Hospitality refers to the relationship between a guest and a host, wherein the host receives the guest with goodwill, including the reception and entertainment of guests, visitors, or strangers. Louis, chevalier de Jaucourt describes hospitality in the Encyclopédie as the virtue of a great soul that cares for the whole universe through the ties of humanity.
Hospitality ethics is a discipline that studies this usage of hospitality.
Derives from the Latin hospes, meaning "host", "guest", or "stranger". Hospes is formed from hostis, which means "stranger" or "enemy" (the latter being where terms like "hostile" derive). By metonymy the Latin word 'Hospital' means a guest-chamber, guest's lodging, an inn. Hospes is thus the root for the English words host (where the p was dropped for convenience of pronunciation), hospitality, hospice, hostel and hotel.
In the West today hospitality is rarely a matter of protection and survival and is more associated with etiquette and entertainment. However, it still involves showing respect for one's guests, providing for their needs, and treating them as equals. Cultures and subcultures vary in the extent to which one is expected to show hospitality to strangers, as opposed to personal friends or members of one's ingroup.
In Ancient Greece, hospitality was right, with the host being expected to make sure the needs of his guests were met. The ancient Greek term xenia, or theoxenia when a god was involved, expressed this ritualized guest-friendship relation. In Greek society a person's ability to abide by the laws of hospitality determined nobility and social standing. The Stoics regarded hospitality as a duty inspired by Zeus himself.
In India hospitality is based on the principle Atithi Devo Bhava, meaning "the guest is God". This principle is shown in a number of stories where a guest is revealed to be a god who rewards the provider of hospitality. From this stems the Indian practice of graciousness towards guests at home and in all social situations.
Judaism praises hospitality to strangers and guests based largely on the examples of Abraham and Lot in the Book of Genesis (Genesis 18:1–8 and 19:1–8). In Hebrew, the practice is called hachnasat orchim, or "welcoming guests". Besides other expectations, hosts are expected to provide nourishment, comfort, and entertainment to their guests, and at the end of the visit, hosts customarily escort their guests out of their home, wishing them a safe journey.
One of the main principles of Pashtunwali is Melmastia. This is the display of hospitality and profound respect to all visitors (regardless of race, religion, national affiliation or economic status) without any hope of remuneration or favour. Pashtuns will go to great lengths to show their hospitality.
Celtic societies also valued the concept of hospitality, especially in terms of protection. A host who granted a person's request for refuge was expected not only to provide food and shelter to his/her guest, but to make sure they did not come to harm while under their care.
Anthropology of Hospitality
Jacques Derrida offers a model to understand hospitality that divides unconditional hospitality from conditional hospitality. Over centuries, philosophers devoted considerable attention to the problem of hospitality. However, hospitality offers a paradoxical situation (like language) since inclusion of those who are welcomed in the sacred law of hospitality implies others will be rejected. By the way, Julia Kristeva (1991) alerts on the dangers of “perverse hospitality”, which consists in taking advantage of the vulnerability of aliens to dispossess them. Hospitality serves to reduce the tension in the process of host-guest encounters, which reproduces a liminal zone that combines curiosity for the others, and fear to strangers. In general terms, the meaning of hospitality centres on the belief strangers should be assisted and protected while traveling. However, not all voices are in agreement with this concept. Professor Anthony Pagden describes how the concept of hospitality was historically manipulated to legitimate the conquest of Americas imposing the right of free transit, which was conducive to the formaiton of modern nation-state. This suggests, hospitality is a political institution, which can be ideologically designed to opress others.
Over recent years and following Padgen, Maximiliano Korstanje argued that hospitality is a inter-tribal pact in which case involving groups agree a self-defense in times of war, and exchange of goods and merchants in peace times. Since the inception of nation-state, the western concept of hospitality was disposed as the main criteria of circulation and mobility to the extent to situate as the main cultural value of modern capitalism. Hospitality depends on the giving-while-receiving process which is the touchstone of social bondage. Doubtless, hospitality and religion are inextricably entwined. In the same way, the soul are protected by Gods here-after, strangers should be assisted while travelling. Ethical failures to care strangers are punished by Gods introducing callamities, quakes and any type of disasters. Not surprisingly, the lack of hospitality represents the rise of evilness. In legends, myths and horror-movies, Rogues often seduce their guests not only covering their real intentions, but also taking the oportunity to seize them when sleeping. The guest-host meeting engenders higher levels of risk, which are mitigated by the "sacred law of hospitaiity" where both agree not to attack the other while enjoying hospitality. In view of the advance of secularization, the concept of unconditioned hospitality sets the pace to a new sort of hospitality for those who can pay for it.
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- Backpacking (travel)
- Hospitality management studies
- Hospitality services, modern-day hospitality networks
- Hotel manager
- Maître d'hôtel
- Reciprocal altruism
- Reciprocity (social psychology)
- Reciprocity (cultural anthropology)
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