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Host desecration

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Painting (16th century) showing the alleged desecration of hosts by Jews in Passau in 1477 (detail), Oberhausmuseum [de] (Passau).

Host desecration is a form of sacrilege in Christian denominations that follow the doctrine of the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist. It involves the mistreatment or malicious use of a consecrated host—the bread used in the Eucharistic service of the Divine Liturgy or Mass (also known by Protestants simply as Communion bread). It is forbidden by the Catholic, Oriental Orthodox, and Eastern Orthodox Churches, as well as in certain Protestant traditions (including Anglicanism, Lutheranism, and Methodism). In Catholicism, where the host is held to have been transubstantiated into the body of Jesus Christ, host desecration is one of the gravest sins. Intentional host desecration incurs the penalty of excommunication latae sententiae.[1][2] Throughout history, a number of groups have been accused of desecrating the Eucharist, often with grave consequences due to the spiritual importance of the consecrated host.

Accusations against Jews were a common reason given for massacres and expulsions throughout the Middle Ages in Europe.[3] Similar accusations were made against Muslims,[4] Protestants[5] and in witchcraft trials; witch-hunter's guides such as the Malleus Maleficarum refer to hosts as being objects of desecration by witches.[6] It is part of many descriptions of the Black Mass, both in ostensibly historical works and in fiction.[7]


From a 15th-century German woodcut of the host desecration by the Jews of Passau, 1477. The hosts are stolen and sold to the Jewish community, who pierce them in a ritual. When guards come to question the Jews, they (the Jews) attempt to burn the Hosts, but are unsuccessful, as the Hosts transform into an infant carried by angels. The Jews, now proven guilty, are arrested, beheaded, and tortured with hot pincers, the entire community is driven out with their feet bound and held to the fire, and the Christian who sold the hosts to the Jews is punished. At the end the Christians kneel and pray.

In the Catholic Church, the transubstantiation of the Eucharist means the "body, blood, soul, and divinity" of Jesus Christ are present in the form of the consecrated host are adored. Theft, sale, or use of the host for a profane purpose is considered a grave sin and sacrilege,[8] which incurs the penalty of excommunication, which is imposed automatically in the Latin Church (See Latin Church Code canon 1367, or Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches canon 1442.)[1][2]

Some denominations, especially Lutherans, have similar beliefs regarding the Eucharist and the Real Presence, though they reject the Roman Catholic concept of transubstantiation, preferring instead the doctrine of the sacramental union, in which "the body and blood of Christ are so truly united to the bread and wine of the Holy Communion that the two may be identified. They are at the same time body and blood, bread and wine…in this sacrament the Lutheran Christian receives the very body and blood of Christ precisely for the strengthening of the union of faith."[9] Both the Eastern Orthodox Churches and the Oriental Orthodox Churches, such as the Coptic Church, insist "on the reality of the change from bread and wine into the body and the blood of Christ at the consecration of the elements", although they have "never attempted to explain the manner of the change",[10] thus rejecting philosophical terms to describe it.[11]

The Methodist Church similarly holds that Jesus is truly present in the Eucharist "through the elements of bread and wine", but maintains that how he is present is a Holy Mystery.[12][13] Until the 19th-century Oxford Movement reintroduced the classic doctrine of the Real Presence, Anglicanism had favored receptionism — the doctrine that while the bread and wine in the Eucharist continue to exist unchanged after consecration, the faithful communicant receives together with them the body and blood of Jesus.[14] Whatever the doctrine selected, among Anglicans the consecrated bread and hosts are reserved and treated with great reverence.

Since the publication of Memoriale Domini in 1969,[15] the Catholic Church has allowed certain countries to allow communicants to receive the Host in the hand, rather than directly onto the tongue, reviving an "ancient custom".[15] Communion in the hand is now widespread in many parts of the world. The practice means that access to consecrated Hosts is easier than in the past, since the person receiving it in the hand may pretend to place it in their mouth for consumption. About this, Pope Benedict XVI cited: "I am not opposed in principle to Communion in the hand; I have both administered and received Communion in this way myself… The idea behind my current practice of having people kneel to receive Communion on the tongue was to send a signal and to underscore the Real Presence with an exclamation point"[16] Receiving on the tongue is still the official norm of the Catholic Church, while receiving in the hand [via the Memoriale Domini indult] is, in English-speaking countries, the practical norm. Kneeling to receive communion is still the norm among Anglicans and Lutherans.

