Houston County, Texas

Coordinates: 31°19′N 95°26′W / 31.32°N 95.43°W / 31.32; -95.43
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Houston County
The Houston County Courthouse in Crockett is located at the intersections of Texas State Highway 21 and U.S. Highway 287.
The Houston County Courthouse in Crockett is located at the intersections of Texas State Highway 21 and U.S. Highway 287.
Flag of Houston County
Map of Texas highlighting Houston County
Location within the U.S. state of Texas
Map of the United States highlighting Texas
Texas's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 31°19′N 95°26′W / 31.32°N 95.43°W / 31.32; -95.43
Country United States
State Texas
Founded1837
Named forSam Houston
SeatCrockett
Largest cityCrockett
Area
 • Total1,237 sq mi (3,200 km2)
 • Land1,231 sq mi (3,190 km2)
 • Water5.7 sq mi (15 km2)  0.5%
Population
 (2020)
 • Total22,066
 • Density18/sq mi (6.9/km2)
Time zoneUTC−6 (Central)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−5 (CDT)
Congressional district8th
Websitewww.co.houston.tx.us

Houston County is a county located in the U.S. state of Texas. As of the 2020 census, its population was 22,066.[1] Its county seat is Crockett.[2] Houston County was one of 46 entirely dry counties in the state of Texas, until voters in a November 2007 special election legalized the sale of alcohol in the county.

Houston County was the first new county created under the 9-year Republic of Texas on June 12, 1837. The original boundaries of Houston County also included all of present-day Anderson and Trinity Counties, and portions of present-day Henderson and Polk Counties.

The county is named for Sam Houston, President of the Republic of Texas and Governor of Texas.[3] Other than being named for the same person, Houston County is not related to the City of Houston, which is located about 100 mi (160 km) to the south, in Harris County.

History[edit]

The Houston County Museum is located in a restored railroad depot south of Crockett.

The Four C Mill operated in Houston County during the first two decades of the 20th century. R. M. Keith, agent of the Central Coal and Coke Company in Kansas City, Missouri, began buying virgin timber in the fall of 1899. Lumber to construct the new mill was cut by a small sawmill purchased in early 1901 from J. H. Ratcliff. Keith organized the Louisiana and Texas Lumber Company to operate the Four C. The mill was producing 300,000 board feet of lumber daily by June 1902. Ratcliff Lake, now a United States Department of Interior recreational site, was the millpond for the Four C. The Texas Southeastern Railroad laid track from Lufkin to haul out the lumber. The town of Ratcliff was separated from the Four C by a fence, built to discourage the mill workers from spending their money outside the company town. The 120,000 acres were in time exhausted, and by 1920, the mill shut down.[4]

Geography[edit]

Ratcliff Lake Recreation Area is located in the Davy Crockett National Forest in Houston County east of Crockett.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,237 square miles (3,200 km2), of which 1,231 square miles (3,190 km2) are land and 5.7 square miles (15 km2) (0.5%) are covered by water.[5]

Adjacent counties[edit]

National protected area[edit]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
CensusPop.Note
18502,721
18608,058196.1%
18708,1471.1%
188016,702105.0%
189019,36015.9%
190025,45231.5%
191029,56416.2%
192028,601−3.3%
193030,0175.0%
194031,1373.7%
195022,825−26.7%
196019,276−15.5%
197017,855−7.4%
198022,29924.9%
199021,375−4.1%
200023,1858.5%
201023,7322.4%
202022,066−7.0%
Houston County, Texas - Demographic Profile
(NH = Non-Hispanic)
Race / Ethnicity Pop 2010[10] Pop 2020[9] % 2010 % 2020
White alone (NH) 14,811 12,957 62.41% 58.72%
Black or African American alone (NH) 6,129 5,163 25.83% 23.40%
Native American or Alaska Native alone (NH) 75 94 0.32% 0.43%
Asian alone (NH) 95 138 0.40% 0.63%
Pacific Islander alone (NH) 1 8 0.00% 0.04%
Some Other Race alone (NH) 25 58 0.11% 0.26%
Mixed Race/Multi-Racial (NH) 232 577 0.98% 2.61%
Hispanic or Latino (any race) 2,364 3,071 9.96% 13.92%
Total 23,732 22,066 100.00% 100.00%

Note: the US Census treats Hispanic/Latino as an ethnic category. This table excludes Latinos from the racial categories and assigns them to a separate category. Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.

As of the census[11] of 2000, 23,185 people, 8,259 households, and 5,756 families were residing in the county. The population density was 19 people/sq mi (7.3 people/km2); it had the second-lowest population density for all counties in Deep East Texas, behind only Newton County. The 10,730 housing units averaged 9 units per square mile (3.5/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 68.57% White, 27.93% African American, 0.26% Native American, 0.25% Asian, 2.23% from other races, and 0.76% from two or more races. About 7.50% of the population were Hispanics or Latinos of any race.

Of the 8,259 households, 28.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.90% were married couples living together, 14.20% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.30% were notfamilies. About 27.90% of all households were made up of individuals, and 15.10% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44, and the average family size was 2.97.

In the county, the age distribution was 23.20% under 18, 6.80% from 18 to 24, 27.70% from 25 to 44, 24.30% from 45 to 64, and 18.00% who were 65 or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 114.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 115.90 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $28,119, and for a family was $35,033. Males had a median income of $29,143 versus $19,885 for females. The per capita income for the county was $14,525. About 15.60% of families and 21.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.30% of those under age 18 and 18.20% of those age 65 or over.

