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As a result of the increase violence in the healthcare field, mental health patients, and a wide range of civil disturbances found across the nation, hospital security often proved insufficient. This occasionally resulted in injury to both the hospital staff and the security officers. These hospital security officers were often poorly trained, ineffectively led, and unprepared to respond to these turbulent and unanticipated events. Trauma centers treat patients of assaults, stabbings, and shootings which brings upset family and friends. Hospitals have the potential for violence on a daily basis.
Creation of hospital police departments began in the 1970s across the United States. Statutory laws were passed and necessary regulations were enacted to provide these security officers with the necessary statutory authority to perform their expanded roles as police officers. Hospital police officers were required to meet higher training and educational standards by attending the police academy. Further training was given to these police officers to deal with hospital-specific issues, including non-violent crisis management.
The United States Department of Veterans Affairs, along with many state and municipal owned hospitals, have full service law enforcement agencies, while private non-profit hospitals usually have special police or constables. Today's hospital police officers are better equipped to deal with hospital specific issues, and have detailed understanding of law enforcement within a healthcare environment.
- New York City Department of Health and Hospitals Police provide law enforcement in New York City Health and Hospitals Corporation operated hospitals
- United States Department of Veterans Affairs Police provide law enforcement in Veterans Affairs hospitals
- New York State Office of Mental Health Police provide law enforcement for NYS Mental Health hospitals
- Department of Public Safety, Roswell Park Cancer Institute
- Erie County Medical Center, (Erie County, New York) (ECMC) Hospital Police Department
- MedStar Washington Hospital Center Police Washington D.C.
- Henry Ford Health System Police Authority Detroit MI.
- Memorial Hospital of South Bend Police Department South Bend, IN
- University of Missouri Health System Security provide emergency law enforcement services for the University of Missouri Health System in Columbia, Missouri.
- St. John Hospital and Medical Center Security Police Department, Detroit MI.
- Detroit Medical Center Police Authority, Metropolitan Detroit Area, MI.
- Oakwood Hospital and Medical Center, Dearborn, MI.
- Cook County Health & Hospital Governing Commission Police Department. Chicago,ILL provided law enforcement for the old county hospital. deputized by the Cook County Sheriff Department.
- Cook County Hospital Police Department. Chicago, ILL provides law enforcement for the ILL Medical District and surrounding county buildings. certified sworn academy trained police officers.
- John Stroger Hospital of Cook County Police Department. Chicago, IL]] provides law enforcement for the ILL Medical Dist. and county buildings. certified sworn academy trained police officers.
- New Hamspshire Department of Safety, Division of State Police provides law enforcment for the New Hampshire Hospital and surrounding State Agencies on the Hospital campus. certified, sworn trained officers with specialized training in mental health.
- Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center Police, Boston, MA.
- Massachusetts General Hospital Police and Security Department, Boston, MA.
- Boston Medical Center Department of Public Safety (additionally affiliated with Boston University Police Department), Boston, MA.
- Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary Police and Security Department, Boston, MA.
- UMass Memorial Campus Police, Worcester, MA.
- St. Vincent Hospital Department of Public Safety, Worcester, MA.
- St. Anne's Hospital Police, Fall River, MA.
- Massachusetts Department of Mental Health Police, various state facilities, MA.