|Date opened||September 1922|
|Location||Houston, Texas, USA|
|Land area||55 acres (22 ha)|
|Number of animals||6,000|
|Number of species||900|
The Houston Zoo is a 55-acre (22 ha) zoological park located within Hermann Park in Houston, Texas, United States. The Zoo houses over 6,000 animals as a part of over 900 species that the zoo has to offer, and receives 1.8 million visitors each year and is the tenth most visited zoo in the United States. The Zoo is accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA).
The Houston Zoo's mission statement is "The Houston Zoo provides a fun, unique, and inspirational experience fostering appreciation, knowledge, and care for the natural world."
Since 2002, the non-profit corporation Houston Zoo Inc. has operated the zoo. Prior to 2002, the Houston Zoo was operated by the City of Houston.
Shasta VI, the mascot of the University of Houston with a Houston Zoo trainer
It began in 1922 with a bison named Earl who was donated by a traveling circus. A fence was erected in Hermann Park to house an odd assortment of snakes, birds, and alligators purchased by the City. Formerly referred to as the Hermann Park Zoo, it was a city-operated zoo and free to all visitors until 1989.
The first staff member was a German animal trainer named Hans Nagel, who quickly built up the collection and became the first zoo manager/director. Nagel had trained at the Hagenbeck Animal Company in Germany and was quite a showman. Nagel was a frequent newsreel subject, and his weekly lion taming shows were quite popular.
Nagel died in November 1941 in a gun fight on zoo grounds. A Hermann Park police officer saw Nagel hiding behind a hedge, spying on teen-agers in a parked car. The officer confronted Nagel and attempted to handcuff him. Nagel pulled a 9mm Luger from his side holster, but the park officer drew his gun first and fired six shots, killing Nagel. A grand jury acquitted the park officer, citing self defense.
Nagel purchased the Zoo’s first Asian elephant in 1925 and named it Hans. Hans, the elephant, died in 1979 at the age of 65. In the 1930s, the Zoo increased in size to about 30 acres and had a large aviary as its focal point. The aviary had some unique concrete sculpted trees that are still present today in the flamingo and shoebill stork exhibits. During this time, the first Natural History Museum was built on Zoo grounds along with a lion and elephant house.
In 1942 Nagel's assistant, Tom Baylor, assumed the role of zoo manager. The 1950s saw a boom in construction as the zoo added a primate house, bear moats, feline house, hippo pool, giraffe house, waterfowl pond, sea lion pool, and concession area. The first major indoor exhibit building was the reptile house in 1960.
Coinciding with all the Zoo improvements in the 1960s and 70s was the arrival of the zoo’s third and longest-tenured director, John Werler. Werler was hired in 1956 as the general curator and became the Zoo manager in 1963. Werler was a well-known celebrity in town and appeared on weekly TV shows with his favorite reptiles and other critters. werler and his Swedish-born wife, Ingrid, ran the zoo as a family and were loved and respected by all. He was one of the longest-serving zoo directors, retiring in 1993 after 30 years. John was a very special and talented individual who loved his snakes. Just before he died in 2003, he published his definitive book on Texas snakes.
During Werler’s tenure, the Houston Zoo added a small mammal house (now called Natural Encounters), a tropical bird house, children’s zoo, rhino exhibit, large cat exhibits, vet clinic, and aquarium. The Brown Education Center was dedicated in 1988, a gift from the former Zoological Society of Houston.
In January 1989, after being accredited by the AAZPA, the Houston Zoo initiated a public admission fee of $2.50 for adults and 50 cents for children. In 1993, Don Olson became the fourth Zoo manager. Don was formerly the director of parks and recreation and during that time he approved the expansion of the Zoo to its present size of 55 acres. That same year, the Zoo unveiled its first modern immersion zoo exhibit with the opening of Wortham World of Primates. This $7.5 million addition was the most expensive project to date and was designed by AZA commercial member of Jones and Jones. The lead architect was a young Jim Brighton who has since gone on to work at PJA Architects and is presently designing our African Forest habitats.
