy between Australia and Scotland in 1998. In the spirit of the link between the two countries, it is named after the Seventh Earl of Hopetoun, a Scotsman, who, as the then Governor-General of Australia, presided over the Federation of Australia in 1901. Like the Cook Cup, the Hopetoun Cup is crystal and was designed by Royal Doulton in London.
Australia are the current holders, having won the cup in 2013 with their 21–15 win at Murrayfield. Australia have also held the cup for the majority of its existence. However, in 2009 and 2012, Scotland recorded back-to-back wins to hold the cup for four years.