As of 2015, host desecration is a crime in Spain,[17] and in the 1983 Code of Canon Law.[18]

Medieval accusations against Jews[edit]

Jews depicted torturing the host, on a Belgian tapestry.

Accusations of host desecration (German: Hostienschändung) leveled against Jews were a common pretext for massacres and expulsions throughout the Middle Ages in Europe.[3] The libel of "Jewish deicide"—that the Jewish people were responsible for the killing of Jesus, whom Christians regard as God become man—was a generally accepted Christian belief. It was spuriously claimed that Jews stole hosts (objects to which they attached no significance, religious or otherwise), and further spuriously claimed that they abused these hosts to re-enact the crucifixion of Jesus by stabbing or burning them.

It has been asserted by modern scholars, such as the Catholic priest Gavin Langmuir, that these accusations against Jews represented profound doubt about the truth of Christianity.[19] Although the doctrine of transubstantiation did not imply that, by consuming the host, Christians were eating flesh and drinking blood in the normal sense, the language used to describe the dogma would have been interpreted as completely alien to Judaism and Jewish law. For Jews, such a belief system would contradict their strict dietary laws, which forbid the consumption of blood, even when consuming kosher animals.

Jews in the Middle Ages were frequently victims of similar accusations, considered more serious than desecration of other revered items, such as relics or images of Jesus and the saints. The accusations were often supported only by the testimony of the accuser, who may potentially bear a prejudice against the accused Jew or the Jewish people. Despite this, some alleged perpetrators were tried and found guilty, on little evidence or through torture.[3]

The penalties for Jews accused of defiling sacred hosts were severe. Many Jews, after accusations and torture, "confessed" to abusing hosts, and the accused Jews were condemned and burned, sometimes with all the other Jews in the community, as happened in Beelitz in 1243,[20] in Prague in 1389,[21] and in many German cities, according to Ocker's writings in the Harvard Theological Review.[22] According to William Nichol, over 100 instances of Jews pleading guilty to the desecration of sacred hosts have been recorded.

Medieval painting of host desecration by Jews, from the Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya.

The first recorded accusation was made in 1243 at Beelitz, south of Potsdam.[23] Tradition records that as a consequence the Jews of Beelitz were burned on a hill before the Mill Gate, which was subsequently, and until 1945, called the Judenberg, although there is no contemporary evidence for the burnings in documents of the 13th century.[citation needed] Another famous case that took place in 1290, in Paris, was commemorated in the Church of the Rue des Billettes and in a local confraternity. The case of 1337, at Deggendorf, celebrated locally as part of the "Deggendorfer Gnad" until 1992, led to a series of massacres across the region. In 1370 in Brussels the charge of host desecration, linked to an actual recovered relic of desecrated hosts currently found in the Cathedral of St. Gudula and long celebrated in a special feast, and to artistic depictions also found in the cathedral, led to the burning of six Jews (other times given twenty) and, reportedly, the expulsion of the town's Jewish population (see Brussels massacre). In 1510, at Knoblauch in Havelland 38 Jews were executed and more expelled from Brandenburg.

An alleged host desecration in 1410, at Segovia, was said to have brought about an earthquake; as a result, leading Jews in the city were executed and the local synagogue was seized and re-dedicated as the convent and Church of Corpus Christi.[24]

Similar accusations, resulting in extensive persecution of Jews, were brought forward in 1294, at Laa, Austria; 1298, at Röttingen, near Würzburg, and at Korneuburg, near Vienna; 1299, at Ratisbon; 1306, at St. Pölten; 1330, at Güstrow; 1338, at Pulkau; 1388, at Prague; 1401, at Glogau; 1420, at Ems; 1453, at Breslau; 1478, at Passau; 1492, at Sternberg, in Mecklenburg; 1514, at Mittelberg, in Alsace; 1556, at Sochaczew, in Poland. The last Jew burned for stealing a host died in 1631, according to Jacques Basnage, quoting from Menasseh Ben Israel. In some cases host desecration legends emerged without actual accusations, as was the case of the host desecration legend of Poznan (Posen).[25]

The second panel of Paolo Uccello's Miracle of the Profaned Host (c. 1467–1469) from the Urbino Confraternity of Corpus Domini predella. Based on the Paris 1290 legend, a Jewish moneylender is cooking the host, which emanates blood. The wife and children look on in terror as the blood pours into the street in rivers while soldiers break through the door.

