4Q166 "The Hosea Commentary Scroll", late first century B.C.
|Book||Book of Hosea|
|Christian Bible part||Old Testament|
|Order in the Christian part||28|
Hosea 2 is the second chapter of the Book of Hosea in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. This book contains the prophecies attributed to the prophet Hosea son of Beeri and this chapter contains the application of the symbols in the first chapter. It is a part of the Book of the Twelve Minor Prophets.
Some early manuscripts containing the text of this chapter in Hebrew are of the Masoretic Text tradition, which includes the Codex Cairensis (895), the Petersburg Codex of the Prophets (916), Aleppo Codex (10th century), Codex Leningradensis (1008). Fragments containing parts of this chapter in Hebrew were found among the Dead Sea Scrolls, including 4Q78 (4QXIIc; 75–50 BCE) with extant verses 11–13 (verses 13–15 in Hebrew Bible); 4Q79 (4QXIId; 75–50 BCE) with extant verses 1–3 (verses 3–5 in Hebrew Bible); 4Q82 (4QXIIg; 25 BCE) with extant verses 2–3, 12–17, 20–23 (verses 1–2, 4–5, 14–19, 22–25 in Hebrew Bible); and 4Q166 (4QpHosa; Hosea Commentary; Pesher Hoshe'a; late first century BCE) with extant verses 8–14.
There is also a translation into Koine Greek known as the Septuagint, made in the last few centuries BCE. Extant ancient manuscripts of the Septuagint version include Codex Vaticanus (B; B; 4th century), Codex Alexandrinus (A; A; 5th century) and Codex Marchalianus (Q; Q; 6th century).[a]
Oracle of Salvation: The Reversal of Judgement (1:10-2:1)
- Say ye unto your brethren, Ammi;
- and to your sisters, Ruhamah.
In the two last verses of the former chapter, the prophet did from God promise marvellous mercy to Judah and Israel, to that remnant of the seed of Abraham who returned out of captivity, and to the converted Gentiles; now in this verse he calls upon them to acknowledge the mercy, and to excite one another to mutual love and esteem.
Indictment of Israel, the Unfaithful Wife (2:2–15)
The verses are numbered in the Masoretic Text as 2:4–17. The relationship between Yahweh and Israel is depicted as one of husband and wife. Israel has been unfaithful to her husband and gone whoring after her lovers, the idols/Baals, from whom she hopes to obtain 'grain, wine, oil, and other products', without realizing that those actually come from Yahweh (verses 5, 8). Therefore, Yahweh will strip her naked (verse 3, 9–10), block her way to find her lovers (verse 6–7), withdraw the grain, wine, etc. (v. 9), and allow her religious festivities to cease (verse 11, 13). Israel will then return to Yahweh, so Yahweh will bring her in the wilderness, responding to him there, like during the Exodus, and bring her again into Canaan (verses 14–15).
Remarriage of Yahweh with Israel and the Restoration of Well-being (2:16–23)
- “19 I will betroth you to Me forever;
- Yes, I will betroth you to Me
- In righteousness and justice,
- In lovingkindness and mercy;
- 20 I will betroth you to Me in faithfulness,
- And you shall know the Lord."
- "I will betroth you to Me": from two words in Hebrew: וְאֵרַשְׂתִּ֥יךְ, , "and I will betroth you" ("you" is in the form of second person feminine singular) and לִ֖י, lî, "to me". "Betroth" or "take as wife" here is a verb that refers to 'the legally binding agreement that preceded the wedding', repeated three times in verses 19–20 to imply 'the intense love of God to His people' that this 'marriage covenant' is as if renewed from the start, but on a different footing ("forever") 'through the grace of God writing the law on their hearts by the Spirit of Messiah (Jeremiah 31:31–37)'. It may also denote 'the three Persons of the Triune God, severally engaging to make good the betrothal'.
- "For ever": here in the sense 'that no differences shall destroy the mutual harmony between Jehovah and His people' (cf. Jeremiah 31:35–37; Isaiah 54:8–10).
- And I will sow her unto me in the earth;
- and I will have mercy upon her that had not obtained mercy;
- and I will say to them which were not my people,
- Thou art my people;
- and they shall say,
- Thou art my God.
