House of Bourbon-Parma

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House of Bourbon-Parma
Coat of arms of the House of Bourbon-Parma.svg
Parent houseHouse of Bourbon-Anjou (agnatic)
House of Farnese (cognatic)
Country Italy
 Luxembourg
 Netherlands
Founded18 October 1748
FounderPhilip
Current headPrince Carlos
Final rulerParma: Robert I (1854–1859)
TitlesCurrent:

Former:

DepositionParma, 9 June 1859: Annexation by Kingdom of Sardinia
Lesser Arms of Bourbon-Parma

The House of Bourbon-Parma (Italian: Casa di Borbone di Parma) is a cadet branch of the Spanish royal family, whose members once ruled as King of Etruria and as Duke of Parma and Piacenza, Guastalla, and Lucca. The House descended from the French Capetian dynasty in male line. Its name of Bourbon-Parma comes from the main name (Bourbon) and the other (Parma) from the title of Duke of Parma. The title was held by the Spanish Bourbons as the founder was the great-grandson of Ranuccio II Farnese, Duke of Parma.[2][3]

Since 1964 a cadet branch of the House has reigned as Grand Duke of Luxembourg.[4]

Duchy of Parma[edit]

The Duchy of Parma was created in 1545 from that part of the Duchy of Milan south of the Po River, as a fief for Pope Paul III's illegitimate son, Pier Luigi Farnese, centered on the city of Parma. In 1556, the second Duke, Ottavio Farnese, was given the city of Piacenza, becoming thus also Duke of Piacenza, and so the state was thereafter properly known as the Duchies of Parma and Piacenza.

The Farnese family continued to rule until their extinction in 1731, at which point the duchy was inherited by the young son of the King of Spain, Charles, whose mother Elisabeth was a member of the Farnese family. He ruled until 1735 during the War of the Polish Succession, when Parma was ceded to Emperor Charles VI in exchange for the Two Sicilies.[citation needed]

House of Bourbon-Parma in the 18th and 19th centuries

Temporary Habsburg rule[edit]

The Habsburgs only ruled until the conclusion of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748, when it was ceded back to the Bourbons in the person of Philip of Spain, Charles's younger brother. As duke Philip, he became the founder of the House of Bourbon-Parma.

In 1796, the duchy was occupied by French troops under Napoleon Bonaparte. In the Treaty of Aranjuez of 1801, duke Ferdinand formally agreed to cede the duchy to Napoleon. The territories were integrated into the Cisalpine Republic until 1802, the Italian Republic, from 1802 until 1805, and the Kingdom of Italy, from 1805 until 1808, until in 1808 the French Empire annexed them and formed out of them the Département of Taro.[citation needed]

In 1814, the duchies were restored under Napoleon's Habsburg wife, Marie Louise, who was to rule them for her lifetime. The duchy was renamed the duchy of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla.

Return to the Bourbons[edit]

After Marie Louise's death in 1847, the duchy was restored to the Bourbon-Parma line, which had been ruling the tiny duchy of Lucca. As part of the return the Duchy of Guastalla was transferred to the Duchy of Modena. The Bourbons ruled until 1859, when they were driven out by a revolution following the Sardinian victory in their war against Austria.

The duchies of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla and the duchy of Lucca joined with the Grand Duchy of Tuscany and the duchy of Modena to form the United Provinces of Central Italy in December 1859, and were annexed to the Kingdom of Sardinia in March 1860. The House of Bourbon continues to claim the title of duke of Parma to this day. Carlos-Hugo (Carlist pretender to the Spanish throne in the 1970s) held the title from 1977 to his death. His son now claims the title.

The Dukes[edit]

House of Bourbon-Parma (1731–1735)[edit]

Duke Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Charles, Duke of Parma
1731–1735
Charles 20 January 1716
Madrid
son of Philip V of Spain and Elizabeth of Parma
Maria Amalia of Saxony
1738
13 children
14 December 1788
Madrid
aged 72

House of Bourbon-Parma (1748–1802)[edit]

