Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm

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Horns Rev 1
HornsRev Blavandshuk.jpg
CountryDenmark
LocationHorns Rev, East North Sea
Coordinates55°31′47″N 7°54′22″E / 55.52972°N 7.90611°E / 55.52972; 7.90611Coordinates: 55°31′47″N 7°54′22″E / 55.52972°N 7.90611°E / 55.52972; 7.90611
StatusOperational
Commission date2002
Owner(s)Vattenfall (60%)
DONG Energy (40%)
Operator(s)Vattenfall
Wind farm
TypeOffshore
Max. water depth6–14 m (20–46 ft)
Distance from shore14–20 km (9–12 mi)
Hub height70 m (230 ft)
Rotor diameter80 m (262 ft)
Rated wind speed9.7 m/s (32 ft/s)
Power generation
Units operational80
Make and modelVestas Wind Systems: V80-2.0
Nameplate capacity160 MW[1]
Annual net output600 GW·h[2]
Website
www.hornsrev.dk
Horns Rev 2
HornsRev Blavandshuk.jpg
CountryDenmark
LocationHorns Rev, East North Sea
Coordinates55°36′00″N 7°35′24″E / 55.60000°N 7.59000°E / 55.60000; 7.59000
StatusOperational
Construction beganMay 2008
Commission dateNovember 2009
Construction cost€448 million[3]
Owner(s)DONG Energy
Wind farm
TypeOffshore
Max. water depth9–17 m (30–56 ft)
Distance from shore30 km (19 mi)
Hub height68 m (223 ft)
Rotor diameter93 m (305 ft)
Rated wind speed10 m/s (33 ft/s)
Power generation
Units operational91
Make and modelSiemens Wind Power: SWP 2.3-93
Nameplate capacity209 MW
Capacity factor47.7%[4]
Website
www.dongenergy.com

Horns Rev is an offshore wind farm in Danish waters in the North Sea.

The wind farm was built in three phases, with the first coming online in 2002, the second in 2009 and the third in 2017. The first phase was the first large scale offshore wind farm in the world with 160 MW.[1][5]

Horns Rev 1[edit]

Horns Rev's location in relation to the wind farms of the German Bight

Horns Rev 1 was the first large scale offshore wind farm in the world, at 160 MW, four times larger than the previous largest, the Middelgrunden at 40MW.[6][7] Built by Danish Energy company Elsam (now Ørsted), it was the first offshore wind farm in the North Sea. The farm has a total of 80 Vestas V80-2.0 MW units were installed by the Danish offshore wind farms services provider A2SEA in 2002 with the last turbine coming into operation on 11 December 2002. It receives a guaranteed price of 0.453 DKK/kWh for the first 42,000 hours, paid by electricity consumers.[8]

Since 2005, the wind farm has been owned and operated by Vattenfall. It cost DKK2bn.[9] A radar has shown details of the wind patterns, improving local short-term forecasting.[10][11]

Turbines are laid out as an oblique rectangle of 5 km x 3.8 km (8 horizontal and 10 vertical rows). The distance between turbines is 560 m in both directions.

The main method of transport to the first wind park is an adapted Eurocopter EC-135 helicopter when winds are less than 19 m/s.[12] Hoisting the workers to and from a small platform on each turbine allows access to the park regardless of sea conditions which would otherwise prevent sailing in the area for a large part of the year.

Vattenfall can change a gearbox in a day, and the farm has an availability of 96-97%. Two turbines are burnt out, and are uneconomic to replace with less than 10 years left.[12]

Horns Rev 2[edit]

In May 2008, Dong Energy began construction of the second wind farm in the Horns Rev area, Horns Rev 2. Construction was completed in September 2009[13] and was inaugurated on September 17, 2009 by Prince Frederik on the Poseidon accommodation platform.[14] When inaugurated, Horns Rev 2 was the largest offshore wind farm in the world until Thanet Wind Farm opened on 23 September 2010.[14][15]

For the year of 2012, HR2 reached a capacity factor of 52.0%.[4] It receives 51.8 øre/kWh for the first 50,000 hours, paid by electricity consumers.[8] The farm has had some cable outages,[16][17] and blades are being renovated.[18]

The Horns Rev 2 consists of 91 Siemens Wind Power SWT 2.3-93 wind turbines with a total generating capacity of 209 MW.[15] The foundations are monopiles like on Horns Rev 1.

