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Limetree Bay Refinery
(Formerly Hovensa)
HOVENSA refinery-06.jpg
Hovensa is located in Saint Croix, US Virgin Islands
Refinery location in St. Croix
ProvinceSaint Croix
Coordinates17°42′16″N 64°45′19″W / 17.70444°N 64.75528°W / 17.70444; -64.75528Coordinates: 17°42′16″N 64°45′19″W / 17.70444°N 64.75528°W / 17.70444; -64.75528
Refinery details
OperatorHovensa LLC
Owner(s)Hess Corporation, PDVSA
Commissioned1966 (1966)
Capacity646,000 bbl/d (102,700 m3/d)

Limetree Bay Refinery (known also as Hovensa) is an oil refinery located on the island of Saint Croix in the United States Virgin Islands. The refinery was a joint venture between Hess Corporation and PDVSA. For most of its operating life as HOVENSA, it supplied heating oil and gasoline to the U.S. Gulf Coast and the eastern seaboard with the crude mainly sourced from Venezuela. Previously it had sourced its crude feedstock from a number of other countries including Libya. At a capacity of about 500,000 barrels per day (79,000 m3/d), in 2010 the refinery was among the 10 largest in the world.[1][2][3]

Hess Oil Virgin Islands Corporation started refinery construction in January 1966 having purchased the property from Annie de Chabert and, in October of the same year, the refinery started operating.[4] In 1974, the capacity of refinery was expanded up to its peak at 650,000 barrels per day (103,000 m3/d). Hovensa LLC, which took over the refinery operatorship, was established in 1998.[citation needed]

In January 2011, Hovensa paid a $5.3 million penalty for Clean Air Act violations.[5] The company closed the refinery in 2012, operating the property continued as a storage terminal only[6] until that closed in 2015. A purchase proposal by Atlantic Basin Refining was vetoed by the USVI Senate, but in November 2015 a joint venture (of ArcLight Capital Partners and Freepoint Commodities) called Limetree Bay Terminals succeeded in purchasing the Refinery.[7]

On November 30, 2018 Limetree Bay announced it had closed on $1.25 billion dollars of financing for the refinery to partially reopen by the end of 2019.[8]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Omar Shuts Down Hovensa". Downstream Today. AFX News Limited. 2008-10-15. Retrieved 2010-07-08.
  2. ^ "Hovensa Refinery Reopens". Downstream Today. AFX News Limited. 2008-10-20. Retrieved 2010-07-08.
  3. ^ Daker, Susan (2009-06-30). "Hovensa Defers Capital Projects, Trims Workforce". Downstream Today. Dow Jones Newswires. Retrieved 2010-07-08.
  4. ^ Collins, John (2002-04-18). "Instability In Venezuela Being Watched Closely". Puerto Rico Herald. Retrieved 2011-06-27.
  5. ^ "2ND Largest Refinery To Pay $5.3 Million Penalty For Clean Air Act Violations" (Press release). Employee Medical Credentialing Services. 2011-01-27. Archived from the original on 2012-03-17. Retrieved 2012-01-20.
  6. ^ Bronis, Jason (2012-01-18). "Hovensa LLC to shut Virgin Islands oil refinery". Toledo Blade. Associated Press. Retrieved 2012-01-20.
  8. ^ http://www.lbterminals.com/Limetree_Press_Release_Nov_30_2018.pdf[bare URL PDF]

External links[edit]