The accusation of host desecration gradually ceased after the Reformation as more Christian denominations no longer believe in hosts being the body and blood of Christ. However, sporadic instances of host desecration libel occurred even in the 18th and 19th century. In 1761 in Nancy, several Jews from Alsace were executed on a charge of sacred host desecration. The last recorded accusation was brought up in Berlad,[26] Romania, in 1836.[3]

Medieval accusations against Muslims[edit]

Juan Manuel included in his 1335 anthology El Conde Lucanor a tale about a treacherous priest who gave the Host to some Muslims, who then proceeded to drag it through the mud while mocking it.[27] In 1465, Christians who opposed King Enrique IV of Castile defamed him by claiming that under his reign, “some Jews and Moors sought on several occasions to obtain a consecrated host” as well as other sacred objects “in order to perform various evil rites to harm our Lord, his holy church, and our faith.” Sixteenth-century inquisitors and polemicists likewise accused former Muslims, whom they saw as false converts, of host desecration. For example, the Inquisition of Cuenca charged one former Muslim with purchasing stolen hosts and stringing them up in a latrine (as some former Judaists supposedly did). In a similar accusation, former Muslims allegedly stole a church’s hosts and contemptuously threw them onto the ground.[4]

Accusations against Protestants[edit]

Since 1549, Counter-Reformers occasionally accused Protestants of desecrating the Host.[5] For example, a Catholic account claims that in 1561 a group of French Protestants were so irritated by a church’s bell-ringing that they responded by assaulting the church, harming and killing several parishioners, and intentionally desecrating the Host.[28]

2008 controversy in the US[edit]

In his July 8 blog entry, University of Minnesota Morris biology professor Paul Zachary Myers criticized the reaction to a University of Central Florida student's perceived act of host desecration (the student had attempted to bring the host to a friend who was curious about communion). Myers described the level of harassment against the student and expressed his intent to desecrate the host, which the Catholic Church considers a grave matter.[29]

Myers expressed outrage that Fox News appeared to be inciting viewers to cause further problems for the student and ridiculed reports that armed guards would attend the next Mass. Myers suggested that if any of his readers could acquire some consecrated Eucharistic hosts for him, he would treat the wafers "with profound disrespect and heinous cracker abuse, all photographed and presented here on the web."[30]

A number of Catholics immediately reacted strongly. William A. Donohue of the Catholic League accused Myers of anti-catholic bigotry,[31] described his proposal as a threat to desecrate what Catholics hold to be the Body of Christ and sent a letter asking the University of Minnesota and the Minnesota State Legislature to take action against Myers.[31][32]

Myers pierced a host with a rusty nail, which he also used to pierce a few ripped-out pages of the Quran and The God Delusion, put them all in the trash along with old coffee grounds and a banana peel.[33] He provided a photograph on his blog of these items in the garbage and wrote that nothing must be held sacred, encouraging people to question everything.[33] In addition, he described the history of allegations of host desecration, emphasizing the frequent use of such allegations in medieval Europe to justify anti-Semitism.[33]

According to Donohue, as the Pharyngula website was accessible via a link from the University of Minnesota website, it should be bound by the institution's code of conduct which requires faculty to be "respectful, fair and civil" when dealing with others.[32] Subsequently, Myers explained to the Star Tribune that while his post was "satire and protest", he had received death threats regarding the incident but was not taking them too seriously.[31] The University of Minnesota, Morris (UMM) Chancellor defended Myers, and stated: "I believe that behaviors that discriminate against or harass individuals or groups on the basis of their religious beliefs are reprehensible" and that the school "affirms the freedom of a faculty member to speak or write as a public citizen without institutional discipline or restraint."[34]

Al-Islam magazine[edit]

In 2009, two Muslim reporters from Al-Islam, a small Malaysian magazine, participated in a Catholic Mass, while undercover writing an article on cases of apostasy from Islam (riddah) and received Holy Communion. The reporters afterwards spat out the Host and photographed it to prove they had not apostatised themselves.[35] The resulting photo was then published in their May 2009 edition.[36] The magazine, which is owned by Utusan Karya, part of the Utusan Malaysia Group, sent its reporters, including Muhd Ridwan Abdul Jalil, to two churches in the Klang Valley, as part of a special investigative report.[36] The act of desecration occurred at St Anthony's Church in Jalan Robertson, Kuala Lumpur.[37]

