Hormone response element

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A hormone response element (HRE) is a short sequence of DNA within the promoter of a gene, that is able to bind to a specific hormone receptor complex and therefore regulate transcription.[1] The sequence is most commonly a pair of inverted repeats separated by three nucleotides, which also indicates that the receptor binds as a dimer. Specifically, HRE responds to steroid hormones, as the activated steroid receptor is the transcription factor binding HRE. This regulates the transcription of genes signalled by the steroid hormone.

A gene may have many different response elements, allowing complex control to be exerted over the level and rate of transcription.[2]

HRE are used in transgenic animal cells as inducers of gene expression.

Examples of HREs include estrogen response elements and androgen response elements.


  1. ^ Kimball JW (25 April 2011). "Steroid Hormone Receptors and their Response Elements". Kimball's Biology Pages.
  2. ^ Krieger M, Scott MP, Matsudaira PT, Lodish HF, Darnell JE, Lawrence Z, Kaiser C, Berk A (2003). Molecular Cell Biology (Fifth ed.). San Francisco: W.H. Freeman. p. 973 pages. ISBN 0-7167-4366-3.