Houston County, Minnesota

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Houston County, Minnesota
HoustonCountyCourthouseCaledoniaMN.jpg
Map of Minnesota highlighting Houston County
Location in the U.S. state of Minnesota
Map of the United States highlighting Minnesota
Minnesota's location in the U.S.
Founded February 23, 1854[1]
Named for Samuel Houston
Seat Caledonia
Largest city La Crescent
Area
 • Total 569 sq mi (1,474 km2)
 • Land 552 sq mi (1,430 km2)
 • Water 17 sq mi (44 km2), 2.9%
Population (est.)
 • (2016) 18,814
 • Density 34/sq mi (13/km²)
Congressional district 1st
Time zone Central: UTC-6/-5
Website co.houston.mn.us

Houston County is a county located in the U.S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 census, the population was 19,027.[2] Its county seat is Caledonia.[3]

Houston County is included in the La Crosse-Onalaska, WI-MN Metropolitan Statistical Area.

History[edit]

Four years before Minnesota was admitted to the Union as the 32nd state on May 11, 1858, Houston County was chartered after its division from the eastern half of Fillmore County on April 4, 1854. The county seat was the village of Houston for a few years, but the county board moved the official records to Caledonia for safe storage in the cabin of Commissioner Samuel McPhail. The first court hearings were held in that cabin, and a one-story courthouse and jail was built in Caledonia in 1857. Turmoil over the county seat continued, a two-story building was built in Caledonia in 1867, and several referenda allowed Caledonia to prevail as the county seat by 1874.[4] From that point on, Caledonia prospered, and Houston slowly diminished. The only other area of prominence was La Crescent, which benefited from its connection to La Crosse, Wisconsin.

The county name was chosen to honor Sam Houston, who was president of Texas before its annexation by the United States and afterward was a senator from that state.[5] In the years 1854-56, when antagonism between the North and South on slavery questions would lead eventually to the Civil War, Houston aspired to nomination as the Democratic candidate for the national presidency. In October 1854, the general Democratic committee of New Hampshire recommended him as "the people's candidate" for the campaign in 1856. His popularity in Minnesota at that time recommended the name of this county, and, likewise, counties in Tennessee and Texas and cities and villages in Texas, Mississippi, Missouri, and other states bear his name.[6]

Geography[edit]

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 569 square miles (1,470 km2), of which 552 square miles (1,430 km2) is land and 17 square miles (44 km2) (2.9%) is water.[7]

Among other parts of southeastern Minnesota, the county is in the Driftless Zone, marked by the absence of glacial drift and presence of bedrock cut by streams into steep hills. The plateau that surrounds Caledonia, the county seat, includes flat, fertile farm land and hilly, verdant pasture land.

Native vegetation based on NRCS soils information[8]
Soils of Beaver Creek Valley State Park neighborhood

Lakes[edit]

The following lakes are located within the Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge.

  • Blue Lake
  • Hayshore Lake
  • Lawrence Lake
  • Target Lake

Adjacent counties[edit]

National protected area[edit]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1860 6,645
1870 14,936 124.8%
1880 16,332 9.3%
1890 14,653 −10.3%
1900 15,400 5.1%
1910 14,297 −7.2%
1920 14,013 −2.0%
1930 13,845 −1.2%
1940 14,735 6.4%
1950 14,435 −2.0%
1960 16,588 14.9%
1970 17,556 5.8%
1980 18,382 4.7%
1990 18,497 0.6%
2000 19,718 6.6%
2010 19,027 −3.5%
Est. 2016 18,814 [9] −1.1%
U.S. Decennial Census[10]
1790-1960[11] 1900-1990[12]
1990-2000[13] 2010-2016[2]
Age pyramid of county residents based on 2000 U.S. census data

As of the 2000 census,[14] there were 19,718 people, 7,633 households, and 5,411 families residing in the county. The population density was 35 people per square mile (14/km²). There were 8,168 housing units at an average density of 15 per square mile (6/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 98.47% White, 0.31% Black or African American, 0.18% Native American, 0.37% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.14% from other races, and 0.51% from two or more races. 0.61% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 43.1% were of German, 29.6% Norwegian and 7.5% Irish ancestry.

