Hostile architecture

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A Camden bench in London, a noted specific example of hostile design

Hostile architecture is an urban design trend in which public spaces are constructed or altered to discourage people from using them in a way not intended by the owner.[1] Also known as defensive architecture, hostile design, unpleasant design, or defensive urban design it is most typically associated with aggression against the homeless in the form of "anti-homeless spikes" — studs embedded in flat surfaces to make sleeping rough uncomfortable and impractical.[2][3] Hostile architecture often targets the city's most vulnerable, both intentionally through anti-loitering measures and unintentionally by making the cityscape hostile to all parts of the public, especially seniors, people with disabilities, and children.[4]

Other forms of behaviour which are commonly designed against by hostile architecture include skateboarding, littering, loitering, and urination which are deterred with methods including sloped window sills to stop people sitting, benches with armrests positioned to stop people lying on them, and water sprinklers that "intermittently come on but aren't really watering anything."[5][6] Although the term "hostile architecture" is recent, the use of civil engineering to achieve social engineering is not: antecedents include 19th century "urine deflectors".[7][8] Its modern form is derived from design philosophy, Crime Prevention through Environmental Design which aims to prevent crime or protect property through three strategies: natural surveillance, natural access control, and territorial enforcement.[9] The Seattle Department of Transportation installed bicycle racks to prevent the homeless from camping.[10] A gas station in New Kensington, Pennsylvania installed blue lighting in their bathrooms that make it hard for drug users to find their veins.[11]

Critics of hostile architecture argue that it makes contrarianism impossible, that it replaces public spaces with commercial or "pseudo-public" spaces and uses architecture "to enforce social divisions".[12][13]

In 2018 British artist Stuart Semple created a social media public awareness campaign encouraging the public to place identifying stickers on instances of hostile design in their environment.[14][15][16]

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References[edit]

  1. ^ "hostile architecture". Macmillan Dictionary. Retrieved 23 February 2015. 
  2. ^ Omidi, Maryam (12 June 2014). "Anti-homeless spikes are just the latest in 'defensive urban architecture'". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 February 2015. 
  3. ^ Andreou, Alex (18 February 2015). "Anti-homeless spikes: 'Sleeping rough opened my eyes to the city's barbed cruelty'". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 February 2015. 
  4. ^ Chellew, Cara (January 21, 2018). "#defensiveTO". #defensiveTO. 
  5. ^ Quinn, Ben (13 June 2014). "Anti-homeless spikes are part of a wider phenomenon of 'hostile architecture'". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 February 2015. 
  6. ^ Mills, Chris (21 February 2015). "How 'Defensive Architecture' Is Ruining Our Cities". Gizmodo.com. Retrieved 23 February 2015. 
  7. ^ Swain, Frank (2 December 2013). "Secret city design tricks manipulate your behaviour". BBC. 
  8. ^ Lee, Jackson (23 July 2013). "Urine Deflectors in Fleet Street". The Cat's Meat Shop. Retrieved 23 February 2014. 
  9. ^ Chellew, Cara (2016). "Design Paranoia" (PDF). Ontario Planning Journal. 31 – via ResearchGate. 
  10. ^ Groover, Heidi (19 December 2017). "Seattle Uses Bike Racks to Discourage Homeless Camping". The Stranger. Retrieved 17 December 2017. 
  11. ^ Watts, Amanda (December 7, 2017). "Gas station installs blue lights to combat drug use". CNN. Retrieved 6 March 2018. 
  12. ^ Swain, Frank (5 December 2013). "Designing the Perfect Anti-Object". Medium. Retrieved 23 February 2015. 
  13. ^ Shea, Michael (5 August 2014). "On the frontline: The architectural policing of social boundaries". Discover Society. Retrieved 23 February 2015. 
  14. ^ "Hostile Architecture: 'Design Crimes' Campaign Gets Bars Removed from Benches - 99% Invisible". 99% Invisible. Retrieved 2018-02-15. 
  15. ^ "Stuart Semple launches campaign to eradicate 'hostile design' around the world". www.theartnewspaper.com. Retrieved 2018-02-15. 
  16. ^ "Artist Launches Campaign to Call Out Hostile Urban Design". Hyperallergic. 2018-02-01. Retrieved 2018-02-15. 

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