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|Regal horned lizard|
Horned lizards are a genus (Phrynosoma) of lizards which are the type genus of the subfamily Phrynosomatinae. Historically known as the "horny toad", or "horntoad", taxonomists often hypercorrect the English common name to the vague "horned lizard," which can lead to confusion with other horned lizards, such as the bearded dragon, which belongs to a different family. The common name is a metaphor prompted by the horntoad's flattened, rounded body and blunt snout, which make the common name "horntoad" natural and easy to remember.
The taxon Phrynosoma means "toad-bodied". In common with larger true frogs and toads, horntoads tend to move sluggishly, making them easy to hand-catch; this may also avoid triggering attacks by predators. They are adapted to desert areas. The spines on the lizard's back and sides are made from modified reptile scales which prevent the water loss through the skin, whereas the horns on the head are true horns (i.e. they have a bony core). Of 15 species of horned lizards in North America, eight are native to the United States. The largest-bodied and most widely distributed of the US species is the Texas horned lizard.
Horned lizards use a wide variety of means to avoid predation. Their coloration generally serves as camouflage. When threatened, their first defense is to remain still to avoid detection. If approached too closely, they generally run in short bursts and stop abruptly to confuse the predator's visual acuity. If this fails, they puff up their bodies to cause them to appear more horned and larger, so that they are more difficult to swallow.
At least eight species (P. asio, P. cornutum, P. coronatum, P. ditmarsi, P. hernandesi, P. orbiculare, P. solare, and P. taurus) are also able to squirt an aimed stream of blood from the corners of the eyes for a distance of up to 5 feet (1.5 m). They do this by restricting the blood flow leaving the head, thereby increasing blood pressure and rupturing tiny vessels around the eyelids. This not only confuses predators, but also the blood tastes foul to canine and feline predators. It appears to have no effect against predatory birds. Only three closely related species (P. mcallii, P. modestum, and P. platyrhinos) are certainly known to be unable to squirt blood.
While previous thought held that compounds were added to the blood from glands in the ocular sinus cavity, current research has shown that the chemical compounds that make up the defense are already in the circulating blood. It is possible that their diet of large quantities of venomous Harvester Ants could be a factor; however, the origin and structure of the chemicals responsible are still unknown. The blood-squirting mechanism increases survival after contact with canine predators; therefore, it is probable that, while unorthodox, the trait could have provided an evolutionary advantage. Ocular autohemorrhaging has also been documented in other lizards, which suggests blood-squirting could have evolved from a less extreme defense in the ancestral branch of the genus. Recent phylogenic research supports this claim, so it appears as though the species incapable of squirting blood have lost the adaptation for reasons yet unstudied.
To avoid being picked up by the head or neck, a horned lizard ducks or elevates its head and orients its cranial horns straight up, or back. If a predator tries to take it by the body, the lizard drives that side of its body down into the ground so the predator cannot easily get its lower jaw underneath.
A University of Texas publication notes that horned lizard populations continue to disappear throughout the southwest despite protective legislation. The Texas horned lizard has disappeared from almost half of its geographic range. Population declines are attributed to loss of habitat, human eradication of the ant populations upon which the lizards prey, displacement of native ant populations by invading fire ants (aided by synergistic effects of native ant eradication), and predation by domestic dogs and cats.
Species and subspecies
- Giant horned lizard, Phrynosoma asio Cope, 1864
- Short-tailed horned lizard, Phrynosoma braconnieri Duméril, 1870
- Cedros Island horned lizard, Phrynosoma cerroense Stejneger, 1893
- Texas horned lizard, Phrynosoma cornutum (Harlan, 1825)
- Coast horned lizard, Phrynosoma coronatum
- Ditmars' horned lizard or rock horned lizard, Phrynosoma ditmarsi Stejneger, 1906
- Pygmy short-horned lizard, Phrynosoma douglasii
- Greater short-horned lizard, Phrynosoma hernandesi Girard, 1858
- Flat-tail horned lizard, Phrynosoma mcallii (Hallowell, 1852)
- Roundtail horned lizard, Phrynosoma modestum Girard, 1852
- Regal horned lizard, Phrynosoma solare Gray, 1845
- Mexican horned lizard, Phrynosoma taurus Dugès, 1873
- Gulf Coast horned lizard, Phrynosoma wigginsi Montanucci, 2004
Texas designated the Texas horned lizard (Phrynosoma cornutum) as the official state reptile in 1993 and the "TCU Horned Frog" is the mascot of Texas Christian University in Fort Worth, Texas. TCU is the only known athletic team with the horned lizard as a mascot.
- Middendorf III, G.A.; Sherbrooke, W.C.; Braun, E.J. (2001). "Comparison of Blood Squirted from the Circumorbital Sinus and Systemic Blood in a Horned Lizard, Phrynosoma cornutum". The Southwestern Naturalist. 46 (3): 384–387. JSTOR 3672440. doi:10.2307/3672440.
- Sherbrooke, W.C.; Middendorf III, G.A. (2001). "Blood-Squirting Variability in Horned Lizards (Phrynosoma)" (PDF). Copeia. 2001 (4): 1114–1122. JSTOR 1448403. doi:10.1643/0045-8511(2001)001[1114:BSVIHL]2.0.CO;2.
- Sherbrooke, W.C.; Middendorf III, G.A. (2004). "Responses of Kit Foxes (Vulpes macrotis) to Antipredator Blood-Squirting and Blood of Texas Horned Lizards (Phrynosoma cornutum)". Copeia. 2004 (3): 652–658. JSTOR 1448486. doi:10.1643/CH-03-157R1.
- Hodges, W.L. (2004). "Defensive blood squirting in Phrynosoma ditmarsi and a high rate of human-induced blood squirting in Phrynosoma asio". The Southwestern Naturalist. 49 (2): 267–270. JSTOR 3672697. doi:10.1894/0038-4909(2004)049<0267:DBSIPD>2.0.CO;2.
- Sherbrooke, W. C. (2000). "Sceloporus jarrovii (Yarrow's spiny lizard) Ocular Sinus Bleeding". Herpetological Review. 31: 243.
- Leache, A. D.; J. A. McGuire (2006). "Phylogenetic relationships of hores lizards (Phrynosoma) based on nuclear and mitochondrial data: evidence for a misleading mitochondrial gene tree" (PDF). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 39 (3): 628–644. PMID 16488160. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2005.12.016.
- Pianka, Eric; Hodges, Wendy. "Horned Lizards, Part 2". uts.cc.utexas.edu. University of Texas. Retrieved March 1, 2015.
- "State symbols". Wyoming Secretary of State's Office. 2011. Retrieved January 22, 2011.
- Texas Horned Lizard. State Symbols USA. Retrieved on 2016-10-25.
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