Hornsdale Power Reserve
|Hornsdale Power Reserve|
|Commission date||1 December 2017|
|Construction cost||90 million A$|
|Nameplate capacity||100 MW|
|Storage capacity||129 MWh|
Hornsdale Power Reserve is a grid-connected energy storage system co-located with the Hornsdale Wind Farm in the Mid North region of South Australia. It is promoted as the largest lithium-ion battery in the world.
South Australia received 90 proposals and considered 5 projects to build a grid-connected battery to increase grid stability under adverse weather events. Gas generators are uneconomic for providing grid stability.
Elon Musk placed a wager that the battery would be completed within "100 days from contract signature", otherwise the battery would be free. Tesla had already begun construction, and some units were already operational by 29 September 2017, the time the grid contract was signed. The battery construction was completed and testing began on 25 November 2017. It was connected to the grid on 1 December 2017. The 63 days between grid contract and completion easily beat Musk's wager of "100 days from contract signature", which started when a grid connection agreement was signed with ElectraNet on 29 September 2017, 203 days after Musk's offer on 10 March (in Australia). Samsung 21700-size cells are used.
In November 2019, Neoen announced that it would increase the battery capacity by 50%. The expansion would cost A$71 million, funded by A$15 million from the state government, A$8 million from ARENA and up to A$50 million in cheap loans through the Clean Energy Finance Corporation.
It is owned and operated by Neoen, with the state government having the right to call on the stored power under certain circumstances. It provides a total of 129 megawatt-hours (460 GJ) of storage capable of discharge at 100 megawatts (130,000 hp) into the power grid, which is contractually divided into two parts:
- 70 MW running for 10 minutes (11.7 MWh) is contracted to the government to provide stability to the grid (grid services) and prevent load-shedding blackouts while other generators are started in the event of sudden drops in wind or other network issues. This service has reduced the cost of grid services to the Australian Energy Market Operator by 90%.
- 30 MW for 3 hours (90 MWh) is used by Neoen for load management to store energy when prices are low and sell it when demand is high.
On 14 December 2017, at 1:58:59 am, the HPR reacted when unit A3 at Loy Yang Power Station tripped. As its generators spun down over the next 30 seconds, the loss of its 560 MW of base power caused a dip in the system frequency. By 1:59:19, the frequency had fallen to 49.8 Hz, and triggered HPR's response, injecting 7.3 MW into the grid and effectively helping to stabilise the system before the Gladstone Power Station was able to respond at 1:59:27. This synchronverter reaction is a built-in feature, but had not previously been effectively demonstrated.
During two days in January 2018 when the wholesale spot price for electricity in South Australia rose due to hot weather, the battery made its owners an estimated A$1,000,000 (US$800,000) as they sold power from the battery to the grid for a price of around A$14,000/MWh. Based on the first six months of operation, the reserve is estimated to earn about A$18 million per year. (This is a third-party estimate, based on spot energy prices; it is possible that the HPR has contracted to provide power at a lower price, in exchange for a more certain income stream.)
After six months of operation, the Hornsdale Power Reserve was responsible for 55% of frequency control and ancillary services in South Australia. By the end of 2018, it was estimated that the Power Reserve had saved A$40 million in costs, mostly in eliminating the need for a fuel-powered 35 MW Frequency Control Ancillary Service.
The battery usually arbitrages 30 MW or less, but in May 2019 began charging and discharging at around 80 MW and for longer than usual, increasing wind power production by reducing curtailment.
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The 100-megawatt battery installation has been built as promised by tech-billionaire Elon Musk within 100 days of the contract being signed back in September
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Neoen, the owner of the Hornsdale Power Reserve,...
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But in reality, the response from the Tesla big battery was even quicker than that – in milliseconds – but too fast for the AEMO data to record. Importantly, by the time that the contracted Gladstone coal unit had gotten out of bed and put its socks on so it can inject more into the grid – it is paid to respond in six seconds – the fall in frequency had already been arrested and was being reversed.
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