House of Vijaya

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House of Vijaya
Vijayan dynasty
Royal house
House of Vijaya
Flag of Dutugamunu
Country Kingdom of Tambapanni
Kingdom of Upatissa Nuwara
Kingdom of Anuradhapura
Ethnicity Sinhalese
Founded 543 BC (543 BC)
Founder Prince Vijaya
Current head Extinct
Final ruler Subharaja
Titles King of Tambapanni
King of Upatissa Nuwara
King of Anuradhapura
Dissolution 66 AD (66 AD)
Cadet branches Vedda people[N 1]

The House of Vijaya (also known as the Vijayan dynasty and sometimes referred to as the "Great Dynasty") was the first recorded Sinhalese royal dynasty that ruled over the island, Sri Lanka. According to Sinhalese folklore Prince Vijaya is the traditional first king of Sri Lanka, founding the Kingdom of Tambapanni and the dynasty subsequently founding the Kingdom of Upatissa Nuwara and finally the Anuradhapura Kingdom.[1][2][3]

There were 37 Vijayan monarchs who reigned during a span of 609 years and ruled all but 80 of them. The dynasty ended when Vasabha of the House of Lambakanna I seized power in 66 AD.[4]

Origins[edit]

A section of the mural at the Ajanta Caves depicts the 'coming of Sinhala'. Prince Vijaya is seen in both of groups of elephants and riders.

In 543 BC, prince Vijaya (543–505 BC) arrived in Sri Lanka, having been banished from his homeland in India. He eventually brought the island under his control and established himself as king. After this, his retinue established villages and colonies throughout the country. One of these was established by Anuradha, a minister of King Vijaya, on the banks of a stream called Kolon and was named Anuradhagama.[5]

Reign[edit]

Tambapanni[edit]

The Kingdom of Tambapanni was founded by Prince Vijaya and his 700 followers after landing on the island, in a district near modern day Mannar which is believed to be the district of Chilaw,[6][7] after leaving Suppāraka.[8] It is recorded the Vijaya made his landing on the day of Buddha's death.[9] Vijaya claimed Tambapanni his capital and soon the whole island come under this name. Tambapanni was originally inhabited and governed by Yakkhas, having their capital at Sirīsavatthu and their queen Kuveni.[10] According to the Samyutta Commentary, Tambapanni was one hundred leagues in extent.

After landing in Tambapanni Vijaya met Kuveni the queen of the Yakkhas, who was disguised as a beautiful woman but was really a 'yakkini' (devil) named Sesapathi.[11]

Upatissa Nuwara[edit]

Monarchs of Sri Lanka
House of Vijaya
  1. Upatissa (505 BC–504 BC)
  2. Panduvasdeva (504 BC–474 BC)
  3. Abhaya (474 BC–454 BC)
  4. Tissa (454 BC–437 BC)
  5. Pandukabhaya (437 BC–377 BC)

During the end of his reign Vijaya, who was having trouble choosing a successor, sent a letter to the city of his ancestors, Sinhapura, in order to invite his brother Sumitta to take over the throne.[12] However Vijaya had died before the letter had reached its destination so the elected minister of the people[13] Upatissa, the Chief government minister or prime minister and leading chief among the Sinhalese became regent and acted as regent for a year. After his coronation which was held in the Kingdom of Tambapanni, he left it building another one bearing his own name. While his was king, Upatissa established the new capital Upatissa Nuwara, in which the kingdom was moved to from the Kingdom of Tambapanni. When Vijaya's letter arrived Sumitta had already succeeded his father as king of his country, and so he sent his son Panduvasdeva to rule Upatissa Nuwara.[12]

Upatissa Nuwara was seven or eight miles further north of the Kingdom of Tambapanni.[14][7][15] It was named after the regent king Upatissa, who was the prime minister of Vijaya, and was founded in 505 BC after the death of Vijaya and the end of the Kingdom of Tambapanni.

Anuradhapura[edit]

In 377 BC, King Pandukabhaya (437–367 BC) made Anuradhapura his capital and developed it into a prosperous city.[16][17] Anuradhapura (Anurapura) was named after the minister who first established the village and after a grandfather of Pandukabhaya who lived there. The name was also derived from the city's establishment on the auspicious asterism called Anura.[18] Anuradhapura was the capital of all the monarchs who ruled from the dynasty.[19]

The consecration ceremonies and rituals associated with kingship began during the reign of Devanampiya Tissa,[20] under the influence of Ashoka of India.[21] The whole country was brought under the rule of a single monarch by Dutthagamani for the first time. Before this, it had several principalities independent of the Anuradhapura Kingdom.[20] The king of Anuradhapura was seen as the supreme ruler throughout the island, even at times when he did not have absolute control over it.[22]

Several invasions have been made against the Anuradhapura Kingdom, all of which were launched from South India. The first invasion recorded in the history of the country is during the reign of Suratissa (247–237 BC), where he was overthrown by two horse dealers from South India named Sena and Guththika. After ruling the country for 22 years, they were defeated by Asela (215–205 BC), who was in turn overthrown by another invasion led by a Chola prince named Ellalan (205–161 BC).[23] Elara ruled for 44 years before being defeated by Dutthagamani.[24] The country was invaded again in 103 BC by five Dravidian chiefs, who ruled until 89 BC when they were defeated by Valagamba.

