Howard Johnson's

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Howard Johnson International, Inc.[1]
FoundedFebruary 1, 1925; 97 years ago (February 1, 1925) in Quincy, MA (restaurants)[2]
1954 (1954) in Savannah, GA (motor lodges)
FounderHoward Deering Johnson[1]
DefunctMarch 2022; 5 months ago (March 2022) (restaurants)[3]
Number of locations
299[4][5] (December 31, 2021 (December 31, 2021))
Areas served
Worldwide (hotels)
Key people
Clement Bence (Brand President)
ParentWyndham Hotels & Resorts

Howard Johnson's, or Howard Johnson by Wyndham,[6] is an American-owned chain of worldwide hotels and motels, located primarily throughout the United States. It was also a chain of restaurants for 97 years and widely known for that alone. Founded by Howard Deering Johnson, it was the largest restaurant chain in the U.S. throughout the 1960s and 1970s, with more than 1,000 combined company-owned and franchised outlets.[7]

Howard Johnson hotels and motels are now part of Wyndham Hotels and Resorts. Howard Johnson's restaurants were franchised separately from the hotel brand beginning in 1986, but in the years that followed, severely dwindled in number.[8] The last restaurant, in Lake George, New York, closed in 2022. The line of branded supermarket frozen foods, including ice cream, is no longer manufactured.[9]


Early years[edit]

In 1925, Howard Deering Johnson borrowed $2,000 to buy and operate a small corner pharmacy in Wollaston, a neighborhood in Quincy, Massachusetts. Johnson was surprised to find it easy to pay back the money lent to him, after discovering his recently installed soda fountain had become the busiest part of his drugstore. Eager to ensure that his store would remain successful, Johnson decided to devise a new ice cream recipe. Some sources say the recipe was based on his mother's homemade ice creams and desserts,[10][11] while others say that it was from a local German immigrant,[12] who either sold or gave Johnson the ice cream recipe. The new recipe made the ice cream more flavorful due to increased butterfat content. Eventually Johnson created 28 flavors of ice cream. He is quoted as saying, "I thought I had every flavor in the world. That '28' (flavors of ice cream) became my trademark."[13]

Throughout the summers of the late 1920s, Johnson opened concession stands on beachfront property along the coast of Massachusetts. The stands sold soft drinks, hot dogs, and ice cream. Each stand was successful. With his success becoming more noticeable every year, Johnson convinced local bankers to lend him funds to operate a sit-down restaurant. Negotiations were made and, toward the end of the decade, the first Howard Johnson's restaurant opened in Quincy. It featured fried clams, baked beans, chicken pot pies, frankfurters, ice cream, and soft drinks.

The first Howard Johnson's restaurant received a tremendous boost in 1929, owing to an unusual set of circumstances: The mayor of nearby Boston, Malcolm Nichols, banned the production of Eugene O'Neill's play, Strange Interlude in Boston. Rather than fight the mayor, the Theatre Guild moved the production to Quincy. The five-hour play was presented in two parts with a dinner break. The first Howard Johnson's restaurant was near the theater, and hundreds of influential Bostonians flocked to the restaurant. Through word of mouth, more Americans became familiar with the Howard Johnson Company.[14]

Expansion in the 1930s and 1940s[edit]

The "Simple Simon and the Pieman" logo designed by John E. Alcott became the corporate symbol of the Howard Johnson Company beginning in the 1930s.
Howard Johnson entered the airline catering market segment.
Most Howard Johnson's restaurants featured a food counter known as a "Dairy Bar" on one wing of the building, such as this Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts unit photographed in 1959.
Howard Johnson's restaurant entrance with emblematic weather vane.

Johnson wanted to expand his company, but the stock market crash of 1929 prevented this. After waiting a few years and maintaining his business, Johnson persuaded an acquaintance in 1935 to open a second Howard Johnson's restaurant in Orleans, Massachusetts.[15] The second restaurant was franchised and not company-owned. This was one of America's first franchising agreements.

By the end of 1936 there were 39 more franchised restaurants, creating a total of 41 Howard Johnson's restaurants. By 1939, there were 107 Howard Johnson's restaurants along American East Coast highways, generating revenues of $10.5 million. In less than 14 years, Johnson directed a franchise network of over 10,000 employees with 170 restaurants, many serving 1.5 million people a year.

