Hossein Gharib

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Dr. Hossein Gharib

Dr. Hossein Gharib was born in Tehran, Iran on February 2, 1940. His father was Dr. Mohammad Gharib (1909–1975), a former Professor and Chair of Pediatrics at Tehran University (1938–1975), generally regarded as the "Father of Pediatrics" in Iran. In 1998, Hossein Gharib edited and published a book in Persian about his father which includes a collection of essays from his father's family, patients, friends, and colleagues. The second edition is scheduled for publication in late 2011. For his lifetime of service, Dr. Mohammad Gharib was honored on a stamp issued by the government of Iran in 1991.[1] Hossein's mother was Zahra Gharib (1915–2010), daughter of Ostad Abdolazim Gharib (1877–1965), a renowned professor of Persian literature and the first person to develop a modern grammar for the Iranian language. Ostad Abdolazim Gharib was recognized for his major contributions to Iranian literature by a stamp issued by Iran in 1989. Dr. Gharib has two sisters, Nahid Ziai and Mayram Comninos, and one brother, Dr. Mohsen Gharib. In 1976, he married Minoo Jalili and they have three children.

Early life[edit]

Dr. Gharib grew up in Tehran, attended Ferdowsi Grade School (1946–1952) and later Alborz High School (1952–1958), graduating with honors in 1958. He traveled to the United States in pursuit of the study of medicine. He received a B.S. degree from the Ohio State University in 1962. He went on to receive a medical degree from the University of Michigan Medical School in 1966, and took his internship at Philadelphia General Hospital from 1966 to 1967. He completed an internal medicine residency (1967–1969) and fellowship in endocrinology and metabolism (1969–1971) at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota. After a visiting fellowship in reproductive endocrinology at the Columbia University College of Physicians & Surgeons in New York City, he joined the Mayo Clinic faculty in Rochester in 1972.

In 1974, he went back briefly to Iran where he served on the faculties of the University of Tehran and the National University Medical Schools. During his tenure in Iran, he was initially a consultant at the Queen Heart Hospital before he was appointed the Medical Director of the Reza Pahlavi Medical Center (1975–1977). Dr. Gharib later became the Associate Dean of the College of Health Sciences (1977) and served as the director of the Department of Internal Medicine at Saadat-Abad Medical Center, National University (1977–1979). In June 1979, he returned to the Mayo Clinic in Rochester where he is now Professor of Medicine at the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, and a consultant in the Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Nutrition. He also teaches medical residents and endocrine fellows, and conducts clinical research.

Professional career[edit]

Dr. Hossein Gharib has become an internationally-known authority on thyroid disorders. Through the years, Dr. Gharib and his colleagues have made unique and important contributions that have significantly improved thyroid practice.


In 1971, Dr. Gharib and his colleagues reported in the Annals of Internal Medicine the utility of the new TSH radioimmunoassay (RIA) measurement in thyroid practice. In collaboration with Robert J. Ryan, M.D., and William E. Mayberry, M.D., he developed the first RIA to measure triiodothyronine (T3) in human serum. Published in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism (JCEM) between 1970 and 1971, his initial observations hold true today.[2] This was a major development that allowed further extensive studies on the mechanisms of thyroid hormones physiology and metabolism.

In the 1980s, Dr. Gharib focused his attention on nodular thyroid disease (NTD) and thyroid cancer, making a number of important contributions to endocrine practice. For example, an early paper emphasized the importance of NTD in clinical practice (New England Journal of Medicine, 1985); several studies illustrated the technique, accuracy, and impact of thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy in the management of nodules (Acta Cytol, 1987; Annals of Internal Medicine, 1993); and defined the limitations of FNA (Annals, 1984). He gets credit for helping establish the accuracy and safety of thyroid FNA biopsy in the management of thyroid nodular disease. As a result of these publications, thyroid FNA is now routinely used in the evaluation of nodular goiters. His seminal study published in NEJM in 1987 was a landmark report that challenged the conventional wisdom that long-term thyroid hormone therapy shrinks thyroid nodules. As expected, this report initially sparked considerable controversy and criticism but, when confirmed by other investigators, eventually changed medical practice such that thyroid hormones are no longer used to suppress benign nodular goiters (Annals 1998; Endocrinology & Metabolism Clinics of North America 2007). He was one of the first to draw attention to the high prevalence of the incidentally discovered thyroid nodules, "thyroid incidentalomas", and described steps in diagnosis and challenges in their management (Arch Int Med, 1995; Annals, 1997; Endocrinology & Metabolism Clinics of North America, 2000).

