|Major endocrine glands. (Male left, female on the right.) 1. Pineal gland 2. Pituitary gland 3. Thyroid gland 4. Thymus 5. Adrenal gland 6. Pancreas 7. Ovary 8. Testes|
Types of disease
Broadly speaking, endocrine disorders may be subdivided into three groups:
- Endocrine gland hypofunction/hyposecretion (leading to hormone deficiency)
- Endocrine gland hyperfunction/hypersecretion (leading to hormone excess)
- Tumours (benign or malignant) of endocrine glands
Endocrine disorders are often quite complex, involving a mixed picture of hyposecretion and hypersecretion because of the feedback mechanisms involved in the endocrine system. For example, most forms of hyperthyroidism are associated with an excess of thyroid hormone and a low level of thyroid stimulating hormone.
List of diseases
Glucose homeostasis disorders
- Thyroid cancer
- Thyroid hormone resistance
Calcium homeostasis disorders and Metabolic bone disease
- Parathyroid gland disorders
- Osteitis deformans (Paget's disease of bone)
Pituitary gland disorders
- Diabetes insipidus
- Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone (SIADH)
- Hypopituitarism (or Panhypopituitarism)
- Pituitary tumors
Sex hormone disorders
- Disorders of sex development or intersex disorders
- Hypogonadism (Gonadotropin deficiency)
- Disorders of Puberty
- Menstrual function or fertility disorders
Tumours of the endocrine glands not mentioned elsewhere
See also separate organs
- Autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes
- Incidentaloma - an unexpected finding on diagnostic imaging, often of endocrine glands
In endocrinology, medical emergencies include diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, hypoglycemic coma, acute adrenocortical insufficiency, phaeochromocytoma crisis, hypercalcemic crisis, thyroid storm, myxoedema coma and pituitary apoplexy.
Emergencies arising from decompensated pheochromocytomas or parathyroid adenomas are sometimes referred for emergency resection when aggressive medical therapies fail to control the patient's state, however the surgical risks are significant, especially blood pressure lability and the possibility of cardiovascular collapse after resection (due to a brutal drop in respectively catecholamines and calcium, which must be compensated with gradual normalization). It remains debated when emergency surgery is appropriate as opposed to urgent or elective surgery after continued attempts to stabilize the patient, notably in view of newer and more efficient medications and protocols.
- List of MeSH codes (C19)
- ICD-10 Chapter IV: Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases
- List of ICD-9 codes 240-279: Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases, and immunity disorders
- "Endocrine Disorders". webmd.
- "Diagnosing Hyperthyroidism: Overactivity of the Thyroid Gland". endocrineweb.
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