Duke Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Philip, Duke of Parma
1748–1765
FelipeDeBourbon.jpg 15 March 1720
Madrid
son of Philip V of Spain and Elizabeth of Parma
Louise-Elisabeth de Bourbon
25 October 1739
3 children
18 July 1765
Alessandria
aged 45
Ferdinand, Duke of Parma
1765–1802
nominal since 1796
Ferrari - Ferdinand I of Parma.jpg 20 January 1751
Parma
son of Philip, Duke of Parma and Louise-Elisabeth de Bourbon
Archduchess Maria Amalia of Austria
19 July 1769
7 children
9 October 1802
Fontevivo
aged 51

During the French ownership of the Duchy of Parma, the title of Duke of Parma was used as an honorary form and style. From 1808, the title was used by Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès. He kept the style of Duc de Parme until 1814. Only in 1847 was the actual title restored to the Bourbons, after a period of being held by Marie Louise of Austria, who was a Habsburg and the second wife of Napoleon I.

House of Bourbon-Parma (1847–1859)[edit]

Duke Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Charles II, Duke of Parma
1847–1848
Carlo II di Parma.jpg 22 December 1799
Madrid
son of Louis of Etruria and Maria Louisa, Duchess of Lucca
Maria Teresa of Savoy
5 September 1820
2 children
16 April 1883
Nice
aged 84
Charles III, Duke of Parma
1848–1854
Charles III, Duke of Parma.JPG 14 January 1823
Lucca
son of Charles II, Duke of Parma and Princess Maria Teresa of Savoy
Princess Louise Marie Thérèse of France
10 November 1845
4 children
27 March 1854
Parma
aged 31
Robert I, Duke of Parma
1854–1859
1848 Robert-05.jpg 9 July 1848
Florence
son of Charles III, Duke of Parma and Louise Marie Thérèse of Artois
Maria Pia of the Two Sicilies
5 April 1869
12 children

Maria Antonia of Portugal
15 October 1884
12 children
16 November 1907
Viareggio
aged 59

Nominal Dukes of Parma (since 1859)[edit]

Duke Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Robert, Duke of Parma
1859–1907
titular
1848 Robert-05.jpg 9 July 1848
Florence
son of Charles III, Duke of Parma and Louise Marie Thérèse of Artois
Maria Pia of the Two Sicilies
5 April 1869
12 children

Maria Antonia of Portugal
15 October 1884
12 children
16 November 1907
Viareggio
aged 59
Henry, Duke of Parma
1907–1939
titular
Henry, Duke of Parma titular.png 13 June 1873
Wartegg
son of Robert I, Duke of Parma and Maria Pia of the Two Sicilies
never married 16 November 1939
Pianore
aged 66
Joseph, Duke of Parma
1939–1950
titular
Joseph, Duke of Parma titular.png 30 June 1875
Biarritz
son of Robert I, Duke of Parma and Maria Pia of the Two Sicilies
never married 7 January 1950
Pianore
aged 75
Elias, Duke of Parma
1950–1959
titular
Elias von Parma Postkarte 1910.jpg 23 July 1880
Biarritz
son of Robert I, Duke of Parma and Maria Pia of the Two Sicilies
Maria Anna of Austria
25 May 1903
Vienna
8 children
27 June 1959
Friedberg
aged 79
Robert II, Duke of Parma
1959–1974
titular
Robert II, Duke of Parma.jpg 7 August 1909
Weilburg
son of Elias, Duke of Parma and Maria Anna of Austria
never married 25 November 1974
Vienna
aged 65
Xavier, Duke of Parma
1974–1977
titular
Prinses Madeleine, prins Xavier en Marie des Neiges van Bourbon-Parma (cropped).jpg 25 May 1889
Viareggio
son of Robert I, Duke of Parma and Maria Antonia of Portugal
Madeleine de Bourbon-Busset
12 November 1927
Lignières
6 children
7 May 1977
Zizers
aged 87
Carlos Hugo, Duke of Parma
1977–2010
titular
Charles-Hugues de Bourbon-Parme.jpg 8 April 1930
Paris
son of Xavier, Duke of Parma and Madeleine de Bourbon-Busset
Princess Irene of the Netherlands
29 April 1964
Rome
4 children
18 August 2010
Barcelona
aged 80
Carlos, Duke of Parma
since 2010
titular
Carlos de Bourbon de Parme (2017).jpg 27 January 1970
Nijmegen
son of Carlos Hugo, Duke of Parma and Princess Irene of the Netherlands
Annemarie Gualthérie van Weezel
12 June 2010
Wijk bij Duurstede (civil)
incumbent