Johnson’s success gave him added opportunity to capitalize on getting his name around. When wealthy socialite Dorothy May Kinnicutt Parish (known as Sister Parish) began her decorating business in the 1930s, Johnson hired her to decorate the restaurant he built in Somerville, New Jersey. She told a reporter from The New York Times, “I dressed the waitresses in aqua, did the walls in aqua, I made the placemats in aqua. I guess I must have thought it was quite chic, but I haven’t done a thing in aqua since.” (quoted in A History of Howard Johnson’s by Anthony Mitchell Sammarco).[16]

The unique icons of orange roofs, cupolas, and weather vanes on Howard Johnson properties helped patrons identify the chain's restaurants and motels. The restaurant's trademark Simple Simon and the Pieman logo was created by artist John Alcott in the 1930s [11] while the fiberglass signs were sculptured by Charles Pizzano.

There were 200 Howard Johnson's restaurants when America entered World War II.

By 1944, only 12 Howard Johnson's restaurants remained in business. The effects of war rationing had crippled the company. Johnson managed to maintain his business by serving commissary food to war workers and U.S. Army recruits. When the Pennsylvania Turnpike (1940), and later the Ohio Turnpike, New Jersey Turnpike and Connecticut Turnpike were built, Johnson bid for and won exclusive rights to serve drivers at service station turnoffs through the turnpike systems.[17]

In the process of recovering from these losses, in 1947 the Howard Johnson Company began construction of 200 new restaurants throughout the American Southeast and Midwest. By 1951, the sales of the Howard Johnson Company totaled $115 million.

Entering the hotel business[edit]

HoJo motor lodges used a lamplighter character lighting a lamppost with the Simple Simon character pointing to the light.

By 1954, there were 400 Howard Johnson's restaurants in 32 states, about 10% of which were extremely profitable company-owned turnpike restaurants; the rest were franchises. This was one of the first nationwide restaurant chains.

While many places sold "fried clams", they were whole, which was not universally accepted by the American dining public. Howard Johnson popularized Soffron Brothers Clam Company's fried clam strips, the "foot" of hard-shelled sea clams. They became popular to eat in this fashion throughout the country.[18][19]

In 1954, the company opened the first Howard Johnson's motor lodge in Savannah, Georgia. The company employed architects Rufus Nims and Karl Koch to oversee the design of the rooms and gate lodge. Nims had previously worked with the company, designing restaurants. The restaurant's trademark Simple Simon and the Pieman was now joined by a lamplighter character in the firm's marketing of its motels. According to cultural historians, the chain became synonymous with travel among American motorists and vacationers in part because of Johnson's ubiquitous outdoor advertising displays.[20]

In 1959, Howard Deering Johnson, who had founded and managed the company since 1925, turned control over to his son, then 26-year-old Howard Brennan Johnson. The elder Johnson observed his son's running of the company until his death in 1972 at the age of 75.

Howard Johnson Company went public in 1961; there were 605 restaurants, 265 company-owned and 340 franchised, as well as 88 franchised Howard Johnson's motor lodges in 32 states and The Bahamas.

In 1961, Johnson hired New York chefs Pierre Franey and Jacques Pépin to oversee food development at the company's main commissary in Brockton, Massachusetts. Franey and Pépin developed recipes for the company's signature dishes that could be flash frozen and delivered across the country, guaranteeing a consistent product.

Civil rights[edit]

While the landmark Brown v. Board of Education decision by the United States Supreme Court in 1954 struck down segregation in public schools, the segregation and maintenance of whites-only public facilities continued in other domains, including the Howard Johnson chain. Segregation in Howard Johnson's restaurants provoked an international crisis in 1957, when a Howard Johnson eatery in Dover, Delaware refused service to Komla Agbeli Gbedemah, the finance minister of Ghana, prompting a public apology from President Dwight D. Eisenhower.[21] The Congress of Racial Equality, or CORE, was instrumental in organizing protests and sit-ins at Howard Johnson locations in multiple states.[22]

The city of Durham, North Carolina, became notable as a focus for action against segregated restaurants and hotels, including Howard Johnson's. On 12 August 1962, attorney and civil rights activist Floyd McKissick initiated the first of multiple rallies and demonstrations against segregated establishments in Durham, including the Howard Johnson's restaurant on Chapel Hill Boulevard,[23] culminating in multiple protests on 18–20 May 1963 resulting in mass arrests as well as an eventual rapprochement with the city government. Future senator and presidential candidate Bernie Sanders, while a student at the University of Chicago in 1962, helped organize picketing of a Howard Johnson's location in Cicero, Illinois, during his time as a student activist for CORE.[24]