Government and infrastructure[edit]

Austonio Baptist Church off Texas State Highway 21 in Houston County

Eastham Unit, a Texas Department of Criminal Justice prison for men, is located in an unincorporated area in the county.[12]

The Crockett State School, a Texas Youth Commission juvenile correctional facility for boys, was located in Crockett.[13] but was closed on August 31, 2011.[14]

United States presidential election results for Houston County, Texas[15]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 7,060 74.80% 2,314 24.52% 64 0.68%
2016 6,205 74.28% 1,978 23.68% 170 2.04%
2012 5,880 71.59% 2,265 27.57% 69 0.84%
2008 5,872 68.09% 2,656 30.80% 96 1.11%
2004 5,848 66.41% 2,921 33.17% 37 0.42%
2000 5,308 64.45% 2,833 34.40% 95 1.15%
1996 3,443 46.28% 3,383 45.48% 613 8.24%
1992 3,067 38.24% 3,250 40.52% 1,703 21.23%
1988 3,882 50.00% 3,846 49.54% 36 0.46%
1984 4,542 57.98% 3,275 41.80% 17 0.22%
1980 2,889 40.44% 4,181 58.52% 74 1.04%
1976 2,229 41.12% 3,179 58.64% 13 0.24%
1972 3,317 63.95% 1,844 35.55% 26 0.50%
1968 1,391 22.30% 2,782 44.60% 2,064 33.09%
1964 1,675 31.22% 3,681 68.60% 10 0.19%
1960 1,591 36.30% 2,703 61.67% 89 2.03%
1956 1,941 49.04% 1,998 50.48% 19 0.48%
1952 2,222 43.35% 2,900 56.57% 4 0.08%
1948 532 17.14% 2,014 64.88% 558 17.98%
1944 233 7.41% 2,329 74.03% 584 18.56%
1940 474 11.69% 3,579 88.24% 3 0.07%
1936 99 3.87% 2,458 96.05% 2 0.08%
1932 165 5.07% 3,087 94.84% 3 0.09%
1928 763 36.35% 1,336 63.65% 0 0.00%
1924 457 12.08% 3,289 86.92% 38 1.00%
1920 385 12.92% 1,475 49.48% 1,121 37.60%
1916 373 16.47% 1,730 76.38% 162 7.15%
1912 342 16.23% 1,457 69.15% 308 14.62%

Transportation[edit]

Major highways[edit]

Houston County is served by US Highway 287 and State Highways 7, 19, and 21. All of these highways intersect at the Courthouse Square in downtown Crockett. SH 21 follows the 300-year-old route of Old San Antonio Road. Texas State Highway Loop 304 circles the city of Crockett.

Rail[edit]

Freight rail service is provided by Union Pacific Railroad. The Crockett Depot, built in 1909, has been restored and now serves as the Houston County Museum.

Air[edit]

Houston County Airport (KDKR), located 3 miles east of Crockett on SH 7, features a 4,000-foot runway. On-site aircraft services are provided by East Texas Aircraft.

Public transportation[edit]

Demand and response public transportation within Houston County is provided by Brazos Transit District.

Communities[edit]

Cities[edit]

Unincorporated communities[edit]

Ghost towns[edit]

Education[edit]

Five school districts are located entirely in the county:

In addition, small portions of Groveton Independent School District and Elkhart Independent School District, located in Trinity County and Anderson County, respectively, extend into Houston County.

The county is in the district for Angelina College.[16]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Houston County, Texas". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 30, 2022.
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  3. ^ Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. Govt. Print. Off. pp. 161.
  4. ^ Texas Historical Commission, Historic Marker, Houston County, Texas, east of Kennard, Texas
  5. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Retrieved April 30, 2015.
  6. ^ "Decennial Census of Population and Housing by Decades". US Census Bureau.
  7. ^ "Census of Population and Housing from 1790". US Census Bureau. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
  8. ^ "Texas Almanac: Population History of Counties from 1850–2010" (PDF). Texas Almanac. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2022. Retrieved April 30, 2015.
  9. ^ a b "P2 HISPANIC OR LATINO, AND NOT HISPANIC OR LATINO BY RACE - 2020: DEC Redistricting Data (PL 94-171) - Houston County, Texas". United States Census Bureau.
  10. ^ "P2 HISPANIC OR LATINO, AND NOT HISPANIC OR LATINO BY RACE - 2010: DEC Redistricting Data (PL 94-171) - Houston County, Texas". United States Census Bureau.
  11. ^ "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 14, 2011.
  12. ^ "Eastham Unit Archived 2010-07-25 at the Wayback Machine." Texas Department of Criminal Justice. Retrieved on July 16, 2010.
  13. ^ "Crockett State School Archived 2011-02-20 at the Wayback Machine." Texas Youth Commission. Retrieved on August 8, 2010,
  14. ^ "TYC Announces Closure of Three Facilities Archived 2012-03-05 at the Wayback Machine." Texas Youth Commission. Retrieved on July 3, 2011.
  15. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved July 25, 2018.
  16. ^ Texas Education Code, Sec. 130.165. ANGELINA COUNTY JUNIOR COLLEGE DISTRICT SERVICE AREA..

External links[edit]

Bromberg_Mendel.htm in Aldrich, Armistead Albert, History of Houston County, Texas, Together with Biographical Sketches of Many Pioneers and Later Citizens of Said County, Who Have Made Notable Contributions to its Development and Progress, San Antonio: The Naylor Company, 1943.

31°19′N 95°26′W / 31.32°N 95.43°W / 31.32; -95.43