House of Borromeo

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House of Borromeo
Italian: Casa Borromeo
Noble family
Coat of arms of the House of Borromeo.svg
Motto: In The Name Of Humility
(Latin: Humilitas nomini)
Country Flag of the Duchy of Milan (1450).svg Duchy of Milan
Flag of the Ambrosian Republic.png Golden Ambrosian Republic
Flag of the Duchy of Milan (1450).svg Duchy of Milan
Flag of the Repubblica Transpadana.svg Transpadane Republic
Flag of the Repubblica Cisalpina.svg Cisalpine Republic
Flag of the Italian Republic (1802).svg Italian Republic
Flag of the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy.svg Kingdom of Italy
Flag of Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia.svg Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia
Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg Kingdom of Italy
 Italy
Estates Rocca d'Angera
Palazzo Borromeo, Milan
Castel of Peschiera Borromeo
Borromean Islands
Villa Borromeo, Arcore
Titles
Style(s) Don or Donna
Founded 1445; 571 years ago (1445)
Founder Vitaliano I
Current head Vitaliano XI
Deposition 1797 (1797)
Ethnicity Italian
Cadet branches Borromeo Arese

The aristocratic Borromeo family were merchants at San Miniato around 1300 and became bankers at Milan after 1370. Vitaliano de’ Vitaliani, who acquired the name of Borromeo from his uncle Giovanni, became count of Arona in 1445. His descendants played important roles in the politics of the Duchy of Milan and as cardinals in the Catholic Reformation. In 1916 the head of the family was granted the title Prince of Angera.

The best-known members of the family were the cardinals and Archbishops of Milan; Carlo (1538–1584), who was canonized by Pope Paul V in 1610, and Federico (1564–1631), who founded the Ambrosian Library. The figure of the Borromean rings, which forms part of the family’s coat of arms, is well known in the diverse fields of topology, psychoanalysis and theology.

History[edit]

Around 1300 this was one of a number of merchant families in San Miniato to carry the name "'Buon Romei'" (or 'Borromei') because of their origins from Rome.[1]

The first member of the family to come to prominence was Filippo who, backed by Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV and Gian Galeazzo Visconti (later to become Duke of Milan), led the Ghibellines of San Miniato in their 1367 revolt against the Florentine Guelphs. In 1370 he was taken prisoner by the Florentines and decapitated. He left five children who had taken refuge in Milan at the time of the revolt. The sons Borromeo and Giovanni founded the Borromei Bank at Milan, with other family members running banks in Venice and Florence.

The Borromeo Palace at Milan

Filippo Buonromei married Talda di Tenda, sister of Beatrice di Tenda (the hero of a tragic opera by Vincenzo Bellini and wife of the Milanese duke Filippo Maria Visconti). Filippos daughter Margherita Borromeo († 1429) married Giacobino Vitaliani († 1409), a patrician from Padua, their son Vitaliano Vitaliani (1390-1449) was adopted in 1406 by his childless uncle Giovanni Borromeo, the owner of the Milan bank. The Vitaliani family traces its origins back to Giovanni dei Vitaliani in the 11th century and had been Lords of Bosco, Bojone und Sant'Angelo since c. 1100. In 1418 Vitaliano I Borromeo became treasurer of his uncle, duke Filippo Maria, who also made him Count of Arona in 1446.[2][3] He acquired the fiefs and castles of Arona and in 1449 of Angera on the banks of Lago Maggiore. (The castle of Angera is still today owned by the family.) Ever since, the Borromeos were the leading land owners (and at times Milanese governors) around the Lago Maggiore.

