Hornos Island

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Hornos Island
Native name:
Isla Hornos
Cape Horn 2003.jpg
The Hornos Island
Hornos Island is located in Southern Patagonia
Hornos Island
Hornos Island
Geography
Coordinates55°56′39″S 67°16′51″W / 55.944078°S 67.280925°W / -55.944078; -67.280925Coordinates: 55°56′39″S 67°16′51″W / 55.944078°S 67.280925°W / -55.944078; -67.280925
ArchipelagoTierra del Fuego
Adjacent bodies of waterPacific ocean / Atlantic ocean
Area25.1 km2 (9.7 sq mi)
Administration
RegionMagallanes
ProvinceAntártica
CommuneCabo de Hornos
Demographics
Population5 (2019)
Additional information
NGA UFI= -884347

Hornos Island (Spanish: Isla Hornos) is a Chilean island at the southern tip of South America. The island is mostly known for being the location of Cape Horn. It is generally considered South America's southernmost island, but the Diego Ramírez Islands are farther south. The island is one of the Hermite Islands, part of the Tierra del Fuego archipelago.

The Chilean Navy maintains a station on the island, consisting of a residence, utility building, chapel, and lighthouse.[1] A short distance from the main station is a memorial, including a large sculpture featuring the silhouette of an albatross, in honour of the sailors who died while attempting to "round the Horn".[2]

The island is within the Cabo de Hornos National Park.

The world's southernmost tree, a Nothofagus betuloides, is found on Hornos Island.[3]

In 2019, the island had a population of five, consisting of the lighthouse keeper, his wife, and their three children.[4]

Geology[edit]

The composition of the island is mainly of Cretaceous granite with Jurassic volcanic rocks in the northwest. The lower areas of the island are filled with peat moss.

Climate[edit]

Mean Temperature: 5.3° Celsius (41.54º Fahrenheit)

Maximum Temperature: 20.5° Celsius (68.9º Fahrenheit) (February 1996)

Minimum Temperature: -14.5° Celsius (5.9º Fahrenheit) (June 1992)

Mean Relative humidity: 86.4%

Mean Wind Direction: 264°

Mean Wind Speed: 84 knots

Maximum Wind Speed: 119 knots (August 1995)

Rainfall (yearly mean): 697.5 mm.

Maximum Rainfall: 1263.2 (1990)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Isla Hornos Lighthouse, from Lighthouse Depot. Retrieved 18 November 2014.
  2. ^ Cape Horn Memorial Archived 2005-09-26 at the Wayback Machine, by Roberto Benavente; from Fundacion Caphorniers Chile. Retrieved February 5, 2006.
  3. ^ Craig Welch (May 13, 2021). "The tree at the bottom of the world—and the wind-blasted trek to find it". National Geographic.
  4. ^ "Chilean family lives surrounded by the wildest seas on the planet". www.efe.com.