House of Koxinga

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House of Koxinga
鄭氏 / Zheng
Royal family in East Asia
Flag of Ming Cheng.svg
Flag of the Kingdom of Tungning
CountryChongzhen of Ming (1628)
Longwu of Southern Ming (1645)
Yongli of Southern Ming (1646)
Kingdom of Tungning (1662)
Founded1655 (1655) Founder's elevation to Prince of Yanping
FounderKoxinga
Final rulerZheng Keshuang
TitlesPrince of Yanping (延平王)
King of Tungning (東寧國王)[1]
King of Daepeon (大樊國主)[2]
King of Taiwan[3]
Sia ()[4]
Dissolution1683 (1683)
DepositionDefeated by the Qing Dynasty in the Battle of Penghu
Cadet branchesTagawa-shi

The House of Koxinga or the Zheng dynasty was the reigning family of the Kingdom of Tungning in Taiwan. They played a significant role in the history of East Asia and Southeast Asia, particularly in the seventeenth century.[5]

Names[edit]

In Chinese, the dynasty is referred to as:

  • The Zheng clan (鄭氏).
  • The House of Zheng in Taiwan (台灣鄭氏)
  • The Family of Koxinga (鄭成功家族)

Overview[edit]

Territories of the House of Koxinga at their largest extent

Following the Qing conquest of the Kingdom of Tungning in 1683, the territory's last ruler, Zheng Keshuang, Prince of Yanping, who was a grandson of Koxinga, was taken to Beijing.[5] The Kangxi Emperor granted Zheng a peerage title, that of Duke Haicheng, and inducted him and his descendants into the Plain Red Banner.[5] The family remained in Beijing until 1911 when the Xinhai revolution broke out and the Qing dynasty's fell, after which they moved back to Anhai and Nan'an in southern Fujian, where they remain to this day.[5]

Koxinga's other descendants had the hereditary title of 'Sia'.[4] They are found both on mainland China and in Taiwan, while descendants of Koxinga's brother Shichizaemon live in Japan.

His descendants through one of his sons Zheng Kuan live in Taiwan.[6] One of Koxinga's descendants on mainland China, Zheng Xiaoxuan 鄭曉嵐 the father of Zheng Chouyu 鄭愁予, fought against the Japanese in the Second Sino-Japanese War. Zheng Chouyu was born in Shandong in mainland China and called himself a "child of the resistance" against Japan and he became a refugee during the war, moving from place to place across China to avoid the Japanese. He moved to Taiwan in 1949 and focuses his work on building stronger ties between Taiwan and mainland China.[7] Zheng Chouyu was born in mainland China, he identified as Chinese and he felt alienated after he was forced to move to Taiwan in 1949 which was previously under Japanese rule and felt strange and foreign to him.[8]

Rulers of the Kingdom of Tungning[edit]

The House of Koxinga produced five rulers of the Kingdom of Tungning, three as reigning monarchs and two as regents.

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Title(s) Reign
(Lunar calendar)
1 The Portrait of Koxinga.jpg Zheng Chenggong
(Koxinga)

鄭成功
Zhèng Chénggōng
(1624–1662)
Prince of Yanping (延平王)
Prince Wu of Chao (潮武王)
14 June 1661
Yongli 15-5-18
23 June 1662
Yongli 16-5-8
2 Zheng Xi
鄭襲
Zhèng Xí
(1625–?)
Protector (護理) 23 June 1662
Yongli 16-5-8
November 1662
Yongli 17
3 鄭經.jpg Zheng Jing
鄭經
Zhèng Jīng
(1642–1681)
Prince of Yanping (延平王)
Prince Wen of Chao (潮文王)
November 1662
Yongli 17
17 March 1681
Yongli 35-1-28
4 Zheng Kezang
鄭克𡒉
Zhèng Kèzāng
(1662–1681)
Prince Regent (監國) 17 March 1681
Yongli 35-1-28
March 1681
Yongli 35
5 Zheng Keshuang
鄭克塽
Zhèng Kèshuǎng
(1670–1707)
Prince of Yanping (延平王)
Duke Haicheng (海澄公)
March 1681
Yongli 35
5 September 1683
Yongli 37-8-13

Simplified family tree[edit]

Tagawa ShichizaemonZheng ShaozuYan Siqi
Dong YangxianTagawa MatsuZheng ZhilongConcubine Yan
Queen DongKoxingaZheng Xi
Feng XifanHe-niang HuangZheng JingZhao-niang ChenChen Yonghua
Princess FengZheng KeshuangZheng KezangPrincess Chen
Zheng Anfu


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 九州大学文学部附属九州文化史硏究施設会 (1956). 《九州文化史研究所所蔵古文書目錄》 第17卷 (in Japanese). 日本: 九州文化史研究所.
  2. ^ 《朝鮮顯宗大王實錄》:「本南蠻地,蠻人甲必丹主之。其後寢弱,故明之遺民,多入居之。大樊國遣游擊柯貴主之。大樊國乃鄭錦舍所主也。隆武時有鄭成功者,賜國姓,封鎮國大將軍。與清兵戰,清人累敗。未幾死,其子錦舍繼封仁德將軍,逃入大樊,有衆數十萬。其地在福建海外,方千餘里。」
  3. ^ 王泰升等 (2006-07-01). 《追尋臺灣法律的足跡: 事件百選與法律史研究》 (in Chinese). 台灣: 五南出版社. ISBN 9571141747.
  4. ^ a b Academia Sinica. Min and Hakka Language Archives http://minhakka.ling.sinica.edu.tw/tou/su_tian_1/425.jpg. Retrieved 21 November 2018. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  5. ^ a b c d Xing Hang (5 January 2016). Conflict and Commerce in Maritime East Asia: The Zheng Family and the Shaping of the Modern World, c.1620–1720. Cambridge University Press. pp. 239–. ISBN 978-1-316-45384-1.
  6. ^ Xing Hang (5 January 2016). Conflict and Commerce in Maritime East Asia: The Zheng Family and the Shaping of the Modern World, c.1620–1720. Cambridge University Press. pp. 233–. ISBN 978-1-316-45384-1.
  7. ^ "詩人鄭愁予:我是個抗戰兒童". 中國新聞網. 2015-07-16.
  8. ^ Chung-To Au (2008). Modernist Aesthetics in Taiwanese Poetry Since The 1950s. BRILL. pp. 154–. ISBN 90-04-16707-2.