Vitaliano Borromeo († 1449) had built a castle at Peschiera Borromeo near Milan in 1437. In 1450 Francesco I Sforza was backed by the family in his struggle to become heir and successor of the Visconti dukes and used the castle as a base for his siege of Milan. When he became duke, his gratitude for the family's services overwhelmed them with rewards and honors, among which was the title of a count of Peschiera for Vitaliano's son Filippo Borromeo (1419–1464) in 1461. Filippo expanded the bank as far as Bruges and London. The business was run at least until 1455.[4]

In 1520 Ludovico Borromeo built the castle Rocca Vitaliana at Castelli di Cannero, a fortification against the Old Swiss Confederacy. Giberto II Borromeo († 1558), Milanese governor at the Lago Maggiore, married Margherita Medici di Marignano, the sister of pope Pius IV and of condottiero Gian Giacomo Medici, Duke of Marignano. One of their sons, Carlo Borromeo (1538−1584), became a cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church, archbishop of Milan, and a canonized saint.

Lake Maggiore, with the Borromean Islands, the majority still owned by the family, although now open to the public.

The family has owned the Borromean Islands since the 16th century. The islands have beautiful gardens. Two of the islands have grand palaces, still owned by the family. Vitaliano Borromeo built a summer palace on the Isola Bella for his wife Isabella between 1650 and 1671 which was later enlarged by cardinal Giberto III. (1615–1672) and count Vitaliano VI. (1620–1690). Count Carlo IV. (1657–1734) had the garden terraces added. The family still owns the majority of the Borromean Islands.

The "State" of the Borromeo[edit]

Between the fourteenth century and the seventeenth century the Borromeo were able to gain control of many fiefs in the Valdossola/Lake Maggiore area. They organized them as an almost independent state inside the Duchy of Milan obtaining sovereignty over the jurisdictions and the control of the local army and fortresses.[5] The "State" was subdivided in ten podesterie: Mergozzo, Omegna, Vogogna, Val Vigezzo, Cannobio, Intra, Laveno, Lesa, Angera and Arona. The Podestà of Arona was the main justice administrator for the Borromeo Counts over the area and was independent from both the Novara and Milan jurisdictions, the former controllers. The "state" was quite extended, it occupied almost a half of the modern Province of Verbano-Cusio-Ossola with an extension of around one thousand square kilometres. The "Borromeo's State" ended in 1797 with the invasion of Milan by Napoleon Bonaparte who revoked all the Borromeo's privileges and jurisdictions over this area; so the Borromeo maintained there only their ample estates as the Borromean Islands.[6]

Family tree[edit]

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Giovanni[7]
*? †?
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Valerio
*? †?
 
Sigifredo
*? †post 1084
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Antonio[8]
*? †?
 
 
 
Palamede
*? †?
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Valerio
*? †?
 
Nicolò[9]
*? †1123/24?
 
Vitaliano
*? †post 1175
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gaboardo
*? †?
 
Gherardo
*? †post 1142
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Vitaliano[10]
*? †post 1190
 
Pietro
*? †post 1161
 
Matteo
*? †post 1180
 
altri 7 figli
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Vitaliano
*? †?
 
Giacobino
*? †?
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Matteo
*? †?
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Bartolomeo
*? †?
 
Giovanni
*? †1239
 
Giulio
*? †post 1239
 
Giovanni
*? †post 1256
 
 
 
Giacobino
*? †post 1275
 
Vitaliano
*? †post 1253
 
 
 
Pietro
post 1258
 
Gaboardo
post 1270
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gherardo
*1239 †1280
 
Palamede
*? †?
 
Vitaliano
*? †post 1275
 
 
 
 
 
Gherardo
*? †post 1278
 
Gherardo
*? †post 1280
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Pietro
*? †post 1312
 
Giacobino
*? †?
 
Nicolò
post 1297
 
Francesco
*? †?
 
Giovanni
*? †?
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Geronimo
*? †post 1360
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ruggero
*? †?
 
Francesco
*? †post 1398
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Giacomo
*? †1409
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Vitaliano I
*1390 †1449
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Giacomo
*? †1453
 
Filippo
*1419 †1469
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Vitaliano II
*1451 †1493
 
Giovanni
*? †1495
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Francesco[11]
*1462 †?
 
Giberto
*1463 †1527
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ludovico
*1468 †1527
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Filippo
*? †1508
 
Lancillotto
*1473 †1513
 
Galeazzo
*1476 †1511
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Federico
*1492 †1529
 
Carlo
*? †1537
 
Luigi
*ante 1502 †1518
 
Camillo
*? †1599
 
Vitaliano
*? †?
 
