House of Iturbide

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House of Iturbide
House of Iturbide.svg
Country Mexico Mexico
Ethnicity Basque
Founded May 19, 1822; 196 years ago (1822-05-19)
Founder Agustín I
Current head Count Maximilian von Götzen-Iturbide (cognatic descendant)

The House of Iturbide (Spanish: Casa de Iturbide) is the former Imperial House of Mexico. It was founded by Don Agustín de Iturbide in 1822 when the newly-independent Mexican congress confirmed his title of Agustín I, Constitutional Emperor of Mexico.[1][2][3][4] He was baptized with the names of Saints Cosmas and Damian at the cathedral there.[5][6] The House of Iturbide was originally from the Basque Country, Spain.[7]


First Mexican Empire (1822–1823)[edit]

After Mexico was declared and recognized as an independent state, Iturbide was backed and influenced by Mexico's conservatives, who favored an independent Mexico with a monarch from one of the European royal families as head of state. When no European royalty accepted Mexico's offer (as Spain still had hopes of taking Mexico back), Iturbide was persuaded by his advisers to be named Emperor in the manner of Napoleon I.[8][9][10]

On 11 May 1823, the ex-emperor boarded the English ship Rawlins, en route to Livorno, Italy (then part of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany,[3] accompanied by his wife, children and some servants. There, he rented a small country house and began to write his memoirs. However, Spain pressured Tuscany to expel Iturbide, which it did, and the Iturbide family moved to the United Kingdom.[1] There, he published his autobiography, "Statement of Some of the Principal Events in the Public Life of Agustín de Iturbide". When he was exiled, Iturbide was given a government pension, but Congress also declared him a traitor and "outside of the law", to be killed if he ever returned to Mexico. Whether he was aware of this second part is in dispute.[3][6][9][11]

After his departure, the situation in Mexico continued to worsen. Reports of a probable Spanish attempt to retake Mexico reached Iturbide in the UK.[6] He continued to receive reports from Mexico, as well as advice from supporters, that if he returned, he would be hailed as a liberator and a potential leader against the Spanish invasion.[6] Iturbide sent word to congress in Mexico City on 13 February 1824 offering his services in the event of a Spanish attack. Congress never replied.[11] More conservative political factions in Mexico finally convinced Iturbide to return."[4]

Iturbide returned to Mexico on 14 July 1824,[9] accompanied by his wife, two children, and a chaplain.[11] He landed at the port of Soto la Marina on the coast of Nuevo Santander (the modern-day state of Tamaulipas). They were initially greeted enthusiastically, but soon they were arrested and escorted by General Felipe de la Garza, the local military commander, to the nearby village of Padilla.[5] The local legislature held a trial and sentenced Iturbide to death. When a local priest administered last rites, Iturbide supposedly said, "Mexicans! I die with honor, not as a traitor; do not leave this stain on my children and my legacy. I am not a traitor, no." He was executed by firing squad on 19 July 1824.[4]

Second Mexican Empire (1864–1867)[edit]

In 1863, the Mexican Congress, with the support of Napoleon III of France, attempted to establish a monarchy under Austrian Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian as Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico.[12] Maximilian adopted two grandsons of the first Mexican emperor, Agustín de Iturbide y Green and Salvador de Iturbide y Marzán, as his heirs.[13] The two Iturbide cousins were granted the title of Prince de Iturbide and style of Highness by imperial decree of 16 September 1865 and were ranked after the reigning family.[14] In 1867, Maximilian was deposed and executed on the orders of Benito Juárez.[15]


Genealogy of Agustín I[edit]


