Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm

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Horns Rev 1
HornsRev Blavandshuk.jpg
Horns Rev 1 wind farm with Horns Rev A substation platform
CountryDenmark
LocationHorns Rev, East North Sea
Coordinates55°31′47″N 7°54′22″E / 55.52972°N 7.90611°E / 55.52972; 7.90611Coordinates: 55°31′47″N 7°54′22″E / 55.52972°N 7.90611°E / 55.52972; 7.90611
StatusOperational
Commission date2002
Owner(s)Vattenfall (60%)
Ørsted (40%)
Operator(s)Vattenfall
Wind farm
TypeOffshore
Max. water depth6–14 m (20–46 ft)
Distance from shore14–20 km (9–12 mi)
Hub height70 m (230 ft)
Rotor diameter80 m (262 ft)
Rated wind speed9.7 m/s (32 ft/s)
Power generation
Units operational80
Make and modelVestas Wind Systems: V80-2.0
Nameplate capacity160 MW[1]
Annual net output600 GW·h[2]
External links
Websitewww.hornsrev.dk
CommonsRelated media on Commons
Horns Rev 2
 
CountryDenmark
LocationHorns Rev, East North Sea
Coordinates55°36′00″N 7°35′24″E / 55.60000°N 7.59000°E / 55.60000; 7.59000
StatusOperational
Construction beganMay 2008
Commission dateNovember 2009
Construction cost€448 million[3]
Owner(s)Ørsted
Operator(s)Ørsted
Wind farm
TypeOffshore
Max. water depth9–17 m (30–56 ft)
Distance from shore30 km (19 mi)
Hub height68 m (223 ft)
Rotor diameter93 m (305 ft)
Rated wind speed10 m/s (33 ft/s)
Power generation
Units operational91
Make and modelSiemens Wind Power: SWT 2.3-93
Nameplate capacity209 MW
Capacity factor47.7%[4]
External links
Websitewww.dongenergy.com
CommonsRelated media on Commons
Horns Rev 3
 
CountryDenmark
LocationHorns Rev, East North Sea
Coordinates55°41′40″N 7°41′00″E / 55.69444°N 7.68333°E / 55.69444; 7.68333
StatusOperational
Construction began2016
Commission date2019
Construction cost€1 billion[5]
Owner(s)Vattenfall
Operator(s)
Wind farm
TypeOffshore
Max. water depth11–19 m (36–62 ft)
Distance from shore29–44 km (18–27 mi)
Hub height105 m (344 ft)
Rotor diameter164 m (538 ft)
Rated wind speed14 m/s (46 ft/s)
Power generation
Units operational49
Make and modelMHI Vestas: V164
Nameplate capacity406.7 MW
External links
Websitecorporate.vattenfall.com
CommonsRelated media on Commons

Horns Rev is an offshore wind farm in Danish waters in the North Sea.

The wind farm was built in three phases, the first coming online in 2002, the second in 2009 and the third in 2019. Horns Rev 1, the first phase, was the first large-scale offshore wind farm in the world, with a capacity of 160 MW.[1][6]

Horns Rev 1[edit]

Horns Rev's location in relation to the wind farms of the German Bight

Horns Rev 1, built by Danish energy company Elsam (later DONG, now Ørsted) was the first large-scale offshore wind farm in the world. Its capacity of 160 MW was four times that of the previous largest, the Middelgrunden at 40 MW.[7][8] It was the first offshore wind farm in the North Sea, the first to use the monopile foundation type and the first to have its transformer on an adjacent platform rather than onshore.[9] Technologies used for the first time at Horns Rev 1 have since become industry standard.

The farm has 80 Vestas V80 wind turbines, each generating 2.0 MW. They were installed by the Danish offshore wind farm services provider A2SEA in 2002, the last turbine coming into operation on 11 December 2002. A guaranteed price of 0.453 DKK/kWh was agreed for the first 42,000 hours of generation.[10]

In 2005, 60% of the wind farm was sold to Vattenfall, also the operator of the park, for DKK2bn.[11][unreliable source?]

The turbines are laid out in an oblique 8 by 10 grid over an area of 5 km × 3.8 km, with 560 m between turbines in both directions. A radar measures details of the wind patterns, improving local short-term forecasting.[12][13]

The main method of transport to the first wind park is an adapted Eurocopter EC-135 helicopter,[14] used to hoist workers to and from a small platform on each turbine. Sea conditions render the area inaccessible to boats for large parts of the year.