By 7 December 1962, the Howard Johnson Company issued a statement to the press opposing racial segregation in its restaurants, citing its corporate policy against discrimination: "Where it has been possible to change the operation of our company-operated restaurants in the South to conform to our national policy of service without discrimination, this has been done."[25] The letter, written in conjunction with CORE and the NAACP, praised the organizations and aligned company policy with their outlook that segregation was "not defensible."[26]

Howard Johnson's restaurants by the 1960s were known to be accommodating to members of the LGBTQ community, particularly in metropolitan New York. On April 21, 1966, at the Howard Johnson's in the Greenwich Village neighborhood, Dick Leitsch, Craig Rodwell, and John Timmins, all members of the New York chapter of the Mattachine Society, an early American gay rights group, patronized the restaurant as part of a 'Sip-In' demonstration in protest of New York liquor laws that prevented serving gay customers. The men were served drinks without incident at the restaurant; they later visited Julius' Bar where they were denied service, eventually leading to changes in the laws.[27] In the late 1960s, gay liberation activist and self-identified drag queen Marsha P. Johnson decided on the drag queen name "Marsha P. Johnson", getting Johnson from the Howard Johnson's restaurant on 42nd Street.[28]

New chains and a changing public[edit]

In the 1930s, H.D. Johnson bought the Wayland Red Coach Grill and used it as the model for a new concept, a more upscale steakhouse restaurant chain called Red Coach Grills.[29] While they had some success, they were not sufficiently profitable. Eventually the last 15 Red Coach Grills were sold in 1983 to a company executive who closed them.[30] In 1969, Johnson again tried a new restaurant concept, Ground Round. It was successful. Though not a Howard Johnson's restaurant, the Ground Round chain was company-owned and franchised, thus increasing the Howard Johnson Company profit.

The 28 flavors of ice cream and piggybank-sensitive meal prices made it possible to lure families. The company also started some child-friendly promotions. One was a birthday club. Children signed up in advance and were sent birthday cards redeemable for a free meal, a cake, and in some locations, balloons and lollipops. Family members’ meals were charged at normal rates. The Springfield, New Jersey, restaurant sent out 10,000 cards one year, and they had a 50 percent return on those who came to take advantage of the birthday offer.

Children’s menus were an attractive staple of Howard Johnson’s. In addition to offering kid-friendly food at lower prices, industrial designer John Alcott’s firm created a variety of menus that kept the kids entertained. Some were maps of the United States, one was a guide to the metric system. Another menu could be converted to a mask if string was added at home.

Howard Johnson’s also held contests. If a person submitted proof via a check-off coupon that they had sampled all 28 flavors of ice cream, the next ice cream cone was free.[16]

By 1975, the Howard Johnson Company had more than 1,000 restaurants and more than 500 motor lodges in 42 states and Canada. The company reached its peak that year, but the late 1970s marked the beginning of the end for the Howard Johnson Company. Because of the oil embargo of 1974, the Howard Johnson's restaurants and motor lodges, which received 85% of revenue from travelers, lost profits when Americans could not afford long trips or frequent vacations. Rather than promoting the restaurants to travelers, management knew it had to focus on nearby population centers. Also, the company model of serving pre-made food with high-quality ingredients in traditional dining rooms was costly when compared to the innovations introduced by fast food outlets like McDonald's, which designed its products and restaurants to appeal to families with younger children. Around this time, the chain introduced "Hojo Cola" and other private-label sodas, which disappointed some customers who preferred familiar products such as Coca-Cola or Pepsi.

The company suffered from two infamous incidents at a property in the New Orleans Central Business District within 18 months of one another. The first was a July 1971 fire, set by two irate guests who had been ejected from the hotel, which killed six people.[31] The second, in January 1973, was a harrowing day-long siege. Former Black Panther Mark Essex used the hotel's roof as a sniper's perch, killing three police officers, the hotel's general manager and assistant general manager, and a couple from Virginia, who were on a belated honeymoon. He also wounded policemen, firemen and civilians. Then, in Jericho, New York, on 8 November 1974, singer-actress Connie Francis was raped at the Jericho Turnpike Howard Johnson's Lodge. She sued the motel chain for their lapse in security and won a judgment of $2.5 million, one of the largest such judgments at that time, leading to a reform in hotel security. Her rapist was never found.

H. B. Johnson attempted to streamline company operations and cut costs, such as serving cheaper food and having fewer employees.[32] This strategy was unsuccessful, because patrons compared this new era of Howard Johnson's restaurants and motor lodges unfavorably to the services they had previously come to know. In a further effort to make the company more successful and profitable, Johnson created other concepts, such as HoJos Campgrounds and 3 Penny Inns for lodging, as well as Deli Baker Ice Cream Maker, and Chatt's for restaurants. All of these concepts failed, furthering the company's demise.

