Howard Fast

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Howard Fast
Howard Fast.jpg
Born Howard Melvin Fast
November 11, 1914
New York City
Died March 12, 2003(2003-03-12) (aged 88)
Greenwich, Connecticut
Pen name E. V. Cunningham
Walter Ericson
Occupation novelist
Nationality US
Period 20th century
Genre historical fiction
Notable works The Last Frontier, Spartacus, April Morning
Spouse Bette Cohen (1937-1994; her death; 2 children)
Mercedes O'Connor (1999-2003; his death)

Literature portal

Howard Melvin Fast (November 11, 1914 – March 12, 2003) was an American novelist and television writer. Fast also wrote under the pen names E. V. Cunningham and Walter Ericson.


Early life[edit]

Fast was born in New York City. His mother, Ida (née Miller), was a British immigrant, and his father, Barney Fast, was a Ukrainian immigrant whose name was shortened from Fastovsky upon his arrival in America. When his mother died in 1923 and his father became unemployed, Howard's youngest brother, Julius, went to live with relatives, while he and his older brother Jerome worked by selling newspapers. He credited his early voracious reading to his part-time job in the New York Public Library.

Fast began writing at an early age. While hitchhiking and riding railroads around the country to find odd jobs, he wrote his first novel, Two Valleys, published in 1933 when he was 18. His first popular work was Citizen Tom Paine, a fictional account of the life of Thomas Paine. Always interested in American history, he also wrote The Last Frontier, about Cheyennes Indians' attempt to return to their native land which inspired the 1964 movie Cheyenne Autumn;[1] and Freedom Road, about the lives of former slaves during Reconstruction.

The novel Freedom Road is based on a true story and was made into a 1979 film starring Muhammad Ali, who, in a very rare acting role, plays Gideon Jackson, an ex-slave in 1870s Virginia who gets elected to the US Senate in Washington, D.C. and battles other former slaves and white sharecroppers to keep the land they tended all their lives.

Contribution to Constitutionalism[edit]

Fast is the author of the prominent "Why the Fifth Amendment?"[2] essay. This essay explains in detail the purpose of the Fifth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States of America. Fast effectively uses the context of the Red Scare to illustrate the purpose of the "Fifth".


Fast spent World War II working with the United States Office of War Information, writing for Voice of America. In 1943, he joined the Communist Party USA and in 1950 he was called before the House Committee on Un-American Activities; in his testimony, he refused to disclose the names of contributors to a fund for a home for orphans of American veterans of the Spanish Civil War (one of the contributors was Eleanor Roosevelt), and was given a three-month prison sentence for contempt of Congress.[3]

It was while he was at Mill Point Federal Prison that Fast began writing his most famous work, Spartacus, a novel about an uprising among Roman slaves.[3] Blacklisted by major publishing houses following his release from prison, Fast was forced to publish the novel himself. By the standards of a self-published book, it was a great success, going through seven printings in the first four months of publication. (According to Fast in his memoir, 50,000 copies were printed, of which 48,000 were sold.) He subsequently established the Blue Heron Press, which allowed him to continue publishing under his own name throughout the period of his blacklisting. Just as the production of the film version of Spartacus (released in 1960) is considered a milestone in the breaking of the Hollywood blacklist, the reissue of Fast’s novel by Crown Publishers in 1958 effectively ended his own blacklisting within the American publishing industry.

In 1952, Fast ran for Congress on the American Labor Party ticket. During the 1950s he also worked for the Communist newspaper, the Daily Worker. In 1953, he was awarded the Stalin Peace Prize. Later in the decade, Fast broke with the Party over issues of conditions in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe.

In the mid-1950s, Fast moved with his family to Teaneck, New Jersey.[4] In 1974, Fast and his family moved to California, where he wrote television scripts, including such television programs as How the West Was Won. In 1977, he published The Immigrants, the first of a six-part series of novels.

Personal life[edit]

He married his first wife, Bette Cohen, on June 6, 1937. Their children are Jonathan and Rachel. Bette died in 1994. In 1999 he married Mercedes O'Connor, who already had three sons. He died in Old Greenwich, Connecticut on March 12, 2003.

Fast's son Jonathan Fast, himself a novelist, was married to novelist Erica Jong; their daughter is the novelist Molly Jong-Fast.

The writer Julius Fast was Howard Fast's younger brother.




  • Being Red, Boston, Houghton Mifflin (1990)
  • The Naked God: The Writer and the Communist Party (1957)


  • Two Valleys (1933)
  • Strange Yesterday (1934)
  • Place in the City (1937)
  • Conceived in Liberty; a novel of Valley Forge (1939)
  • The Last Frontier (novel) (1941)
  • Haym Solomon: Son of Liberty (novel) (1941)
  • The Unvanquished (1942)
  • Citizen Tom Paine (1943)
  • Freedom Road (1944), adapted as Freedom Road
  • The American: A Middle Western Legend (1946)
  • Clarkton (1947)
  • The Children (1947)
  • My Glorious Brothers (1948)
  • The Proud and the Free (1950)
  • Spartacus (1951) ISBN 1-56324-599-X, adapted as Spartacus (film) and Spartacus (miniseries)
  • Fallen Angel (1952) (writing as Walter Ericson), adapted as Mirage
  • Tony and the Wonderful Door (1952)
  • The Passion of Sacco and Vanzetti, a New England legend[8] (1953)
  • Silas Timberman[9] (1954)
  • The Story of Lola Gregg (1956)
  • Moses, Prince of Egypt (1958)
  • The Winston Affair (1959), adapted as Man in the Middle
  • The Golden River (1960)
  • Sylvia (1960) (his first novel published under the pseudonym E. V. Cunningham)
  • April Morning (1961)
  • Power (1962)
  • Agrippa's Daughter (1964)
  • Lydia (1964) (as E. V. Cunningham)
  • Helen (1966) (as E. V. Cunningham)
  • Torquemada (1966)
  • Penelope (1966), adapted from Penelope (film)
  • Sally (1967) (as E. V. Cunningham)
  • The Crossing (1971), adapted as The Crossing (film)
  • The Hessian (1972)
  • The Immigrants (1977)
  • Second Generation (1978)
  • The Establishment (1979)
  • The Legacy (1981)
  • Max (1982)
  • The Outsider (1984)
  • The Immigrant's Daughter (1985)
  • The Dinner Party (1987)
  • The Pledge (1988)
  • The Confession of Joe Cullen (1989)
  • The Trial of Abigail Goodman (1993)
  • Seven Days in June (1994)
  • The Bridge Builder's Story (1995)
  • An Independent Woman (1997)
  • Redemption (1999)
  • Greenwich (2000) ISBN 0-15-100620-2
  • Bunker Hill (2001)

The Masao Masuto Mysteries (as E.V. Cunningham)[edit]

  • Samantha (1967) later published as The Case of the Angry Actress (1984)
  • The Case of the One-Penny Orange (1977)
  • The Case of the Russian Diplomat (1978)
  • The Case of the Poisoned Eclairs (1979)
  • The Case of the Sliding Pool (1981)
  • The Case of the Kidnapped Angel (1982)
  • The Case of the Murdered Mackenzie (1984)

Short story collections[edit]

Essays and articles[edit]

  • "May Day"[10] (1951)


  • Spartacus (1960), based on the 1951 novel Spartacus.
  • Mirage (1965), based on the 1952 novel Fallen Angel, originally published under the pseudonym Walter Ericson.
  • The Crossing (2000) based on the 1971 novel.
  • Man in the Middle (1963), based on the 1959 novel The Winston Affair.
  • April Morning (1987), based on the 1961 novel.


External links[edit]