There were 7,633 households out of which 34.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.0% were married couples living together, 7.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 29.1% were non-families. 25.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.05.

In the county, the population was spread out with 27.2% under the age of 18, 6.8% from 18 to 24, 26.8% from 25 to 44, 23.1% from 45 to 64, and 16.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 97.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.1 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $40,680, and the median income for a family was $49,196. Males had a median income of $32,557 versus $22,158 for females. The per capita income for the county was $18,826. About 4.2% of families and 6.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.4% of those under age 18 and 11.2% of those age 65 or over.

Transportation[edit]

Major highways[edit]

Airport[edit]

Communities[edit]

Cities[edit]

Townships[edit]

Unincorporated communities[edit]

Politics[edit]

Presidential Elections Results[15]
Year Republican Democratic Third Parties
2016 53.0% 5,616 39.1% 4,145 8.0% 843
2012 47.4% 4,951 50.6% 5,281 2.1% 214
2008 43.6% 4,743 54.3% 5,906 2.2% 234
2004 50.8% 5,631 47.6% 5,276 1.6% 175
2000 49.9% 5,077 44.3% 4,502 5.8% 588
1996 38.9% 3,674 44.0% 4,153 17.2% 1,623
1992 36.9% 3,853 35.8% 3,744 27.3% 2,854
1988 54.1% 4,777 44.6% 3,936 1.3% 112
1984 61.1% 5,645 38.0% 3,512 1.0% 88
1980 58.9% 5,582 33.9% 3,218 7.2% 681
1976 54.4% 4,853 43.3% 3,861 2.4% 212
1972 66.6% 5,186 31.7% 2,467 1.8% 137
1968 57.9% 4,450 35.2% 2,703 6.9% 528
1964 46.9% 3,433 53.0% 3,885 0.1% 8
1960 60.9% 4,807 39.0% 3,080 0.0% 3
1956 67.9% 4,538 31.9% 2,133 0.1% 9
1952 74.3% 5,365 25.3% 1,830 0.4% 28
1948 56.8% 3,540 42.1% 2,623 1.1% 68
1944 68.3% 4,036 31.3% 1,847 0.4% 25
1940 69.5% 4,825 30.0% 2,082 0.5% 37
1936 44.3% 2,701 51.7% 3,156 4.0% 243
1932 42.6% 2,335 55.7% 3,052 1.7% 91
1928 64.9% 3,615 34.8% 1,937 0.4% 21
1924 53.6% 2,782 7.7% 402 38.7% 2,008
1920 85.7% 4,101 12.5% 598 1.8% 88
1916 69.1% 1,783 28.8% 744 2.1% 54
1912 23.8% 659 27.5% 762 48.8% 1,354
1908 67.4% 1,700 29.5% 745 3.1% 79
1904 76.1% 1,546 21.4% 434 2.5% 51
1900 64.6% 1,765 32.4% 884 3.1% 84
1896 65.9% 2,087 31.3% 991 2.8% 88
1892 50.1% 1,509 41.3% 1,243 8.6% 258

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Minnesota Place Names". Minnesota Historical Society. Retrieved March 18, 2014. 
  2. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved September 1, 2013. 
  3. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on 2011-05-31. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  4. ^ "Houston County Courthouse". Retrieved October 18, 2013. 
  5. ^ Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. Govt. Print. Off. p. 161. 
  6. ^ "Census 2010 Gazetteer Files". Retrieved October 18, 2013. 
  7. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Archived from the original on October 6, 2014. Retrieved October 15, 2014. 
  8. ^ Nelson, Steven (2011). Savanna Soils of Minnesota. Minnesota: Self. pp. 43 - 48. ISBN 978-0-615-50320-2.
  9. ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 9, 2017. 
  10. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on May 12, 2015. Retrieved October 15, 2014. 
  11. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved October 15, 2014. 
  12. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 15, 2014. 
  13. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 15, 2014. 
  14. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  15. ^ http://uselectionatlas.org/RESULTS

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 43°40′N 91°29′W / 43.67°N 91.49°W / 43.67; -91.49