The dances called horoi (Greek: χοροί), singular also horos, meaning literally “dance” in both Ancient (cf. also όρχησις) and modern Greek language, are circular in nature and are each characterized by distinct short steps. Today they are also danced in those regions of Greece where Pontic Greek refugees established themselves after 1922.
Many Pontian dances are almost identical in steps to Greek dances. Pontian dances also resemble Persian and Middle Eastern dances in that they are not led, with no single leader in the dance formation. This is different from Greek dances but is a widespread aspect of Persian and Middle Eastern dances. A unique aspect of Pontian dance is the tremoulo, which is a fast shaking of the upper torso by a turning of the back on its axis.
The rapid shoulder and upper body movements from the waist might have evolved only in modern times, during the Ottoman reign, as some people seem to believe. These movements are said to have derived from the shimmying of the little silver anchovy fish (Turkish hamsi) found in mass abundance in the Black Sea, which has worked its way into an inseparable part of northern Anatolian culture.
It is said that long sea journeys and merchant exchanges, or perhaps the migration of troops as far away as Ireland en route to the Holy Land exposed foreign people with these dance styles. Some think[who?] that the Irish jig and thus its modern version, the River Dance, may have its roots from this exposure.
Masher or Maheria (Μαχαίρια) or Pyrecheios (πυρήχειος, Turkish bıçak oyunu), an ancient Greek dance described by the ancient historian Xenophon as picturing “the sound of fire” (in the film The Addams Family, Gomez Addams dances the Masher)
Kots (κοτς), meaning “heel dance”
Kotsari (κότσαρι), an Greek folk dance, meaning “heel dance”, Turkish koçari
Titara (τίταρα, existing in two version from Argyroupoli and Kars)