4Q166 "The Hosea Commentary Scroll", late first century B.C.
|Book||Book of Hosea|
|Christian Bible part||Old Testament|
|Order in the Christian part||28|
Hosea 11 is the eleventh chapter of the Book of Hosea in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. This chapter contains the prophecies spoken by the prophet Hosea son of Beeri, about God's former benefits, and Israel's ingratitude resulting in punishment, yet Jehovah promises restoration at last. It is a part of the Book of the Twelve Minor Prophets.
Some early witnesses for the text of this chapter in Hebrew language:
- Masoretic Text (10th century)
- Dead Sea Scrolls: (2nd century BC)
- 4Q82 (4QXIIg): extant: verses 2‑6, 8‑12 (verse 11:12 = verse 12:1 in Masoretic Text)
Ancient manuscripts in Koine Greek containing this chapter are mainly of the Septuagint version, including Codex Vaticanus (B; B; 4th century), Codex Sinaiticus (S; BHK: S; 4th century), Codex Alexandrinus (A; A; 5th century) and Codex Marchalianus (Q; Q; 6th century).
- When Israel was a child, then I loved him,
- and called my son out of Egypt.
- "Called my son out of Egypt": Bengel translates, "From the time that he (Israel) was in Egypt, I called him My son," which the parallelism proves. So Hosea 12:9 and Hosea 13:4 use "from … Egypt," for "from the time that thou didst sojourn in Egypt." Exodus 4:22 also shows that Israel was called by God, "My son," from the time of his Egyptian sojourn (Isaiah 43:1). God is always said to have led or brought forth, not to have "called," Israel from Egypt. Matthew 2:15, therefore, in quoting this prophecy (typically and primarily referring to Israel, antitypically and fully to Messiah), applies it to Jesus' sojourn in Egypt, not His return from it. Even from His infancy, partly spent in Egypt, God called Him His son. God included Messiah, and Israel for Messiah's sake, in one common love, and therefore in one common prophecy. Messiah's people and Himself are one, as the Head and the body. Isaiah 49:3 calls Him "Israel." The same general reason, danger of extinction, caused the infant Jesus, and Israel in its national infancy (compare Genesis 42:1-43:34; 45:18; 46:3, 4; Ezekiel 16:4-6; Jeremiah 31:20) to sojourn in Egypt. So He, and His spiritual Israel, are already called "God's sons" while yet in the Egypt of the world.
- The verse has two textual variants: one is the standard reading of "Out of Egypt I called my son" and a second is found in the LXX "Out of Egypt I called his children". This is likely based off a small variation which is Benei, "my son", in the Hebrew Masoretic, the LXX came from a reading of Beneiu - "His children". This second also appears to be in conflict with the New Testament's Matthew 2:15 and would support the Jewish view that this talks about Israel which can be derived either variant.
- How shall I give thee up, Ephraim?
- how shall I deliver thee, Israel?
- how shall I make thee as Admah?
- how shall I set thee as Zeboim?
- mine heart is turned within me,
- my repentings are kindled together.
- "Admah" and "Zeboim" were cities in the same plain with Sodom and Gomorrah, and each had their petty king (Genesis 14:2). In the history of the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, they are not named, but are included in the general title "those cities and all the plain" (Genesis 19:25). The more, then, would Hosea's hearers think of that place in Moses where he does mention them, and where he threatens them with the like end; "when the stranger shall see, that the whole land thereof is brimstone and salt and burning, that it is not sown, nor beareth, nor any grass groweth therein, like the overthrow of Sodom and Gomorrah, Admah and Zeboim, which the Lord overthrew in His anger and His wrath" Deuteronomy 29:22-23. Such was the end, at which all their sins aimed; such the end, which God had held out to them; but His "strong compassions were kindled."
- "Mine heart is turned within me, my repentings are kindled together": or "This I will not do; my heart is within me changed." The עַל, literally, "upon," "with," then, "in," or "within:" "My heart is turned or changed from anger to pity in me." The expression, יַהַד נִכְמְרוּ, signifies, according to Rashi, "one warmed," as in Genesis 43:30, where this same word is rendered in the Authorized Version," yearned:" "His bowels did yearn upon his brother," or "warmed towards." But many modern interpreters understand the word in the sense of" gathering themselves together:" "The feelings of compassion gathered themselves together;" nichumim, from Piel נִחֵם, a noun of the form הבוד, less definite than rachamim, bowels, as the seat of the emotions, "gathered themselves together," or "were excited all at once." The cities of the plain included Admah and Zeboim, Sodom and Gomorrah, all of which, in consequence of their sins, were overthrown and perished in one common calamity. In Deuteronomy 29:23 these cities are all named, though Admah and Zeboim are not mentioned by name in the narrative of the catastrophe contained in Genesis.
- "My repentings are kindled together": not that repentance properly belongs to God, who is neither man, nor the Son of Man, that he should repent of anything, Numbers 23:19; he repents not of his love to his people, nor of his choice of them, nor of his covenant with them, nor of his special gifts and grace bestowed on them; but he sometimes does what men do when they repent, he changes his outward conduct and behaviour in the dispensations of his providence, and acts the reverse of what he had done, or seemed to be about to do; as, with respect to the old world, the making of Saul king, and the case of the Ninevites, Genesis 6:6; so here, though he could, and seemed as if he would, go forth in a way of strict justice, yet changes his course, and steers another way, without any change of his will. The phrase expresses the warmth and ardour of his affections to his people; how his heart burned with love to them, his bowels and inward parts were inflamed with it; from whence proceeded what is called repentance among men, as in the case of Jeremiah, Jeremiah 20:9. The Targum states "the word of my covenant met me; my mercies (or bowels of mercies) were rolled together."
- Related Bible parts: Genesis 14, Genesis 19, Exodus 4, Deuteronomy 29, Hosea 6, Hosea 7, Hosea 8, Hosea 9, Hosea 10, Matthew 2
Notes and references
- Halley, Henry H. Halley's Bible Handbook: an abbreviated Bible commentary. 23rd edition. Zondervan Publishing House. 1963.
- Holman Illustrated Bible Handbook. Holman Bible Publishers, Nashville, Tennessee. 2012.
- Robert Jamieson, Andrew Robert Fausset; David Brown. Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown's Commentary On the Whole Bible. 1871. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- Metzger, Bruce M., et al. The Oxford Companion to the Bible. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
- Keck, Leander E. 1996. The New Interpreter's Bible: Volume: VII. Nashville: Abingdon.
- Dead sea scrolls - Hosea
- Timothy A. J. Jull; Douglas J. Donahue; Magen Broshi; Emanuel Tov (1995). "Radiocarbon Dating of Scrolls and Linen Fragments from the Judean Desert". Radiocarbon. 38 (1): 14. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
- Würthwein 1995, pp. 73-74.
- Hosea 11:1 KJV
- "Brenton Septuagint Translation Osee 11". ebible.org. Retrieved 2019-02-20.
- Hosea 11:8
- Barnes, Albert. Notes on the Old Testament. London, Blackie & Son, 1884. Reprint, Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1998. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- Joseph S. Exell; Henry Donald Maurice Spence-Jones (Editors). The Pulpit Commentary. 23 volumes. First publication: 1890. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- John Gill. John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible. Exposition of the Old and New Testament. Published in 1746-1763. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- Collins, John J. (2014). Introduction to the Hebrew Scriptures. Fortress Press.
- Hayes, Christine (2015). Introduction to the Bible. Yale University Press.
- Würthwein, Ernst (1995). The Text of the Old Testament. Translated by Rhodes, Erroll F. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans. ISBN 0-8028-0788-7. Retrieved January 26, 2019.