In more recent years, a series of reports on medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC)(Ann Surg, 1990; Surg, 1994; JCEM, 1994 & 1995; American Journal of Medicine, 1997)were important and influential in describing the Mayo experience and new paradigms in the diagnosis and management of this uncommon cancer. Additionally, Dr. Gharib and his Mayo colleagues described new algorithms for genetic testing in MTC syndromes (Annals, 1995); suggestions that are still true today (Thyroid, 2009). His reviews are often authoritative analyses of evolving concepts in thyroid practice (NEJM, 1985; Annals, 1998 & 2005).

Dr. Gharib in his Mayo Clinic Office, 2008

Publications, Lectures and Memberships

Dr. Gharib co-edited the first Evidence-Based Endocrinology Textbook, originally published in 2003, with the third edition printed in 2012. In 2013, he and three colleagues edited and published a textbook called "Endocrinology: A Problem-Oriented Approach". He is an editor of EndoText a free online endocrine textbook. Dr. Gharib has lectured more than 300 times at regional, national, or international endocrine events, and has been a visiting professor at 20 academic institutions in the U.S. and abroad. Over 110 of his peer-reviewed original papers have been published as well as 50 review articles. Other published works by him include 10 Guidelines for medical practice and 30 textbook chapters. Additionally, he and his team have presented 80 abstracts at national and international meetings, and he has chaired (3) or coauthored (6) clinical practice guidelines for medical practice for AACE and American Thyroid Association (ATA). In 2005, he chaired a joint AACE-ATA-Endocrine Society Task Force that reviewed the controversies in the management of subclinical thyroid dysfunction and offered recommendations for clinical practice (JCEM, 2005).

In addition to his clinical work as a practicing endocrinologist, he has been very active in many professional societies. He is an active member of the American Medical Association (AMA), Minnesota Medical Association (MMA), AACE, Endocrine Society, American College of Physicians (ACP), and the American Thyroid Association (ATA). He was a member of the MMA Committee on CME (2007–2010) and chaired that committee from 2006 to 2009. He has served on numerous ATA committees, including Awards, Development, Membership, Patient Education & Advocacy, and Public Health. He was the recipient of a travelling scholarship from ACP in 1975 and authored a PIER module in 1999 and 2001. He travels and speaks widely as an invited lecturer at national and international endocrine events, and has visited the following countries as a speaker or a visiting professor: Argentina, Brazil (10 times), Britain, Canada (5), Chile (2), China, Colombia, Croatia, Dominican Republic, Egypt (4), France (3), Germany, Greece (4), Iran (18), Italy (8), Jordan (5), Korea (2), Kuwait (2), Lebanon (10), Netherlands, Malaysia (3), Mexico, Morocco, Myanmar, Philippines (7), Portugal (2), Qatar (7), Romania (4), Salvador, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Syria (3), Sweden, Taiwan, Thailand (3), Tunisia, Turkey (6), & the UAE (9). He has been a pioneering advocate of joint international endocrine events, having played a crucial role in developing the First Pan Arab Endocrine Congress in Beirut, 1998, and many joint meetings between AACE and other groups including the Lebanese Society of Endocrinology, Diabets & Lipids; AME; Philippines AACE Chapter; Iranian Society of Endocrinology; Portuguese Endocrine Society; Jordanian Endocrine Society; Gulf AACE Chapter; Romania and the Egyptian Society of Endocrinology & Obesity.

For the past four decades, Dr. Gharib has been an ad hoc reviewer for many scientific journals, including the Annals of Internal Medicine, Archives of Internal Medicine, Endocrine Practice, European Journal of Endocrinology, JAMA, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism (JCEM), Mayo Clinic Proceedings, New England Journal of Medicine, and Thyroid. He has served on the editorial boards of Acta Endocrinologia (Romania); Endocrinology News; JCEM; Endocrine Practice; International J of Endocrinology; U.S. Endocrinology; Portuguese J of Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism; and Thyroid. He has authored or co-authored editorials, commentaries, and consensus papers. He has served as the Dean of Endocrine University (EU) since 2004.[3] This 6 day, hands-on, technical and practice-related course, sponsored by the American College of Endocrinology and supported by the Mayo Clinic, is offered annually at the Mayo-Rochester campus. Each year approximately 250 endocrine fellows from more than 130 programs in the U.S. attend this course. Currently, about 50% of practicing endocrinologists in this country are graduates of EU Course, a figure that is expected to reach almost 100% in the next decade thus underscoring the impact of EU on the future of endocrine practice in the U.S.

Dr. Gharib's role as a leader in endocrinology seems well established.[2] He was elected a Master of the American College of Endocrinology in 2004[4][5] and a Master of the American College of Physicians in 2006[6][7] He has served on many program committees for major endocrine congresses and has annually served on the faculty of endocrine review courses or endocrine meetings. At the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE), an endocrine association with 7,500 members including 1,500 international members from 95 countries, he has held every leadership position including serving as President in 2002.[8][9] In 2008 he was honored as the President of the American College of Endocrinology with approximately 2,500 fellows or F.A.C.E.[10] The American College of Endocrinology announced in 2012 the launch of a campaign to fund the Hossein Gharib (MD) Educational Fund, "in honor of Hossein Gharib, MD, MACE in recognition of his outstanding contributions to clinical endocrinology."

