Hostilia (gens)

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Tullus Hostilius defeating the army of Veii and Fidenae, modern fresco.

The gens Hostilia was an ancient family at Rome, which traced its origin to the time of Romulus. The most famous member of the gens was Tullus Hostilius, the third King of Rome; however, all of the Hostilii known from the time of the Republic were plebeians. Several of the Hostilii were distinguished during Punic Wars. The first of the family to obtain the consulship was Aulus Hostilius Mancinus in 170 BC.[1]

Origin[edit]

The Hostilii came originally from Medullia, an ancient city in Latium, and are thought to have settled at Rome in the time of Romulus. Although the Hostilii of the Republic had no specific tradition about Medullia, coins minted by one of the later Hostilii bear the heads of Pallor and Pavor, the gods of fear and panic, in an allusion to Tullus Hostilius, who vowed temples to Pallor and Pavor during his war with Veii and Fidenae. If the later Hostilii were descended from the Hostilii of the regal period, then they were of Medullian origin.[2]

The nomen Hostilius is a patronymic surname, based on the praenomen Hostus, which was borne by the ancestors of the gens. The same praenomen gave rise to another gens, with the nomen Hostius. The earliest known member of the Hostilii was Hostus Hostilius, a Roman champion in the earliest days of the city. However, if he also bore the nomen Hostilius, then that name must have originated at an earlier time. The meaning of the praenomen remains obscure; but it could possibly have originated as a variation of Faustus, another ancient name meaning fortunate; in Etruscan we find two possible cognates, the feminine praenomina Fasti and Hasti, of which the latter is a variation of the former.[3][4]

Praenomina[edit]

The principal first names used by the Hostilii were Aulus, Lucius, and Gaius. There are also instances of Marcus and Publius. The ancient Hostilii appear to have made regular use of the praenomen Hostus. Tullus, also used by the gens in the earliest times, appears to have been revived by the family during the later Republic. A woman of the gens is known to have used the praenomen Quarta.[5]

Branches and cognomina[edit]

The Hostilii of the Republic bore the surnames Cato, Mancinus, Saserna, and Tubulus. Firminus and Rutilus are found in imperial times. Some of the Hostilii do not appear to have had cognomina.[6]

Members[edit]

This list includes abbreviated praenomina. For an explanation of this practice, see filiation.

Hostilii Mancini[edit]

Hostilii Tubuli[edit]

Hostilii Catones[edit]

Hostilii Sasernae[edit]

  • Hostilius Saserna, the name of two agricultural writers, father and son, who lived in the time between Cato and Varro.[31][32][33]
  • Lucius Hostilius Saserna, triumvir monetalis in 48 BC.[34]
  • Gaius Hostilius Saserna, served with his brother, Publius, under Caesar in the African War, in 46 BC.[35]
  • Publius Hostilius Saserna, served under Caesar in the African War.[36]

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, William Smith, Editor.
  2. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, William Smith, Editor.
  3. ^ George Davis Chase, "The Origin of Roman Praenomina", in Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, vol. VIII (1897).
  4. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, William Smith, Editor.
  5. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, William Smith, Editor.
  6. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, William Smith, Editor.
  7. ^ Titus Livius, Ab Urbe Condita, i. 12.
  8. ^ Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Romaike Archaiologia, iii. 1.
  9. ^ Macrobius Ambrosius Theodosius, Saturnalia, i. 6.
  10. ^ Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Romaike Archaiologia, ii. 45, iii. 1.
  11. ^ Macrobius, Saturnalia, i. 6.
  12. ^ Titus Livius, Ab Urbe Condita, xl. 37.
  13. ^ Marcus Vitruvius Pollio, De Architectura, i. 4. p. 30 Bipont. ed.
  14. ^ Titus Livius, Ab Urbe Condita, xliv. 19, 29.
  15. ^ Priscianus Caesariensis, Institutiones Grammaticae, p. 719, ed. Putsch.
  16. ^ Marcus Tullius Cicero, De Oratore, i. 57.
  17. ^ Marcus Tullius Cicero, Philippicae, xiii. 12. § 26.
  18. ^ Julius Obsequens, Liber de Prodigiis, 132.
  19. ^ Lucius Cassius Dio Cocceianus, Roman History, lxvi. 13.
  20. ^ Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus, Epistulae, ii, 11, 12.
  21. ^ Titus Livius, Ab Urbe Condita, xxii. 15.
  22. ^ Broughton, vol. I, pp. 480, 484.
  23. ^ Aulus Gellius, Noctes Atticae, iv. 14.
  24. ^ Titus Livius, Ab Urbe Condita, xxvii. 6, 7, 11, 22, 24, 35, 40, xxviii. 10, xxix. 13.
  25. ^ Marcus Tullius Cicero, Epistulae ad Atticum, xii. 5. § 3, De Finibus Bonorum et Malorum, ii. 16, iv. 28, v. 22, De Natura Deorum, i. 23, iii. 30, Pro Scauro, 1.
  26. ^ Quintus Asconius Pedianus, in Scauro, p. 23 ed. Orelli.
  27. ^ Joseph Hilarius Eckhel, Doctrina Numorum Veterum, vol. v. p. 227.
  28. ^ Titus Livius, Ab Urbe Condita, xxvii. 35, 36, xviii. 10, xxxi. 4.
  29. ^ Titus Livius, Ab Urbe Condita, xxvii. 35, 36.
  30. ^ Titus Livius, Ab Urbe Condita, xxxviii. 55.
  31. ^ Gaius Plinius Secundus, Historia Naturalis, xvii. 21. s. 35 § 22.
  32. ^ Marcus Terentius Varro, Rerum Rusticarum libri III, i. 2. § 22, i. 16. § 5, i. 18. § 2.
  33. ^ Lucius Junius Moderatus Columella, De Re Rustica, i. 1. § 12.
  34. ^ Joseph Hilarius Eckhel, Doctrina Numorum Veterum, vol. v. p. 226.
  35. ^ Gaius Julius Caesar (attributed), De Bello Africo (On the African War), ix, x, xxix, lvii.
  36. ^ Caesar, De Bello Africo, x.

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainSmith, William, ed. (1870). "article name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.