Genealogy[edit]

The House of Vijaya claimed a close relationship to the Shakya dynasty, family of the Gautama Buddha.[25]


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
King of Kalinga
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mahasammata
line of Kings
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
King of Vanga
 
Princess
 
Prince
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Jayasena
[N 2]
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The Lion
 
Suppadevi
 
Royal Standard Bearer
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Kacchana
 
Sihahanu
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Yasodhara
 
Anjana
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sinhabahu
[N 3]
 
Sinhasivali
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Amitodana
 
Ghattitdana Dhotodana
Sukkodana Pamita
 
Pajapati
[N 4]
 
Pajapati Suddhodana
 
Maya
[N 5]
 
Amita
 
Suppabuddha
 
Pajapati
[N 4]
 
Maya
[N 5]
 
Dandapani
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Kuveni
 
Prince Vijaya
(543 BC–505 BC)
 
Vijaya of Pandava
[N 6]
 
Other Issues
 
Sumitta
[N 7]
 
Princess of Madha
 
 
 
Pandu
 
Susima
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Siddhartha
 
 
 
Subhaddakacchana
 
Devadatta
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Jivatissa
 
Dissala
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Other Issue
 
Panduvasdeva
(504 BC–474 BC)
 
Bhaddakacchana
 
Dighaya
 
 
Rama Uruvela
Anuradha Vigita
Rohana Gamani
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Rāhula
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Vedda people
 
 
 
Other Issue
 
Abhaya
(474 BC–454 BC)
 
Tissa
(454 BC– 437 BC)
 
Girikandasiva
 
Chittra
 
Dighagamani
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Suvannapali
 
 
 
Pandukabhaya
(437 BC– 367 BC)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mutasiva of Anuradhapura
(367 BC–307 BC)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Devanampiya Tissa
(307 BC–267 BC)
 
Uttiya
(267 BC–257 BC)
 
Mahanaga
 
Anula
 
Mahasiva
(257 BC–247 BC)
 
Suratissa
(247 BC–237 BC)
 
Asela
(215 BC–205 BC)
 
Mattabhaya
 
Asoka
 
Uddhachulabhaya
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Son
 
Issue
 
 
 
Yatala Tissa
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Uttiya
 
Tissa
 
Gothabhaya
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Vihara Devi
 
Kakavanna Tissa
 
 
 
 
 
Second wife
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Dutugamunu
(161 BC–137 BC)
 
Anula
 
Saddha Tissa
(137 BC–119 BC)
 
Dighabhaya
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Asokamala
 
Saliya
 
Thulatthana
(119 BC–119 BC)
 
Lanja Tissa
(119 BC–109 BC)
 
Khallata Naga
(109 BC–104 BC)
 
Anuladevi
 
Valagamba
(104 BC–103 BC)
(89 BC–76 BC)
 
Somadevi
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mahakuli Mahatissa
(76 BC–62 BC)
 
Chora Naga
(62 BC–50 BC)
 
Anula
(47 BC–42 BC)
 
Mahanaga
 
 
 
 
 
Siva I
(47 BC)
[N 8]
 
Vatuka
(47 BC)
[N 9]
 
Darubhatika Tissa
(47 BC)
[N 10]
 
Niliya
(47 BC)
[N 11]
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Kuda Tissa
(50 BC–47 BC)
 
Kutakanna Tissa
(42 BC–20 BC)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Bhatikabhaya Abhaya
(20 BC–9 AD)
 
Mahadathika Mahanaga
(9–21)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Amandagamani Abhaya
(21–30)
 
Kanirajanu Tissa
(30–33)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Chulabhaya
(33–35)
 
Sivali
(35–35)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ilanaga
(38–44)
 
Mahamatta
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Chandamukha
(44–52)
 
Yassalalaka Tissa
(52–60)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Timeline[edit]

Kingdom of KandyKingdom of SitawakaKingdom of KotteKingdom of GampolaKingdom of DambadeniyaKingdom of PolonnaruwaChola occupation of AnuradhapuraAnuradhapura KingdomKingdom of Upatissa NuwaraKingdom of TambapanniNayaks of KandyHouse of DinajaraHouse of Siri Sanga BoHouse of KalingaHouse of VijayabahuHouse of Lambakanna IIHouse of MoriyaHouse of Lambakanna I

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Through the union of Vijaya and Kuveni produces two children, Jivatissa and Dissala, who are believed to be the ancestors of the Vedda people
  2. ^ King of Kapilavastu
  3. ^ King of Sinhapura
  4. ^ Same Person
  5. ^ Same Person
  6. ^ King of Madhura
  7. ^ King of Sinhapura
  8. ^ Consort to Anula
  9. ^ Consort to Anula
  10. ^ Consort to Anula
  11. ^ Consort to Anula