He has been named frequently on the Best Doctors in America list, most recently in 2011. He was inducted President of the American Thyroid Association at the ATA annual meeting in San Juan, Puerto Rico, in October 2013, the first Iranian so honored. The American College of Endocrinology recognized him by the Yank D. Coble, Jr, MD, Distinguished Service Award,[11] during the College Convocation on May 17, 2014 in Las Vegas. In September 2015, Dr Gharib was awarded Doctor Honoris Causa (honorary doctorate degree) by "Carol Davila" University of Medicine & Pharmacy in Bucharest, Romania, for his "academic, scientific and human merits." In May 2016, the Iranian Pediatric Society awarded Dr Gharib for his lifetime of distinguish service to medical profession.[citation needed]

Awards and honors[edit]

  • Outstanding Medical Resident, Mayo Graduate School of Medicine, Rochester, MN (1968)
  • Fellow, American College of Physicians (1975)
  • Professor of Medicine at the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine (1994)
  • Fellow, American College of Endocrinology (1995)
  • Honorary Member, Iranian Academy of Medical Sciences (1995)
  • Holds honorary memberships in several international endocrine societies, including Chile, Iran, Italy, Lebanon and Romania
  • Recipient of the Iranian American Medical Association (IAMA) Award for Outstanding & Significant Contributions in Medicine (2001)
  • Recipient of the Paul Starr Award, American Thyroid Association (2002)
  • President, American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (2002–2003)[8][9]
  • Recipient of the Mayo Clinic Department of Internal Medicine Laureate Award (2004)
  • Master of American College of Endocrinology (MACE)(2004)[5][12]
  • Master of American College of Physicians (MACP)(2006)[6][7]
  • Recipient of the International Clinician Award of the Associazione Medici Endocrinologi (AME) in Italy (2006)[13]
  • President, American College of Endocrinology (2008–2009)[10]
  • Honorary Professor, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (2008)[14]
  • Recipient of the Distinction Award by Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia (SBEM) in Brazil for “significant contributions to clinical endocrinology”(2009)
  • Recipient of the Distinguished Physician Award of the Endocrine Society (2010)[2][15]
  • Recipient of Dr Augusto D Litonjua Distinguished Clinician Award of the Philippines-AACE Chapter (2012)
  • Ellis Island Medal of Honor Award (2013)
  • President, American Thyroid Association (2014)
  • Yank D. Coble, Jr., MD, Distinguished Service Award, American College of Endocrinology, (2014)
  • Doctor Honoris Causa (Honorary Doctorate), "Carol Davila" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania (2015)
  • Life Achievement Award, Iranian Pediatric Society,Tehran, Iran (2016)
  • Certificate of Honor, Brazilian Society of Endocrinology & Metabolism (SBEM), Recife, Brazil (2017)

Television series[edit]

Roozegar-e Gharib Roozegar-e Gharib (loosely translated to "The Era of Gharib") is the title of a highly popular 36-part Iranian television series based on Dr. Mohammad Gharib's life. Hossein, his siblings, and many other members of the Gharib family are also portrayed in the film by Iranian actors.


  1. ^ Mayo Clinic Proc 67:339, 1992
  2. ^ a b c JCEM 95 (8):4097-98, 2010
  3. ^ EU: Endocr Pract 12:1, 2006
  4. ^ MACE: Southeast Business Journal vol 4, no 7, July 2004
  5. ^ a b This Week at Mayo, vol 14, no 37, May 7, 2004
  6. ^ a b MACP: First Messenger vol 15, no 1, Jan 2006
  7. ^ a b Rochester Post Bulletin, www.postbulletin.com, April 10, 2006
  8. ^ a b AACE President: Iran Times, vol 32, no 10, May 17, 2002
  9. ^ a b First Messenger, vol 11, no 3, Jan 2002
  10. ^ a b ACE President: Iran Times, vol 38, no 10, May 23, 2008
  11. ^ Heard on the Street: Mayo Clinic prof honored by college, Rochester Post Bulletin, May 30, 2014
  12. ^ MACE: Southeast Business Journal vol 4, no 7, July 2004
  13. ^ Mayo Clinic Endocrinology Update, vol 2, no 1, 2007
  14. ^ Avesta Razavi MD. "Commemorating Dr. Muhammad Gharib, the Late Professor of TUMS". Publicrelations.tums.ac.ir. Retrieved 2012-08-05. 
  15. ^ First Messenger, vol 19, no 2, March 2010