Vercovicium

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Housesteads Roman Fort)
Jump to: navigation, search

Coordinates: 55°00′47″N 2°19′52″W / 55.013°N 2.331°W / 55.013; -2.331

Vercovicium
Kastell Housesteads Südfront.jpg
Vercovicium is located in Northumberland
Vercovicium
Alternative name(s) Borcovicium
Known also as Housesteads Roman Fort
Abandoned c. 400 AD
Attested by Notitia Dignitatum
Place in the Roman world
Province Britannia
Structure
— Stone structure —
Built c. 124 AD
Stationed military units
Legions
II Augusta
Cohorts
I Tungrorum
Numeri
Hnaudifridi
Location
Coordinates 55°00′47″N 2°19′52″W / 55.013°N 2.331°W / 55.013; -2.331
Town Hexham
County Northumberland
Country England
Reference
UK-OSNG reference NY789687
Website Housesteads Roman Fort
Media related to Vercovicium at Wikimedia Commons

Vercovicium, now known as Housesteads Roman Fort, was an auxiliary fort on Hadrian's Wall,[1] in the Roman province of Britannia. Its ruins are located at Housesteads (grid reference NY790688) in the civil parish of Bardon Mill in Northumberland, England, south of Broomlee Lough.

History[edit]

In the 2nd century AD, the garrison consisted of an unknown double-sized auxiliary infantry cohort and a detachment of legionaries from Legio II Augusta. In the 3rd century, it comprised cohors I Tungrorum, augmented by the numerus Hnaudifridi and the cuneus Frisiorum. The Tungrians were still there in the 4th century, according to the Notitia Dignitatum. By 409 AD the Romans had withdrawn.[2]

The fort was built in stone around AD 124, soon after the construction of the Wall began in AD 122. Vercovicium was built overlying the original Broad Wall foundation and Turret 36B. The fort was repaired and rebuilt several times, its northern defences being particularly prone to collapse. A substantial civil settlement (vicus) existed to the south, outside the fort, and some of the stone foundations can still be seen, including "Murder House", where two skeletons were found beneath an apparently newly laid floor when excavated.

Hadrian's Wall viewed towards the East over Knag Burn Gateway from Vercovicium
Building remains at Housesteads Fort
Granary at Vercovicium. The pillars supported a raised floor to keep food dry and free from vermin (James Crow (2004), Housesteads. A Fort And Garrison on Hadrian's Wall, Stroud: Tempus, p. 56.) They are not part of a hypocaust.
The latrines of Housesteads Roman Fort along Hadrian's Wall.

Most other early forts straddle the Wall and therefore protrude into barbarian territory. It is also unusual for Britain in that it has no running water supply and is dependent upon rainwater collection (for which purpose there is a series of large stone-lined tanks around the periphery of the defences). It also has one of the best-preserved stone latrines in Roman Britain.

The site is now owned by the National Trust and is currently in the care of English Heritage. Finds from Vercovicium can be seen in the site museum, in the museum at Chesters, and in the Museum of Antiquities in Newcastle upon Tyne.

Housesteads farm[edit]

Housesteads is a former farm whose lands include the ruins of Vercovicium. In 1604 Hugh Nixon "Stealer of cattle and receiver of stolen goods" became the tenant of Housesteads farm. From 1663, Housesteads was the home of the Armstrongs, a notorious family of Border Reivers. Nicholas Armstrong bought the farm in 1692, only to have to sell it again in 1694 to Thomas Gibson of Hexham for the sum of £485. They remained as tenants. They were a well-known band of horse thieves and cattle rustlers who used the old Roman fort as a corral for their ill-gotten gains. They traded as far afield as Aberdeen and the south of England. At one time every male member of the family was said to have been a 'broken man', formally outlawed by English or Scottish authorities. Nicholas was hanged in 1704, and his brothers fled to America. The Armstrongs lived in a typical 16th century defensive bastle house of two storeys: the ground floor for livestock and the upper level for living quarters. Its ruins remain built up against the south gate of the Roman fort and clearly show its defensive nature, with external stone steps and narrow loop windows. A corn drying kiln was inserted into the gate's guard chamber in the 17th century.

In 1698, the farm had been sold to Thomas Gibson who turned the land around the fort to agriculture and thus ploughed up numerous Roman artefacts. The 17th-century bastle was replaced by a farmhouse located over the Roman hospital, which was sketched by Stukely in 1725. Throughout the 18th Century Housesteads was farmed by a single tenant farming family. Since Hodgson recorded the presence of William Magnay as the tenant during that period this fixes the tenure. In particular, the well (thought to be Roman) was documented as having actually been built by William, and used by the family as a bath. Interest in the fort increased in the 19th century, particularly after the farm was purchased by the historian, John Clayton, in 1838, to add to his collection of Roman Wall farms. The Roman site was cleared of later buildings by Clayton, and the present farmhouse built about 1860. John Maurice Clayton attempted to auction the fort in 1929. It did not reach its reserve and was donated to the National Trust in 1930. The farm was later owned by the Trevelyans who gave the land for the site museum.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ J.G. Crow, Houseteads Roman Fort, London: English Heritage (1989)
  2. ^ Thomas Brown (2006) Celtic Roots, Trafford Publishing ISBN 1-55212-585-8
Bibliography
  • Birley, Eric (1952). Housesteads Roman Fort. London: English Heritage. 
  • Dodds, Glen Lyndon, (2002) Historic Sites of Northumberland & Newcastle upon Tyne pp 96–103
  • CastleUK. "Housesteads Bastle House". CastleUK.net. Retrieved 8 February 2006. 
  • Hickey, Julia. "Carlisle and the Border Reivers". TimeTravel-Britain.com. Retrieved 8 February 2006. 
  • Gibson papers, Northumberland Record Office (NRO)
  • J. C. Crow, Housesteads Roman Fort and its Environs, Univ. of Newcastle 1994
  • J. Crow, 'Housesteads', Bath Press 1995
  • John Hodgson, History of Northumberland vol III part II page 288
  • Crow, J. Housesteads, London: Batsford (1995) (second edition, Stroud: Tempus 2004)
  • Rivet, A.L.F. The Place-Names of Roman Britain, London: Batsford (1979)

External links[edit]