Guido
*1502 †?
 
Giulio Cesare
*? †1523
 
Giovanni
*? †1536
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Giberto
*1511 †1558
 
Francesco[12]
*? †1582
 
Giulio Cesare
*1517 †1572
 
 
 
Gian Battista
*? †1577
 
Luigi
*? †?
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Luigi
*? †?
 
Filippo Dionogi
*1519 †post 1562
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Federico[13]
*1535 †1562
 
Carlo
*1538 †1584
 
Renato
*1555 †1608
 
Federico
*1564 †1631
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Vitaliano
*? †?
 
Prospero
*? †ante 1591
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Giovanni
*? †1613
 
Carlo
*1586 †1652
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Giulio Cesare
*1590 †1638
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Giberto III
*1615 †1672
 
Vitaliano VI
*1620 †1690
 
Renato
*1636 †1704
 
Giovanni
*? †1660
 
Federico
*1617 †1673
 
4 Theatine priests[14]
 
Antonio Renato
*1632 †1686
 
Paolo Emilio
*1633 †1690
 
Giustino
*1638 †ante1640
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Carlo
*1657 †1734
 
Giberto[15]
*1671 †1740
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Giovanni Benedetto
*1684 †1777
 
Federico
*1703 †1779
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Antonio
*? †1715
 
Renato
*1710 †1778
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Francesco
*1713 †1775
 
Giuseppe
*1714 †1715
 
Vitaliano
*1720 †1793
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Giberto[16]
*1751 †1837
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Giovanni
*1743 †1820
 
Antonio
*1747 †1789
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Vitaliano VIII
*1791 †1874
 
Renato
*1798 †1875
 
Federico
*1805 †1882
 
Cesare
*1807 †1832
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Carlo
*1787 †1866
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Giberto
*1815 †1885
 
Guido
*1818 †1890
 
Emanuele
*1821 †1906
 
Edoardo
*1822 †1891
 
Emilio
*1829 †1909
 
Antonio
*1826 †1842
 
Carlo
*1828 †1889
 
Enrico
*1829 †1890
 
 
 
 
 
Vitaliano
*1834 †1886
 
Federico
*? †1896
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Giberto
*1859 †1941
 
 
 
Guido
*1862 †1942
 
 
 
 
 
Febo[17]
*1871 †1945
 
 
 
Giancarlo
*1880 †1965
 
Giorgio
*1889 †1949
 
Carlo
*1861 †1889
 
Gerolamo
*1866 †1937
 
Costanzo[18]
*1868 †1917
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Vitaliano[19]
*1892 †1982
 
Renato[20]
*1900 †1970
 
Carlo
*1902 †1965
 
Carlo
*1907 †1979
 
Emanuele
*1914 †1938
 
Pietro
*1907 †1970
 
Giovanni
*1911 †2002
 
Adalberto
*1921
 
P. Vitaliano
*1906 †1993
 
Giulio
*1917 †1961
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Giberto
*1932 †2015
 
Carlo
*1935
 
 
 
Febo
*1936
 
Federico[21]
*1939
 
Two sons[22]
 
Agostino[23]
*1944
 
Alessandro
*1948
 
Benedetto
*1950
 
Federico[24]
*1953
 
Vitaliano
*1964
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Vitaliano XI
*1960
 
Federico
*1963
 
Car. Federico
*1976
 
Federico
*1987
 
Guido Carlo
*1969
 
Prando
*1972
 
Francesco
*1997
 
Giacomo
*1978
 
Giovanni
*1988
 
Vitaliano
*1979
 
Ludovico
*1983

Cardinals[edit]

Seven cardinals of the Roman Catholic Church were members of the Borromeo family:

Styles[edit]

  • Count of Arona, by decree of the Duke of Milan dated 26 May 1446 for Vitaliano Vitaliani, adopted Borromeo (1390-1449).[25]
  • Count of Peschiera in 1461 for Filippo Borromeo (1419–1464)
  • Marquess of Angera, in 1623 by Philipp IV. of Spain for cardinal Federico Borromeo (1564-1631), confirmed in 1896 by the King of Italy for Giberto Conte Borromeo Arese
  • Prince of Angera, in 1916 for the same (in Primogeniture)

All members of the family are styled Don or Donna, all male members also with the Courtesy title Conte di Arona.