After its publication, two lay Catholics from Penang, Sudhagaran Stanley and Joachim Francis Xavier, jointly lodged a police report against the reporters.[38] The police took no action despite a potential charge under Section 298A (1) of the Penal Code for causing disharmony, disunity or feelings of enmity, hatred or ill will, or prejudicing the maintenance of harmony or unity, on grounds of religion.[36]

The desecration caused widespread outrage and condemnation from non-Muslims as well as Muslims[39] across the country. Parties including the Archbishop of Kuala Lumpur, Murphy Pakiam; the Catholic Lawyers Society; as well as numerous editorials in the media,[36] criticised the government and the Attorney-General for its failure to act.[40][41][42]

Some nine months later, in early March 2010, Al-Islam published an apology to the Catholic Church and other Christians for the article. It was posted on the website of its publisher.[43] Archbishop Pakiam, who is also president of the Catholic Bishops' Conference of Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei, accepted the apology and said that no further (legal) action would be taken.[44]

During a Black Mass[edit]

A Black Mass is a Satanic ritual designed to satirize or invert a traditional Catholic mass. Consecrated hosts are a common ingredient in black masses,[citation needed] becoming the subject of desecration. The hosts must first be stolen from the tabernacle of a Catholic church,[citation needed] and/or secreted away by people who are posing as parishioners receiving communion.

In 2014, the Dakhma of Angra Mainyu held a public Black Mass at the Oklahoma Civic Center[45] and planned to include the desecration of a consecrated host, which was to be "stomped on". Instead, the host was returned through an attorney after the archdiocese filed a lawsuit for its recovery.[46][47][48][49]


The sacrilege of the Host is mistakenly regarded as a fictitious crime committed primarily by pagans and fringe groups. Recent research indicates that hosts were actually desecrated, especially in connection with war crimes, which was particularly the case when the aim was to expose as idolatrous the enemy's religious cult, whose altars and churches were demonstratively vandalized. Since the host had a very special ideological meaning within a culture of giving, the opponent was not only to be dishonored materially, but also spiritually.[50]

See also[edit]