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ratnatunga, Rhajiv. "Chapter I The Beginnings; And The Conversion To Buddhism". http://lakdiva.org.  External link in |website= (help)
  2. ^ M. Senaveratna, John (2000). Royalty in Ancient Ceylon: During the Period of the "great Dynasty". Colombo, Sri Lanka: Asian Educational Services. ISBN 81-206-1530-1. Retrieved 13 August 2014. 
  3. ^ The story of the Sinhalese, pp. 5
  4. ^ Nicholas and Paranavitana (1961), p. 77
  5. ^ Wijesooriya (2006), p. 20
  6. ^ Mittal, J.P. (2006). "Other dynasties". History of Ancient India: From 4250 BC to 637 AD. Volume 2 of History of Ancient India: A New Version. Atlantic Publishers & Distributors. p. 405. ISBN 81-269-0616-2. Retrieved 2009-11-06. 
  7. ^ a b "Pre-history of Sri Lanka". lankaemb-egypt.com. Embassy of Sri Lanka Cairo, Egypt. Archived from the original on 2009-05-24. Retrieved 2009-11-06. 
  8. ^ "483 BC - Arrival of Aryans to Sri Lanka". scenicsrilanka.com. Retrieved 2009-11-06. 
  9. ^ "King Vijaya (B.C. 543-504) and his successors". lankalibrary.com. Retrieved 2009-11-06. 
  10. ^ "Tambapanni". palikanon.com. Retrieved 2009-11-06. 
  11. ^ Manathunga, Anura (2007-02-04). "The first battle for freedom". Ths Sunday Times. Retrieved 2009-11-06. 
  12. ^ a b Blaze, L. E. (1933). History of Ceylon. p. 12. 
  13. ^ The Mahávansi, the Rájá-ratnácari, and the Rájá-vali. Parbury, Allen, and Co. 1833. 
  14. ^ Mittal, J.P. (2006). "Other dynasties". History of Ancient India: From 4250 BC to 637 AD. Volume 2 of History of Ancient India: A New Version. Atlantic Publishers & Distributors. p. 405. ISBN 81-269-0616-2. Retrieved 2009-11-06. 
  15. ^ "CHAPTER I THE BEGINNINGS; AND THE CONVERSION TO BUDDHISM". 
  16. ^ Blaze (1995), p. 19
  17. ^ Yogasundaram (2008), p. 41
  18. ^ Wijesooriya (2006), p. 27
  19. ^ Bandaranayake (2007), p. 6
  20. ^ a b Siriweera (2004), p. 86
  21. ^ Wijesooriya (2006), p. 30
  22. ^ Perera (2001), p. 48
  23. ^ Wijesooriya (2006), p. 47
  24. ^ Wijesooriya (2006), p. 49
  25. ^ "Geneology Of Kings". http://books.lakdiva.org/. Retrieved 13 August 2014.  External link in |website= (help)

Bibliography[edit]

  • Blaze, L. E (1995). The Story of Lanka. Asian Educational Services. ISBN 978-81-206-1074-3. 
  • Moratuwagama, H. M. (1996). සිංහල ථුපවංසය—Sinhala Thupavansaya [Sinhala Thupavamsa] (in Sinhala). Rathna Publishers. ISBN 978-955-569-068-3. 
  • Perera, Lakshman S. (2001). The Institutions of Ancient Ceylon from Inscriptions. 1. International Centre for Ethnic Studies. ISBN 978-955-580-055-6. 
  • Senaveratna, John M. (1997). The story of the Sinhalese. New Delhi: Asian Educational Series. ISBN 81-206-1271-X. Retrieved 13 August 2014. 
  • Siriweera, W. I. (2004). History of Sri Lanka. Dayawansa Jayakodi & Company. ISBN 978-955-551-257-2. 
  • Wijesooriya, S. (2006). A Concise Sinhala Mahavamsa. Participatory Development Forum. ISBN 978-955-9140-31-3. 
  • Yogasundaram, Nath (2008). A Comprehensive History of Sri Lanka. Vijitha Yapa Publishers. ISBN 978-955-665-002-0. 

External links[edit]

House of Vijaya
Preceded by
None
Ruling house of the
Sinhala Kingdom

543 BC – 237 BC
Succeeded by
Sena and Guttika
Preceded by
Sena and Guttika
Ruling house of the
Sinhala Kingdom

215 – 205 BC
Succeeded by
Ellalan
Preceded by
Ellalan
Ruling house of the
Sinhala Kingdom

161 – 103 BC
Succeeded by
The Five Dravidians
Preceded by
The Five Dravidians
Ruling house of the
Sinhala Kingdom

89 BC – 66 AD
Succeeded by
House of Lambakanna I