It has the first offshore wind farm accommodation platform in the world, named Poseidon. It is connected by walkway to the transformer platform,[19] and is 750 square metres (8,100 sq ft) large with 3 decks and weighs 422 tons. On-site accommodation is cheaper and more efficient than transporting service personnel by boat 2 hours from Esbjerg harbour 60 kilometres (37 mi) away. A turbine is visited 10 times a year on average, mostly for routine service, and 1-2 times for fixing faults.[20] Flying people by helicopter to turbines like on Horns Rev 1 is not possible on Horns Rev 2 as the turbines there are not built for it, although the transformer platform has a helipad.[21] Poseidon has 24 rooms of 12 square meters each fitted with TV and internet. There is a gym, kitchen, dining room, laundry room, and a study room. Inspired by Poseidon, a similar platform is being built at the DanTysk wind farm.[22]

Horns Rev 3[edit]

In April 2012, most of the Danish Folketing (parliament) agreed to send out tenders in 2013 for a 400 MW wind farm at Horns Rev called Horns Rev 3, and a 600 MW at Kriegers Flak in the Baltic Sea, both likely receiving 90 øre/kWh for the first 50,000 hours.[8] This is expected to raise wind power in Denmark above the current 39% of annual electricity production,[23] which includes the 400 MW Anholt Offshore Wind Farm.[24][25] The Danish Energy Agency expects construction candidates for Horns Rev 3 to have experience with installing and operating a large offshore wind farm.[26][27] Some of the area is an old minefield from World War Two.[28] Four bidders were qualified for the tender.[29]