The farm has an availability of 96–97%. Two turbines are burnt out, and uneconomic to replace with less than 10 years left.[14] Grout between monopile and tower was damaged by vibrations, requiring a costly fix.[15]

Horns Rev 2[edit]

In May 2008, Dong Energy began construction of the second wind farm in the Horns Rev area, Horns Rev 2. Construction was completed in September 2009[16] and was inaugurated on September 17, 2009 by Prince Frederik on the Poseidon accommodation platform.[17] When inaugurated, Horns Rev 2 was the largest offshore wind farm in the world until Thanet Wind Farm opened on 23 September 2010.[17][18]

For the year of 2012, HR2 reached a capacity factor of 52.0%.[4] It receives 51.8 øre/kWh for the first 50,000 hours, paid by electricity consumers.[10] The farm has had some cable outages,[19][20] and blades are being renovated.[21]

The Horns Rev 2 consists of 91 Siemens Wind Power SWT 2.3-93 wind turbines with a total generating capacity of 209 MW.[18] The foundations are monopiles like on Horns Rev 1.

It has the first offshore wind farm accommodation platform in the world, named Poseidon. It is connected by walkway to the transformer platform,[22] and is 750 square metres (8,100 sq ft) large with 3 decks and weighs 422 tons. On-site accommodation is cheaper and more efficient than transporting service personnel by boat 2 hours from Esbjerg harbour 60 kilometres (37 mi) away. A turbine is visited 10 times a year on average, mostly for routine service, and 1-2 times for fixing faults.[23] Flying people by helicopter to turbines like on Horns Rev 1 is not possible on Horns Rev 2 as the turbines there are not built for it, although the transformer platform has a helipad.[24] Poseidon has 24 rooms of 12 square meters each fitted with TV and internet. There is a gym, kitchen, dining room, laundry room, and a study room. Inspired by Poseidon, a similar platform is being built at the DanTysk wind farm.[25]

Horns Rev 3[edit]

In April 2012, most of the Danish Folketing (parliament) agreed to send out tenders in 2013 for a 400 MW wind farm at Horns Rev called Horns Rev 3, and a 600 MW at Kriegers Flak in the Baltic Sea, both likely receiving 90 øre/kWh for the first 50,000 hours.[10] This is expected to raise wind power in Denmark above the 39% of annual electricity production (as of 2014),[26] which includes the 400 MW Anholt Offshore Wind Farm.[27][28] The Danish Energy Agency expects construction candidates for Horns Rev 3 to have experience with installing and operating a large offshore wind farm.[29][30] Some of the area is an old minefield from World War Two.[31] Four bidders were qualified for the tender.[32]