  • Pedro José Nicolás de Piérola Iturbide (1862-1886)
  • Eva María de Piérola Iturbide (1863-1919)
  • Raquel de Piérola Iturbide (1865-1886)
  • Adán Jesús Isaías de Piérola Iturbide (1866-1935)
  • Luis Benjamín de Piérola Iturbide (1867-1868)
  • Benjamín Amadeo de Piérola Iturbide (1868-1945)
  • Jesusa María Salomé Victoria de Piérola Iturbide (1870-1896)
  • A large issue of their descendants.
  • Eventually:
  • Jorge Nicolás de Piérola Gabriel (1977)
  • Claudio André de Piérola Gili (1987)
  • Baroness Maria Anna Tunkl-Iturbide (1909-1962) Titular Empress of Mexico (1949-1962)
  • Baroness Maria Gisella Tunkl-Iturbide (1912-1999) Titular Empress of Mexico (1962-1999)
  • Ferdinand von Götzen-Iturbide (1992)
  • Emmanuella von Götzen-Iturbide (1998)
  • Countess Emmanuella von Götzen-Iturbide (1945)
  • Nicholas McAulay (1970)
  • Edward McAulay (1973)
  • Augustin McAulay (1977)
  • Patrick McAulay (1979)
  • Phillip McAulay (1981)
  • Camilla McAulay (1982)
  • Gisella McAulay (1985)
  • Maria Gisella de Iturbide (1874-1875)
  • Maria Theresa de Iturbide (1876-1915)
  • Felipe Andrés María Galupe de Iturbide y Huarte (1822–1853)
  • Agustín Cosme de Iturbide y Huarte (1825–1873)



  1. ^ a b "Casa Imperial - Don Agustin de Iturbide" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 14 October 2008. Retrieved 10 November 2008. 
  2. ^ "House of Habsburg-Iturbide". Archived from the original on 17 July 2013. Retrieved 1 January 2011. 
  3. ^ a b c Hamue-Medina, Rocio Elena. "Agustin Iturbide". Archived from the original on 23 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-10. 
  4. ^ a b c "Agustin de Iturbide (1783-1824)". Archived from the original on 30 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-10. 
  5. ^ a b Rosainz Unda, Gorka. "Agustín de Iturbide, Libertador de México" (in Spanish). Euskonews. Retrieved 2008-11-10. 
  6. ^ a b c d Raggett, Kari. "Iturbide, Agustin de". Historical Text Archive. Retrieved 2008-11-10. 
  7. ^ Robertson, William Spence: Iturbide de México (1968) - Duke University Press
  8. ^ Vazquez-Gomez, Juana (1997). Dictionary of Mexican Rulers 1325-1997. Westport, CT, USA: Greenwood Publishing Group, Incorporated,. ISBN 978-0-313-30049-3. 
  9. ^ a b c Kirkwood, Burton (2000). History of Mexico. Westport, CT, USA: Greenwood Publishing Group, Incorporated. ISBN 978-0-313-30351-7. 
  10. ^ Ibañez, Alvaro (2005-02-12). "Mexico en sus Banderas/Bandera del Imperio de Iturbide" (in Spanish). Mexico City: Reforma. Notimex. 
  11. ^ a b c Manfut, Eduardo P. "Coleccion de Documentos Historicos – Don Agustin de Iturbide" (in Spanish). Retrieved 2008-11-10. 
  12. ^ Haslip, Joan, Imperial Adventurer – Emperor Maximilian of Mexico, London, 1971, ISBN 0-297-00363-1
  13. ^ José Manuel Villalpando, Alejandro Rosas (2011), Presidentes de México, Grupo Planeta Spain, ISBN 9786070707582 
  14. ^ (in Spanish) Wikisource link to Decreto Imperial del 16 de Septiembre de 1865. Wikisource. 
  15. ^ Ridley, Jasper (1993). Maximilian and Juárez. London: Constable. ISBN 0094720703. Retrieved May 9, 2013. 
  16. ^ "Casa Imperial - The Genealogy of the House of Iturbide" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 29 October 2008. Retrieved 10 November 2008. , originally from book The Imperial House of Mexico: the House of Iturbide. David Williamson, Teodoro Amerlinck y Zirion, Charles Mikos de Tarrodhaza. 1994.[dead link]

External links[edit]

House of Iturbide
First Empire declared Ruling House of Mexico
19 May 1822 – 19 March 1823