In the late 1990s, the Howard Johnson's Candy Factory and Executive Offices in Wollaston were purchased and renovated by the Eastern Nazarene College to form the Adams Executive Center.[33]

Changes in ownership[edit]

In 1979, Johnson accepted an acquisition bid of more than $630 million from Imperial Group PLC of London, England. Imperial obtained 1,040 restaurants (75% company owned/25% franchised) and 520 motor lodges (75% franchised/25% company owned). In 1981 Imperial recruited G. Michael Hostage, then CEO of Continental Baking Company and formerly executive vice president of Marriott Corporation, to replace Johnson as CEO. After four years, despite progress in a turnaround, Imperial reversed course and sold the company. Having declined to entertain Hostage's proposal to lead a leveraged buyout, Imperial employed Goldman Sachs who, with Hostage's assistance, sold the company to Marriott in 1986. In a contemporaneous transaction, Marriott sold the motor lodge business and the Howard Johnson trademark to Prime Motor Inns, a New Jersey company.

Howard Johnson's restaurant painted in 1970s "environmental" color scheme
A former Howard Johnson's restaurant in Bay City, Michigan, which closed in 2005. Note the adjacent former motor lodge, now occupied by Econo Lodge.

Marriott was interested in the company-owned restaurants for the real estate. Marriott already owned Big Boy Restaurants and Roy Rogers Restaurants. In 1982, it acquired Host International, which had operated a number of highway rest stops. Many of the established Howard Johnson sites were in prime highway locations which could be profitably converted to Big Boy or various fast food banners. As Marriott quickly demolished the company owned restaurants or converted them to the Bob's Big Boy restaurant chain,[34][35] the number of Howard Johnson's restaurants remaining circa 1985 was sharply reduced. Only the franchised restaurants remained untouched.[36]

Marriott left all company-owned and franchised motor lodges untouched, as the deal called for them to be sold a year later (in 1986) to Prime Motors Inns, an existing franchisee with 63 motels.[34]

Divestment of motor lodges[edit]

Prime Motors Inns continued to preserve the lodges, just as Marriott had, until weak hotel and real estate markets caused it to sell off its assets and cease operations in 1990.[37] Those involved with the company owned and franchised motor lodges banded together and formed the Howard Johnson Acquisition Corporation. They successfully obtained all the rights to operate and maintain the company owned and franchised lodges. With these rights maintained, they changed their name to "Howard Johnson International Incorporated," which became a subsidiary of "Hospitality Franchise Systems Incorporated," which eventually merged with other companies to form Cendant. In 2006, Cendant split itself into Wyndham Worldwide and three other companies.

Wyndham operated the Howard Johnson brand under many "tiers" based on price, level of amenities, and services offered. Under Cendant/Wyndham, the chain became a parking place for franchise conversions, which were existing independent motels which had been renovated and added to the chain in order to provide them with access to a nationally recognised name and central reservation infrastructure. As these properties were not originally constructed as Howard Johnson sites, they lacked the distinctive architecture and some had no restaurant at all.

Howard Johnson's proposed revitalization project became known as the Renew project and commenced in 2015.[38]

Howard Johnson Express Inns, Howard Johnson Inns, Howard Johnson Hotels, and Howard Johnson Plaza Hotels range from limited-service motels to full-service properties with on-site concierges and business centers. Howard Johnson began offering a "Rise 'N' Dine" continental breakfast at some economy limited service locations.[39] The chain abolished the multiple price tiers by 2015.

Divestment of restaurant brand[edit]

While the Howard Johnson Company-owned and franchised motor lodges have stood the test of time since being sold by the Howard Johnson Company in 1979, the restaurants did not. Because Marriott eliminated all the company-owned restaurants, the owners of the franchised restaurants feared elimination and banded together in 1986 and created "Franchise Associates Incorporated" or (FAI). In 1986, Marriott gave FAI the rights to operate and maintain Howard Johnson's restaurants. When Cendant acquired the Howard Johnson's motor lodges, they offered to work together with FAI to ensure the expansion of the restaurant chain.[citation needed]

As early as 1987, FAI chairman George Carter acknowledged that "We have the concept, but it desperately needs to be modernized, internally and externally. Howard Johnson was allowed to become tired and stale. We must get rid of that plastic image... Anything can be salvageable if a great deal of time and money and effort is put in it. And Howard Johnson needs all those same things."[40]

While the Howard Johnson's restaurant chain was preserved, FAI did not have enough money to expand to new locations or revamp the brand. With the exception of one Howard Johnson's ice cream parlor in Puerto Rico, FAI never opened a new restaurant or expanded the chain.