The 1990s also saw the $1.2 million renovation of the Janice Seuber McNair Asian Elephant facility, as well as extensive renovations of the Aquarium and Tropical Bird House. Many of these improvements were financed through the popular Zoo Ball parties put on by the incredible Zoo Friends organization. Just before the end of the 1990s, a new gift shop and office administration building was added at the front entrance as well as a koala building – thanks to the fundraising efforts of the Zoological Society of Houston.
The first decade of the 21st Century brought about even more change. Don Olson retired and Rick Barongi was hired from the Walt Disney Company as the Zoo’s fifth Zoo director. Barongi’s one condition of employment was permission to create a task force to privatize the Zoo. Two years later in July 2002, the Houston Zoo became a private non-profit organization with a 50-year lease and operating agreement from the City. This public/private partnership has proven to be mutually beneficial for everyone and allowed the Zoo to undertake the most ambitious scope of improvements in its entire history.
In 2000, the Zoo opened up the $6.5 million John P. McGovern Children’s Zoo and just kept improving with the addition of Komodo dragons (2001), okapi (2002), spectacled bear (2003), giant eland (2004), sea lion renovation, large cat viewing, Wildlife Carousel (2004), Natural Encounters (2005, AZA Exhibit award), African wild dog (2007), elephant barn (2008), jaguar (2010), shoebill and comprehensive landscaping, lighting, and interpretive signage improvements. In the first eight years after privatization, the Zoo added $40 million in capital improvements.
After privatization, the new Houston Zoo, Inc. Board, under the direction of its first Chairman, Bill Barnett, added a president/CEO position to work with the Zoo director. The first president was Philip Cannon (2002-2004). Cannon was a great spokesperson for the zoo and greatly elevated its stature in the community. He was succeeded by Deborah Cannon in 2005 (no relation), a former president with Bank of America. Deborah Cannon’s passion and talent has helped the Zoo become one of the most successful non-profit organizations in the City. Today, it employs 350 full-time employees.
In December 2010, the zoo opened the first phase of the African Forest immersion habitat. This six-acre, $40 million project includes chimpanzees, white rhinos, giraffe, and kudu antelope as well as a large African-themed restaurant, gift shop, and trading post.
Gorillas of the African Forest, the second phase of the African Forest expansion will open Memorial Day weekend 2015. The intricately designed space will hold two groups of western lowland gorillas who will spend their days alternating between an outdoor habitat filled with lush landscape that mimics an African forest and a multi-tiered night house that includes private bedrooms, an artistic 23-foot-tall climbing tree, and a behind-the-scenes outdoor yard.
The zoo’s continued evolution is part of a long-term plan for the nearly 100-year-old establishment. Also part of the organization's plan is an ever-increasing focus on wildlife conservation. With programs spanning the globe, the group is intently focused on solving word-wide issues pertaining to wildlife in need.
The Houston Zoo is an active partner in the AZA's Species Survival Plan (SSP) Program, a population management and conservation program for selected species housed in North American zoos.
The Zoo supports more than a dozen conservation projects in Texas and across the globe that assist in the survival of endangered wildlife and habitats. Wildlife conservation projects include the Houston toad, Texas sea turtle, Attwater's prairie chicken, gorilla, Galapagos tortoise, Bornean orangutan, elephant, Clouded leopard, African lion, frogs, Brazilian tapir, rhinoceros, Cape hunting dog, chimpanzee, okapi, cheetah, and other animals.
Information on these conservation programs can be found at http://www.houstonzoo.org/protect-animals/
- "List of Accredited Zoos and Aquariums". aza.org. AZA. Retrieved September 13, 2011.
- Hlavaty, Craig (28 October 2014). "Is the Houston Zoo haunted by the ghost of a former zookeeper?". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
- Media related to Houston Zoo at Wikimedia Commons
- Houston zoo virtual tour