Present members[edit]

Family of late Xavier, Duke of Parma:

  • Family of late Carlos Hugo, Duke of Parma:
    • Carlos, Duke of Parma, born on (1970-01-27) 27 January 1970 (age 51)
      Annemarie, Duchess of Parma, born on (1977-12-18) 18 December 1977 (age 43)
      • Princess Luisa, Marchioness of Castell'Arquato, born on (2012-05-09) 9 May 2012 (age 9)
      • Princess Cecilia, Countess of Barceto, born on (2013-10-17) 17 October 2013 (age 8)
      • Carlos, Prince of Piacenza, born on (2016-04-24) 24 April 2016 (age 5)
    • Princess Margarita, Countess of Colorno, born on (1972-10-13) 13 October 1972 (age 49)
    • Prince Jaime, Count of Bardi, born on (1972-10-13) 13 October 1972 (age 49)
      Princess Viktória, Countess of Bardi, born on (1982-05-25) 25 May 1982 (age 39)
      • Princess Zita of Bourbon-Parma, born on (2014-02-21) 21 February 2014 (age 7)
      • Princess Gloria of Bourbon-Parma, born on (2016-05-09) 9 May 2016 (age 5)
    • Princess Carolina, Marchioness of Sala, born on (1974-06-23) 23 June 1974 (age 47)
  • Princess Marie Françoise of Lobkowicz, born on (1928-08-19) 19 August 1928 (age 93)
  • Princess Marie des Neiges, Countess of Castillo de la Mota, born on (1937-04-29) 29 April 1937 (age 84)
  • Prince Sixtus Henry, Duke of Aranjuez, born on (1940-07-22) 22 July 1940 (age 81)

Family of late Felix, Prince Consort of Luxembourg:

Family of Prince René of Bourbon-Parma:

  • Family of late Prince Jacques of Bourbon-Parma:
    • Prince Philip of Bourbon-Parma, born on (1949-01-22) 22 January 1949 (age 72)
      Princess Annette of Bourbon-Parma, born on (1955-02-24) 24 February 1955 (age 66)
      • Prince Jacques of Bourbon-Parma, born on (1986-01-03) 3 January 1986 (age 35)
        Princess Anna Louise of Bourbon-Parma, born on (1989-09-07) 7 September 1989 (age 32)
      • Prince Joseph Axel of Bourbon-Parma, born on (1989-06-06) 6 June 1989 (age 32)
    • Princess Lorraine of Bourbon-Parma, born on (1951-07-27) 27 July 1951 (age 70)
    • Prince Alain of Bourbon-Parma, born on (1955-05-15) 15 May 1955 (age 66)
      Princess Inge of Bourbon-Parma, born on (1948-05-28) 28 May 1948 (age 73)
  • Princess Maria Pia of Bourbon-Parma, born on (1934-09-24) 24 September 1934 (age 87)
    • Family of late Prince Erik of Bourbon-Parma:
      • Princess Antonia of Bourbon-Parma, born on (1981-06-10) 10 June 1981 (age 40)
      • Princess Marie Gabrielle of Bourbon-Parma, born on (1982-12-23) 23 December 1982 (age 38)
      • Princess Alexia, Mrs. Fabian Davis, born on (1985-03-07) 7 March 1985 (age 36)
      • Prince Michel of Bourbon-Parma, born on (1989-02-12) 12 February 1989 (age 32)
      • Prince Henri of Bourbon-Parma, born on (1991-10-14) 14 October 1991 (age 30)
        Princess Gabriella of Bourbon-Parma, born on (1994-03-26) 26 March 1994 (age 27)
        • Princess Victoria of Bourbon-Parma, born on (2017-10-30) 30 October 2017 (age 4)
        • Princess Anastasia of Bourbon-Parma, born on (2021-07-27) 27 July 2021 (age 4 months)
    • Princess Sybil of Bourbon-Parma, born on (1954-11-10) 10 November 1954 (age 67)
    • Prince Charles-Emmanuel of Bourbon-Parma, born on (1961-06-03) 3 June 1961 (age 60)
      Princess Constance of Bourbon-Parma, born on (1971-07-18) 18 July 1971 (age 50)
      • Prince Amaury of Bourbon-Parma, born on (1991-10-30) 30 October 1991 (age 30)
      • Princess Charlotte of Bourbon-Parma, born on (1993-07-18) 18 July 1993 (age 28)
      • Princess Elizabeth of Bourbon-Parma, born on (1996-06-12) 12 June 1996 (age 25)
      • Princess Zita of Bourbon-Parma, born on (1999-04-01) 1 April 1999 (age 22)
  • Princess Marina of Bourbon-Parma, born on (1935-09-05) 5 September 1935 (age 86)
    • Princess Tania, Mrs. Louis-Arnaud L'Herbier, born on (1961-11-13) 13 November 1961 (age 60)
    • Princess Astrid of Bourbon-Parma, born on (1964-09-22) 22 September 1964 (age 57)
    • Prince Axel of Bourbon-Parma, born on (1967-09-18) 18 September 1967 (age 54)
      Princess Raphaële of Bourbon-Parma, born on (1971-06-09) 9 June 1971 (age 50)
      • Princess Côme of Bourbon-Parma, born on (1997-05-07) 7 May 1997 (age 24)
      • Princess Alix of bourbon-Parma, born on (2000-03-26) 26 March 2000 (age 21)