  1. ^ a b "Code of Canon Law #1367". Archived from the original on 2019-09-11. Retrieved 2019-09-03.
  2. ^ a b "Code of canons of Oriental Churches #1442". Archived from the original on 2019-08-04. Retrieved 2019-09-03.
  3. ^ a b c d "Desecration of the Host". www.jewishencyclopedia.com. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 7 May 2007.
  4. ^ a b David M. Freidenreich (2022). "Muslims Killed Christ!? Theological Arguments and Political Agendas". Jewish Muslims: How Christians Imagined Islam as the Enemy. Oakland, California: University of California Press. pp. 162–3. ISBN 9780520975644. LCCN 2022017143.
  5. ^ a b Károly Goda (2014). "Metamorphoses of Corpus Christi: Eucharistic Processions & Clashes in Fifteenth- and Sixteenth-Century Vienna". Theatrum historiae. 15: 28–31.
  6. ^ Summers, Montague, ed. The Malleus Maleficarum of Kramer and Sprenger, 1948. Originally in Latin, Germany, 1487. e.g. Part II, Question I, Chapter IV:"...they are bound to observe certain other abominable ceremonies at the command of the devils, such as to spit on the ground at the Elevation of the Host."
  7. ^ See the studies by: Rhodes, H.T.F. The Satanic Mass, 1954 and Zacharias, Gerhard The Satanic Cult, 1980.
  8. ^ ""Sacrilege", Catholic Encyclopedia, 1912, retrieved 7 May 2007". Newadvent.org. 1912-02-01. Archived from the original on 2018-04-23. Retrieved 2018-04-16.
  9. ^ Mattox, Mickey L.; Roeber, A. G. (27 February 2012). Changing Churches: An Orthodox, Catholic, and Lutheran Theological Conversation. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 54. ISBN 9780802866943. In this "sacramental union," Lutherans taught, the body and blood of Christ are so truly united to the bread and wine of the Holy Communion that the two may be identified. They are at the same time body and blood, bread and wine. This divine food is given, more-over, not just for the strengthening of faith, nor only as a sign of our unity in faith, nor merely as an assurance of the forgiveness of sin. Even more, in this sacrament the Lutheran Christian receives the very body and blood of Christ precisely for the strengthening of the union of faith. The "real presence" of Christ in the Holy Sacrament is the means by which the union of faith, effected by God's Word and the sacrament of baptism, is strengthened and maintained. Intimate union with Christ, in other words, leads directly to the most intimate communion in his holy body and blood.
  10. ^ Harper, Brad; Metzger, Paul Louis (1 March 2009). Exploring Ecclesiology. Brazos Press. p. 312. ISBN 9781587431739.
  11. ^ Houlden, James Leslie (2003). Jesus in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 185. ISBN 9781576078563. The Copts are fearful of using philosophical terms concerning the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist, preferring uncritical appeals to biblical passages like 1 Cor. 10.16; 11.23-29 or the discourse in John 6.26-58.
  12. ^ Neal, Gregory S. (19 December 2014). Sacramental Theology and the Christian Life. WestBow Press. p. 111. ISBN 9781490860077. For Anglicans and Methodists the reality of the presence of Jesus as received through the sacramental elements is not in question. Real presence is simply accepted as being true, its mysterious nature being affirmed and even lauded in official statements like This Holy Mystery: A United Methodist Understanding of Holy Communion.
  13. ^ Abraham, William J.; Watson, David F. (1 March 2013). Key United Methodist Beliefs. Abingdon Press. p. 1. ISBN 9781426771224. Charles Wesley wrote a marvelous collection of hymns that offer an amazing vision of Christ's mysterious, yet real, presence in the bread and the wine.
  14. ^ Cross, F. L., ed. (2005). "Receptionism". The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-280290-3.
  15. ^ a b "Memoriale Domini". www.ewtn.com. 1969-05-29. Archived from the original on 2020-07-20. Retrieved 2020-07-20.
  16. ^ Peter Seewald; Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI (2010). Light Of The World: The Pope, The Church and The Signs Of The Times. Ignatius Press. ISBN 9781586176068.
  17. ^ "Over 200 consecrated hosts stolen, desecrated in Spain art exhibit". Catholic News Agency. Retrieved 2021-01-19.
  18. ^ "A Crime Against All We Hold Most Dear | EWTN". EWTN Global Catholic Television Network. Retrieved 2021-01-19.
  19. ^ Langmuir (1990), p.289
  20. ^ Encyclopedia of Jewish knowledge. Behrman's Jewish book house. 1934. Retrieved 22 March 2016 – via Internet Archive.
  21. ^ "Blood libel accusations against Jews Archived 2005-11-25 at the Wayback Machine", Religious Tolerance Organisation, retrieved 7 May 2007.
  22. ^ Ocker (April 1998)
  23. ^ "Desecration of Host". Jewish Virtual Library. Archived from the original on 2020-02-15. Retrieved 2020-01-10.