- "I will sow her": referring to the meaning of Jezreel (Hosea 2:22). The prophet's portrayal of a prosperity includes food in abundance, refreshment limited by moderation, and luxuries without stint. There is a complete reversal of the sorrowful circumstances into which sin had plunged Israel, that God's scattering has now become God's sowing. Aben Ezra remarks that "I sow her that they may multiply and be fruitful as the seed of the earth." The unpitied one has found mercy; the rejected one is received with rejoicing.
- "On her that had not obtained mercy": or "upon Loruhamah", or the people of Israel as signified by her (Hosea 1:6) and also the Gentiles (cf. Romans 9:24). They were fulfilled in part in his time, by the conversion of some of the Jews, and by the calling of the Gentiles; but will have a larger accomplishment in the latter day, when all Israel shall obtain mercy, and be saved; see Romans 11:26 and are applicable to God's people who are called by grace at all times.
- "To them which were not my people": or "to Loammi", the people of Israel, signified by the prophet's child of that name (Hosea 1:9), should no longer be called so, but Ammi, "my people", Hosea 2:1.
- "And they shall say, Thou art my God": (or "shall say, my God") The whole relation of the creature to the Creator is summed up in that one word, "Elohai, my God." When God called them His people by His grace, then the prophet states they should obey His call, and surrender themselves to Him to own an exclusive relation to God alone.
- Collins 2014.
- Hayes 2015.
- Jamieson, Robert; Fausset, Andrew Robert; Brown, David. Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown's Commentary On the Whole Bible. "Hosea 2". 1871.
- Metzger, Bruce M., et al. The Oxford Companion to the Bible. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
- Keck, Leander E. 1996. The New Interpreter's Bible: Volume: VII. Nashville: Abingdon.
- Würthwein 1995, pp. 35-37.
- Ulrich 2010, p. 591.
- Dead sea scrolls - Hosea
- Fitzmyer 2008, p. 38.
- 4Q78 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
- Ulrich 2010, p. 590.
- Fitzmyer 2008, p. 39.
- 4Q79 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
- Ulrich 2010, pp. 590–591.
- 4Q82 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
- Hosea Commentary. Pesher Hoshe'a. Deadsea Scrolls Exhibit
- Dead Sea scrolls/4Q166
- Fitzmyer 2008, p. 49.
- 4Q166 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
- Würthwein 1995, pp. 73–74.
- Shepherd, Michael (2018). A Commentary on the Book of the Twelve: The Minor Prophets. Kregel Exegetical Library. Kregel Academic. p. 13. ISBN 978-0825444593.
- Day 2007, p. 572.
- Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges. Hosea 1. Accessed 28 April 2019.
- Hosea 2:1 KJV or Hosea 2:3 Hebrew Bible
- Day 2007, p. 573.
- Hosea 2:19–20 NKJV or Hosea 2:21–22 Hebrew Bible
- Hebrew Text Analysis: Hosea 2:19. Biblehub
- Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges. Hosea 2. Accessed 28 April 2019.
- Hosea 2:23 KJV or Hosea 2:25 Hebrew Bible
- Joseph S. Exell; Henry Donald Maurice Spence-Jones (Editors). The Pulpit Commentary. 23 volumes. First publication: 1890.
- John Gill. John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible. Exposition of the Old and New Testament. Published in 1746-1763. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- Barnes, Albert. Notes on the Old Testament. London, Blackie & Son, 1884. Reprint, Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1998.
- Collins, John J. (2014). Introduction to the Hebrew Scriptures. Fortress Press. ISBN 9781451469233.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Day, John (2007). "27. Hosea". In Barton, John; Muddiman, John (eds.). The Oxford Bible Commentary (first (paperback) ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. 571–578. ISBN 978-0199277186. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
- Fitzmyer, Joseph A. (2008). A Guide to the Dead Sea Scrolls and Related Literature. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. ISBN 9780802862419.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Hayes, Christine (2015). Introduction to the Bible. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0300188271.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Ulrich, Eugene, ed. (2010). The Biblical Qumran Scrolls: Transcriptions and Textual Variants. Brill.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Würthwein, Ernst (1995). The Text of the Old Testament. Translated by Rhodes, Erroll F. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans. ISBN 0-8028-0788-7. Retrieved January 26, 2019.