Family of late Prince Louis of Bourbon-Parma:

  • Family of late Prince Guy of Bourbon-Parma:
    • Prince Louis-Victor of Bourbon-Parma, born on (1966-06-25) 25 June 1966 (age 55)
      Princess Ariane of Bourbon-Parma, born on (1966-01-16) 16 January 1966 (age 55)
      • Princess Delphine of Bourbon-Parma, born on (1992-07-11) 11 July 1992 (age 29)
      • Prince Guy of Bourbon-Parma, born on (1995-02-06) 6 February 1995 (age 26)
  • Prince Rémy of Bourbon-Parma, born on (1942-07-14) 14 July 1942 (age 79)
    Princess Elisabeth of Bourbon-Parma, born on (1954-04-17) 17 April 1954 (age 67)
    • Prince Tristan of Bourbon-Parma, born on (1974-06-30) 30 June 1974 (age 47)
      Princess Shira of Bourbon-Parma, born on (1979-01-31) 31 January 1979 (age 42)
    • Princess Aude of Bourbon-Parma, born on (1977-01-26) 26 January 1977 (age 44)
  • Princess Chantal, Mrs. Francois-Henri Georges, born on (1946-11-24) 24 November 1946 (age 75)
  • Prince Jean of Bourbon-Parma, born on (1961-10-15) 15 October 1961 (age 60)
    Princess Virginia of Bourbon-Parma, born on (1964-08-31) 31 August 1964 (age 57)
    • Prince Arnaud of Bourbon-Parma, born on (1989-10-26) 26 October 1989 (age 32)
    • Prince Christophe of Bourbon-Parma, born on (1991-07-04) 4 July 1991 (age 30)

Line of succession[edit]

Grand Duchy of Luxembourg[edit]

Since 1964, a cadet branch of the House of Bourbon-Parma has reigned agnatically in Luxembourg when Jean, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, ascended to the throne upon the abdication of his mother, Charlotte, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg. Jean was the son of Prince Felix of Bourbon-Parma, a younger son of Robert I of Parma, and Grand Duchess Charlotte. Charlotte's descendants have since reigned as the continued dynasty of Nassau.

In October 2000 Jean abdicated the Luxembourgian throne in favour of his eldest son, Henri, Grand Duke of Luxembourg.

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Succession right Death
Jean
12 November 1964 –
7 October 2000
Grand Duke Jean 29.09.2006.jpg
5 January 1921
Colmar-Berg
Princess Joséphine Charlotte of Belgium
9 April 1953
5 children
Son of
Charlotte
23 April 2019
Luxembourg City
aged 98
Henri
7 October 2000 –
Present
Henri of Luxembourg (2009).jpg
16 April 1955
Betzdorf
María Teresa Mestre y Batista
4 February/14 February 1981
5 children
Son of Jean Incumbent

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ According to the Convention of Fontainbleau
  2. ^ French Royal Families. General Books. 2013. ISBN 9781230480824.
  3. ^ House of Farnese. General Books. 2013. ISBN 9781230551890.
  4. ^ "Members of the House Of Bourbon-Parma". Ranker. Retrieved 2021-07-09.

External links[edit]