Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm
|Horns Rev 1|
|Location||Horns Rev, East North Sea|
DONG Energy (40%)
|Max. water depth||6–14 m (20–46 ft)|
|Distance from shore||14–20 km (9–12 mi)|
|Hub height||70 m (230 ft)|
|Rotor diameter||80 m (262 ft)|
|Rated wind speed||9.7 m/s (32 ft/s)|
|Make and model||Vestas Wind Systems: V80-2.0|
|Nameplate capacity||160 MW|
|Annual net output||600 GW·h|
|Horns Rev 2|
|Location||Horns Rev, East North Sea|
|Construction began||May 2008|
|Commission date||November 2009|
|Construction cost||€448 million|
|Max. water depth||9–17 m (30–56 ft)|
|Distance from shore||30 km (19 mi)|
|Hub height||68 m (223 ft)|
|Rotor diameter||93 m (305 ft)|
|Rated wind speed||10 m/s (33 ft/s)|
|Make and model||Siemens Wind Power: SWP 2.3-93|
|Nameplate capacity||209 MW|
The wind farm was built in three phases, with the first coming online in 2002, the second in 2009 and the third in 2017. The first phase was the first large scale offshore wind farm in the world with 160 MW.
Horns Rev 1
Horns Rev 1 was the first large scale offshore wind farm in the world, at 160 MW, four times larger than the previous largest, the Middelgrunden at 40MW. Built by Danish Energy company Elsam (now Ørsted), it was the first offshore wind farm in the North Sea. The farm has a total of 80 Vestas V80-2.0 MW units were installed by the Danish offshore wind farms services provider A2SEA in 2002 with the last turbine coming into operation on 11 December 2002. It receives a guaranteed price of 0.453 DKK/kWh for the first 42,000 hours, paid by electricity consumers.
Turbines are laid out as an oblique rectangle of 5 km x 3.8 km (8 horizontal and 10 vertical rows). The distance between turbines is 560 m in both directions.
The main method of transport to the first wind park is an adapted Eurocopter EC-135 helicopter when winds are less than 19 m/s. Hoisting the workers to and from a small platform on each turbine allows access to the park regardless of sea conditions which would otherwise prevent sailing in the area for a large part of the year.
Vattenfall can change a gearbox in a day, and the farm has an availability of 96-97%. Two turbines are burnt out, and are uneconomic to replace with less than 10 years left.
Horns Rev 2
In May 2008, Dong Energy began construction of the second wind farm in the Horns Rev area, Horns Rev 2. Construction was completed in September 2009 and was inaugurated on September 17, 2009 by Prince Frederik on the Poseidon accommodation platform. When inaugurated, Horns Rev 2 was the largest offshore wind farm in the world until Thanet Wind Farm opened on 23 September 2010.
For the year of 2012, HR2 reached a capacity factor of 52.0%. It receives 51.8 øre/kWh for the first 50,000 hours, paid by electricity consumers. The farm has had some cable outages, and blades are being renovated.
It has the first offshore wind farm accommodation platform in the world, named Poseidon. It is connected by walkway to the transformer platform, and is 750 square metres (8,100 sq ft) large with 3 decks and weighs 422 tons. On-site accommodation is cheaper and more efficient than transporting service personnel by boat 2 hours from Esbjerg harbour 60 kilometres (37 mi) away. A turbine is visited 10 times a year on average, mostly for routine service, and 1-2 times for fixing faults. Flying people by helicopter to turbines like on Horns Rev 1 is not possible on Horns Rev 2 as the turbines there are not built for it, although the transformer platform has a helipad. Poseidon has 24 rooms of 12 square meters each fitted with TV and internet. There is a gym, kitchen, dining room, laundry room, and a study room. Inspired by Poseidon, a similar platform is being built at the DanTysk wind farm.
Horns Rev 3
In April 2012, most of the Danish Folketing (parliament) agreed to send out tenders in 2013 for a 400 MW wind farm at Horns Rev called Horns Rev 3, and a 600 MW at Kriegers Flak in the Baltic Sea, both likely receiving 90 øre/kWh for the first 50,000 hours. This is expected to raise wind power in Denmark above the current 39% of annual electricity production, which includes the 400 MW Anholt Offshore Wind Farm. The Danish Energy Agency expects construction candidates for Horns Rev 3 to have experience with installing and operating a large offshore wind farm. Some of the area is an old minefield from World War Two. Four bidders were qualified for the tender.
Vattenfall won the tender in February 2015, at a price of 77 øre/kWh, well below the 105 øre at Anholt. Vattenfall states that they bid unaggressively against strong competition without sacrificing margins. The price reduction contributes to a smaller "green subsidy" (PSO) over the next years. A total of 49 MHI Vestas V164-8.3 MW units, capable of producing 406.7 MW, will be installed. Three transformers were installed in July 2016.
- Wind power in Denmark
- List of offshore wind farms in Denmark
- List of offshore wind farms in the North Sea
- List of offshore wind farms
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