Vattenfall won the tender in February 2015, at a price of 77 øre/kWh, well below the 105 øre at Anholt.[30] Vattenfall states that they bid unaggressively against strong competition without sacrificing margins.[31] The price reduction contributes to a smaller "green subsidy" (PSO) over the next years.[32][33] A total of 49 MHI Vestas V164-8.3 MW units, capable of producing 406.7 MW, will be installed.[34] Three transformers were installed in July 2016.[35]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Horns Rev Wind Farm Archived 29 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine., Horns Rev web site. Retrieved 11 March 2010.
  2. ^ "Horns Rev". Vattenfall. Archived from the original on 13 January 2011. Retrieved 12 January 2011.
  3. ^ "Where the Wind Blows". Nordic Investment Bank. Retrieved 1 December 2011.
  4. ^ a b Andrew (2017-01-26). "Capacity factors at Danish offshore wind farms". energynumbers.info. Retrieved 2017-02-11.
  5. ^ Horns Revolution Archived 14 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine., Modern Power Systems 5 October 2002. Retrieved 11 March 2010.
  6. ^ Morgan, Colin. Offshore Wind - State of the Art page 24 Garrad Hassan, 20 October 2004. Retrieved: 19 November 2010.
  7. ^ Larsen, Jens H. The World´s largest off-shore windfarm, Middelgrunden 40MW Copenhagen Environment and Energy Office (CEEO), 2001. Retrieved: 19 November 2010.
  8. ^ a b c "Fremskrivning af PSO-udgifter" [Projection of PSO Expenses] (pdf) (in Danish). Danish Energy Agency. 19 May 2014. p. 4. Retrieved 17 January 2015.
  9. ^ "Horns Reef Wind Farm, Denmark". power-technology.com. Retrieved 1 December 2011.[unreliable source?]
  10. ^ Pinson, Pierre. Radar@Sea
  11. ^ PossPOW: Possible Power of Offshore Wind power plants Technical University of Denmark
  12. ^ a b http://ing.dk/artikel/horns-rev-laerte-vattenfall-lektien-173671
  13. ^ James Kanter. Largest Offshore Wind Farm to Go Online Green Inc., 15 September 2009.
  14. ^ a b Matthew McDermott. "Denmark Inaugurates World's Largest Offshore Wind Farm - 209 MW Horns Rev 2" Treehugger
  15. ^ a b Stromsta, Karl-Erik (17 September 2009). "DONG cuts the ribbon at 209MW Horns Rev 2 project". ReCharge. NHST Media Group. (subscription required). Retrieved 19 November 2010.
  16. ^ http://ing.dk/artikel/soekabel-til-horns-rev-2-er-ude-af-drift-179590
  17. ^ http://energinet.dk/DA/El/Nyheder/Sider/Kabel-til-havmoelleparken-Horns-Rev-2-er-igen-i-drift.aspx
  18. ^ http://ing.dk/artikel/dong-og-siemens-giver-horns-rev-2-storstilet-vinge-makeover-173761
  19. ^ Accommodation Platform Archived 2011-07-19 at the Wayback Machine., DONG Energy. Retrieved February 2010.
  20. ^ Krøyer, Kent. I kamp mod bølgerne: Teknikere besøger hver havmølle 10 gange om året (in Danish) Ing.dk, 14 December 2009. Accessed: 14 January 2015.
  21. ^ Naming Ceremony Archived 2011-07-19 at the Wayback Machine., DONG Energy. Retrieved February 2010.
  22. ^ Wittrup, Sanne. Vattenfall bygger verdens største beboelsesplatform ved havmøllepark (in Danish) Ing.dk, 14 January 2015. Accessed: 14 January 2015.
  23. ^ Rasmussen, Jesper Nørskov. "Vindmøller slog rekord i 2014 Archived 6 January 2015 at the Wayback Machine." Energinet.dk, 6 January 2015. Accessed: 6 January 2015.
  24. ^ Dyrskjøt, Mette. "Two giant offshore wind park tenders in 2013" Dagbladet Børsen, 23 April 2012. Retrieved 23 April 2012.
  25. ^ "Energinet kicks off 1GW offshore work"[permanent dead link] reNews, 23 April 2012. Retrieved 23 April 2012.
  26. ^ "Danish Officials Seek Experienced Bidders" OffshoreWind, 11 October 2013. Retrieved: 12 October 2013.
  27. ^ "Draft for prequalification criteria for the tender of Horns Rev 3 offshore wind farm Archived 23 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine." Danish Energy Agency, 10 October 2013. Retrieved: 12 October 2013.
  28. ^ Wittrup, Sanne. "70 tyske miner kan forsinke kommende havmøllepark " Ingeniøren, 23 February 2015. Accessed: 23 February 2015.
  29. ^ Wittrup, Sanne. "Horns Rev 3 er en godbid " Ingeniøren, 16 February 2015. Accessed: 12 March 2015.
  30. ^ Wittrup, Sanne. "Svenske Vattenfall skal bygge Danmarks næste havmøllepark " Ingeniøren, 26 February 2015. Accessed: 26 February 2015.
  31. ^ Nielsen, Michael Korsgaard. "Vattenfall: Vi har ikke presset indtjeningen" Berlingske, 12 March 2015.
  32. ^ Wittrup, Sanne. "Regnefejl, billig vind og sene kystmøller sænker prisen på grøn omstilling " Ingeniøren, 27 March 2015. Accessed: 27 March 2015.
  33. ^ PSO prediction
  34. ^ "Horns Rev 3 offshore wind farm Archived 22 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine." Vattenfall, 27 June 2016. Accessed: 29 October 2016.
  35. ^ http://www.4coffshore.com/windfarms/transformer-units-sent-to-horns-rev-3-nid4077.html