Family members[edit]

  • Vitaliano VI Borromeo (1620-1690), art collector
  • Carlo IV Borromeo Arese, 15th Count of Arona, 5th Marquess of Angera (1657-1734), added his mother Giulia Arese's name to his own, became Vice King of Naples and governor of the Holy Roman Emperor in the Kingdom of Italy
  • Giberto Borromeo Arese (1815-1885), painter

Current members[edit]

In 2004, one heiress of the family, Donna Lavinia Borromeo, married John Elkann, the son of Alain Elkann and Margherita Agnelli de Pahlen. John Elkann was subsequently chosen as heir to the Agnelli business dynasty, which has formerly represented 4.4% of Italy's GDP.

Beatrice Borromeo is the wife of Pierre Casiraghi, son of Princess Caroline of Hanover. Beatrice is a well known political journalist in Italy.

Donna Matilde Borromeo is the wife of Prince Antonius zu Fürstenberg. They were married on 11 June 2011 on Isola Bella on Lake Maggiore in Italy. Among the guests were Pierre and Andrea Casiraghi, Tatiana Santo Domingo, wife of Andrea Casiraghi, Tamara Falco, Tommaso Musini, Eva Herzigova, and many others. The bride wore a Valentino gown.[26] Her tiara was a diamond encrusted one, property of the groom's family. The bride's sister, Beatrice, fiancé of Pierre Casiraghi, was a bridesmaid.[citation needed]

Notes[edit]

The Latin word "humilitas" in gothic writing, from the tomb of cardinal Federico Borromeo at Milan Cathedral
  1. ^ http://www.borromeo.it
  2. ^ LagoMaggiore, Rocca di Arona
  3. ^ Borromean Rings: Family Crest
  4. ^ The Borromei Bank Research Project
  5. ^ Pietro Canetta, La famiglia Borromeo, Tamburini, Milano 1937.
  6. ^ AA. VV., Le Isole Borromee e la Rocca di Angera, pp. 152-157, Silvana, Milano 2011.
  7. ^ Called il Prodigo, rich nobleman of the House of "Vitaliani". Giovanni lived in Padova
  8. ^ Lord di Gambara
  9. ^ or Gaboardo
  10. ^ Uncertain kinship
  11. ^ One more brother dead infant, Giovanni Giacomo †1461
  12. ^ One son: Giovanni (*? †1602)
  13. ^ One more brother: Vitaliano (*1537 †1542)
  14. ^ Andrea (†1693), Carlo Maria (†1650), Federico (†post 1674/78), Massimo (*1630 †1705)
  15. ^ Two more brothers, infant deaths: Renato (†1673), Giulio Federico (†1675)
  16. ^ One more brother dead infant: Carlo (*1748 †1749)
  17. ^ One more brother dead infant: Febo (*1862 †1863)
  18. ^ One more brother dead infant: Giulio (*1874 †1880)
  19. ^ Two more brothers: Federico (*1902 †1973), Vittorio Emanuele (*1905 †1978)
  20. ^ One more brother dead infant: Giovanni Benedetto (*1896 †1896)
  21. ^ One more brother: Giovanni Andrea (*1941 †1978)
  22. ^ Gian Carlo (*1958), Marcello (*1959)
  23. ^ Three more brothers: Francesco (*1938), Filippo (*1940), Gian Alfonso (*1946)
  24. ^ One more brother: Gianfranco (*1954)
  25. ^ Count of Arona, decree of the Duke of Milan dated 26 May 1446
  26. ^ "Les mariees de Valentino". Mariees du Gotha. 

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]