Vattenfall won the tender in February 2015, at a price of 77 øre/kWh, well below the 105 øre at Anholt.[33] Vattenfall states that they bid unaggressively against strong competition without sacrificing margins.[34] The price reduction contributes to a smaller "green subsidy" (PSO) over the next years.[35][36] Horns Rev 3 consists of a total of 49 MHI Vestas V164-8.3 MW units, capable of producing 406.7 MW.[37] Three transformers were installed in July 2016.[38] The first turbines started to produce electricity for the grid in December 2018,[39] and the last turbine was installed in January 2019.[40] The official inauguration of Horns Rev 3 was on 22 August 2019.[41]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Horns Rev Wind Farm Archived 29 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Horns Rev web site. Retrieved 11 March 2010.
  2. ^ "Horns Rev". Vattenfall. Archived from the original on 13 January 2011. Retrieved 12 January 2011.
  3. ^ "Where the Wind Blows". Nordic Investment Bank. Retrieved 1 December 2011.
  4. ^ a b Andrew (2017-01-26). "Capacity factors at Danish offshore wind farms". energynumbers.info. Retrieved 2017-02-11.
  5. ^ "Vattenfall to spend $1.12bn on Danish wind farm". Power Engineering International. Archived from the original on 20 February 2019. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
  6. ^ Horns Revolution Archived 14 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Modern Power Systems 5 October 2002. Retrieved 11 March 2010.
  7. ^ Morgan, Colin. Offshore Wind - State of the Art page 24 Garrad Hassan, 20 October 2004. Retrieved: 19 November 2010.
  8. ^ Larsen, Jens H. The World´s largest off-shore windfarm, Middelgrunden 40MW Copenhagen Environment and Energy Office (CEEO), 2001. Retrieved: 19 November 2010.
  9. ^ Horns Rev 1 Offshore Wind Farm C4 Offshore
  10. ^ a b c "Fremskrivning af PSO-udgifter" [Projection of PSO Expenses] (PDF) (in Danish). Danish Energy Agency. 19 May 2014. p. 4. Retrieved 17 January 2015.
  11. ^ "Horns Reef Wind Farm, Denmark". power-technology.com. Retrieved 1 December 2011.
  12. ^ Pinson, Pierre. "Radar@Sea". Archived from the original on 31 October 2019.
  13. ^ PossPOW: Possible Power of Offshore Wind power plants Technical University of Denmark
  14. ^ a b "Horns Rev lærte Vattenfall lektien". Ingeniøren (in Danish). 24 January 2015.
  15. ^ Episode 5. "Incredible Engineering Blunders: Fixed". Discovery UK. Archived from the original on 18 December 2019.
  16. ^ James Kanter. Largest Offshore Wind Farm to Go Online Green Inc., 15 September 2009.
  17. ^ a b Matthew McDermott. "Denmark Inaugurates World's Largest Offshore Wind Farm - 209 MW Horns Rev 2" Treehugger
  18. ^ a b Stromsta, Karl-Erik (17 September 2009). "DONG cuts the ribbon at 209MW Horns Rev 2 project". ReCharge. NHST Media Group. (subscription required). Retrieved 19 November 2010.
  19. ^ "Søkabel til Horns Rev 2 er ude af drift". 19 October 2015.
  20. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-12-26. Retrieved 2018-01-14.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  21. ^ "Dong og Siemens giver Horns Rev 2 storstilet vinge-makeover". 28 January 2015.
  22. ^ Accommodation Platform Archived 2011-07-19 at the Wayback Machine, DONG Energy. Retrieved February 2010.
  23. ^ Krøyer, Kent. I kamp mod bølgerne: Teknikere besøger hver havmølle 10 gange om året (in Danish) Ing.dk, 14 December 2009. Accessed: 14 January 2015.
  24. ^ Naming Ceremony Archived 2011-07-19 at the Wayback Machine, DONG Energy. Retrieved February 2010.
  25. ^ Wittrup, Sanne. Vattenfall bygger verdens største beboelsesplatform ved havmøllepark (in Danish) Ing.dk, 14 January 2015. Accessed: 14 January 2015.
  26. ^ Rasmussen, Jesper Nørskov. "Vindmøller slog rekord i 2014 Archived 6 January 2015 at the Wayback Machine" Energinet.dk, 6 January 2015. Accessed: 6 January 2015.
  27. ^ Dyrskjøt, Mette. "Two giant offshore wind park tenders in 2013" Dagbladet Børsen, 23 April 2012. Retrieved 23 April 2012.
  28. ^ "Energinet kicks off 1GW offshore work"[permanent dead link] reNews, 23 April 2012. Retrieved 23 April 2012.
  29. ^ "Danish Officials Seek Experienced Bidders" OffshoreWind, 11 October 2013. Retrieved: 12 October 2013.
  30. ^ "Draft for prequalification criteria for the tender of Horns Rev 3 offshore wind farm Archived 23 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine" Danish Energy Agency, 10 October 2013. Retrieved: 12 October 2013.
  31. ^ Wittrup, Sanne. "70 tyske miner kan forsinke kommende havmøllepark " Ingeniøren, 23 February 2015. Accessed: 23 February 2015.
  32. ^ Wittrup, Sanne. "Horns Rev 3 er en godbid " Ingeniøren, 16 February 2015. Accessed: 12 March 2015.
  33. ^ Wittrup, Sanne. "Svenske Vattenfall skal bygge Danmarks næste havmøllepark Archived 2015-02-26 at the Wayback Machine" Ingeniøren, 26 February 2015. Accessed: 26 February 2015.
  34. ^ Nielsen, Michael Korsgaard. "Vattenfall: Vi har ikke presset indtjeningen" Berlingske, 12 March 2015.
  35. ^ Wittrup, Sanne. "Regnefejl, billig vind og sene kystmøller sænker prisen på grøn omstilling " Ingeniøren, 27 March 2015. Accessed: 27 March 2015.
  36. ^ PSO prediction
  37. ^ "Horns Rev 3 offshore wind farm Archived 22 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine" Vattenfall, 27 June 2016. Accessed: 29 October 2016.
  38. ^ "Transformer units sent to Horns Rev 3".
  39. ^ "First power for Horns Rev 3" 4C Offshore, 24 December 2018. Accessed: 04 January 2019.
  40. ^ Wittrup, S. (21 January 2019). Alle 49 havvindmøller på plads på Horns Rev 3. ing.dk. Retrieved 15 August 2019.
  41. ^ Mathiesen, K. (6 August 2019). Hvide Sande snupper Horns Rev 3-service fra Esbjerg: Havnedirektør er stadig fortrøstningsfuld. JydskeVestkysten. Retrieved 15 August 2019.