  24. ^ Markman, Sidney David (2003). Jewish Remnants in Spain: Wanderings in a Lost World. Mesa, AZ: Scribe Publishers. pp. 50–51. ISBN 0972723706. Archived from the original on 2017-04-14. Retrieved 2017-04-14.
  25. ^ Magda Teter (2011). Sinners on Trial: Jews and Sacrilege after the Reformation. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-05297-0.
  26. ^ Loeb, Isidore (1877). La situation des israélites en Turquie, en Serbie et en Roumanie. J. Baer. p. 143.
  27. ^ Ryan Szpiech (2021). S. Davis-Secord (ed.). "Seeing the Substance: Rhetorical Muslims and Christian Holy Objects in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries". Interfaith Relationships and Perceptions of the Other in the Medieval Mediterranean. Springer Nature: 149. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-83997-0_5.
  28. ^ Penny Roberts (2015). Michael T. Davis (ed.). "Riot and Religion in Sixteenth-Century France". Crowd Actions in Britain and France from the Middle Ages to the Modern World. Palgrave Macmillan: 36. doi:10.1057/9781137316516. ISBN 9781137316516.
  29. ^ "College Student Gets Death Threats for Smuggling "Body of Christ"". Fox News. 2008-07-10. Archived from the original on 2020-11-29. Retrieved 2016-08-22.
  30. ^ "It's a Frackin' Cracker!". Pharyngula. 2008-07-08. Archived from the original on 2009-02-01. Retrieved 2008-07-11.
  31. ^ a b c "Communion wafer held 'hostage' raises holy heck". Star Tribune. 2008-07-11. Archived from the original on 2009-02-04. Retrieved 2008-07-11.
  32. ^ a b "Minnesota Prof Pledges to Desecrate Eucharist". The Catholic League. 2008-07-10. Archived from the original on 2008-07-13. Retrieved 2008-07-11.
  33. ^ a b c Myers, PZ (July 24, 2008). "The Great Desecration". Pharyngula. Archived from the original on May 3, 2016. Retrieved May 19, 2016.
  34. ^ WALSH, PAUL Morris chancellor defends instructor who defiled Eucharist, tore Qur'an Archived 2009-08-27 at the Wayback Machine Star Tribune, July 25, 2008
  35. ^ Article "Al-Islam masuk gereja cari gadis bertudung murtad". May 2009 "Al-Islam enters a church seeking [muslim] girls hiding apostasy"
  36. ^ a b c d AG should appreciate severity of Al-Islam incident: Catholic lawyers[permanent dead link]. (March 5, 2010). Yi Liang, Tan. The Sun. Retrieved March 15, 2010.
  37. ^ Church unhappy A-G dropped 'Al-Islam' case. Archived 2010-03-08 at the Wayback Machine (Mar 5, 2010). Lourdes, Marc. New Straits Times. Retrieved March 15, 2010.
  38. ^ Malaysian lay activist pursues 'Al-Islam' case Archived 2010-03-17 at the Wayback Machine (Feb 5, 2010). CathNews Asia. Retrieved March 15, 2010.
  39. ^ Khairy condemns actions of two Al Islam journalists. Archived 2009-09-07 at the Wayback Machine (July 16, 2010). Syed Jaymal Zahiid. The Malaysian Insider. Retrieved march 15, 2010.
  40. ^ Malaysia defends inaction over Catholic 'desecration'. Archived 2010-03-08 at the Wayback Machine (Mar 4, 2010). AFP. Retrieved March 15, 2010.
  41. ^ Church: No action and no apology. Archived 2010-03-12 at the Wayback Machine (Mar 05, 2010). AsiaOne News. Retrieved March 15, 2010.
  42. ^ Church slams govt over inaction. Archived 2010-03-06 at the Wayback Machine Mar 4, 2010. My Sin Chew. Retrieved March 15, 2010.
  43. ^ Al-Islam apologises to Christians over special report. Mar 6, 2010. The Star. Retrieved March 15, 2010.
  44. ^ Archbishop accepts apology, not suing Al-Islam. Archived 2010-03-17 at the Wayback Machine (Mar 8, 2010). Chong, Debra. Herald. Retrieved March 15, 2010.
  45. ^ Blumberg, Antonia (22 September 2014). "Catholics Gather To Protest 'Black Mass' Event In Oklahoma City". Huff Post. Archived from the original on 16 April 2018. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  46. ^ Carla Hinton (21 August 2014). "Lawsuit pits Catholic archbishop against satanist group over sacred item purported to be used for 'black Mass'". newsok.com. Archived from the original on 11 July 2017. Retrieved 9 July 2017.
  47. ^ "Satanists Return Stolen Host to Archbishop Coakley". ncregister.com. 21 August 2014. Archived from the original on 2 October 2017. Retrieved 9 July 2017.
  48. ^ Brian Fraga (20 August 2014). "Archbishop Coakley Files Lawsuit Against Black Mass Organizers". ncregister.com. Archived from the original on 2 October 2017. Retrieved 9 July 2017.
  49. ^ News9.com (21 August 2014). "Consecrated Host Returned, OKC Archbishop Drops Lawsuit". news9.com. Archived from the original on 2 June 2017. Retrieved 9 July 2017.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  50. ^ Konstantin Moritz Langmaier: Hass als historisches Phänomen: Gräueltaten und Kirchenschändungen im Alten Zürichkrieg am Beispiel einer Luzerner Quelle von 1444. In: Deutsches Archiv. Band 73/2, 2017, 639–686 online


Further reading

External links[edit]