1990s: Struggling under FAI[edit]

In 1990, an existing restaurant in Canton, Massachusetts, was remodeled as a prototype for a new era of Howard Johnson's restaurants, but the concept failed, and after less than a decade of operation, the prototype restaurant closed in the spring of 2000.[41] Attempts were made to revamp 25% of the menu and create new signage, but these efforts proved insufficient as the long-neglected chain continued to lose ground to mass-market fast food operations. By March 1995, it was clear the number of restaurants were in decline, with FAI's official directory listing just 84 restaurants remaining in the US and Canada.

2000s: Sharp decline[edit]

By 2005, there were fewer than eight surviving restaurants. A combination of no vision, no reinvestment of capital, aging restaurants, a stale menu, lack of marketing or new ideas, and competition from other chains had taken their toll; restaurants were closing their doors.[42] FAI ceased operations in 2005, the same year that the Springfield, Vermont, location and the last New York City restaurant in the chain closed.

Cendant acquired the rights to operate and maintain the remaining Howard Johnson's restaurants. In 2006, Cendant sold them to La Mancha Group LLC,[43] which had proposed an aggressive expansion of the restaurant chain that never materialized. After the Waterbury, Connecticut restaurant became The Brass House Restaurant in April 2007,[44] only three locations remained. Cendant split into four smaller companies in 2006; its hotel group became Wyndham Worldwide while other pieces were spun off separately to become Avis Budget Group, Realogy, Travelport and Affinion Group.

A line of Howard Johnson-branded frozen foods disappeared from grocery stores after Fairfield Farms Kitchens shut down its Brockton, Massachusetts plant in 2006[9] and America's Kitchen of Atlanta, Georgia shut down in May 2008.

2010s: Fading out[edit]

In spring 2012, one of the last three original Howard Johnson's restaurants closed, in Lake George, and was listed for sale.[45] Television personality, chef and author Rachael Ray once worked at that site while living in Lake George as a teenager.[46] By 2013 only two original restaurants remained open, but the Bangor (hotel and restaurant) no longer had the distinctive orange roof. While the highest tier in the hotel franchise (HoJo Hotel Plaza) did include a restaurant, there was no requirement that these replicate menus, format or branding of the former Howard Johnson restaurant chain.

With La Mancha Group LLC no longer active, Wyndham Hotel Group now owned the rights to the HoJo's food business as well as the Howard Johnson hotel chain.[47] In 2013, Wyndham proposed a Howard Johnson Brand Reinvigoration which would bring select flavors of ice cream back to the hotels, adopt a new logo, phase out the multiple branding tiers, give the properties a facelift and redesign as a lower-midscale chain starting in 2015.[48] Despite Wyndham moving ahead with eliminating hotel tiers and implementing a (retro-inspired) guestroom renovation program, all other plans, including those involving food and restaurant operations were scrapped.[49]

On 10 January 2015, the "Lake George Family Restaurant" diner opened inside the former Howard Johnson's Lake George restaurant (1953-2012), after its lease was transferred from its original owners, DeSantis Enterprises, to John Larock in August 2014.[50] Choosing to take advantage of a grandfather clause, John Larock reopened it as a Howard Johnson's restaurant, briefly bringing the number of restaurants remaining back up to three.[51]

On 31 March 2015, the Lake Placid, N.Y., Howard Johnson's closed, leaving only two locations remaining. Then in September 2016, the Bangor restaurant–the last continuously operating restaurant from the original chain, closed; the last remaining location out of the original 1,000-plus.[52][53][54] By 2016 only the Lake George restaurant remained, what was considered a controversial location.

2020s: Final closure[edit]

Despite the Lake George's restaurant proclaimed resilience as "The Last One Standing", its authenticity as a true Howard Johnson's restaurant was questioned due to its dissimilar menu and negative reviews.[55] A new from the ground up operation, it lacked a kitchen staff and crew formerly connected or experienced with the Howard Johnson's Restaurant chain.[56] While it retained an original building and trademark name, it had no official connection with Wyndham or the defunct FAI, operating entirely as an independent and re-imagined entity.

In January 2017 the Lake George property went up for sale and redevelopment projects were proposed for the site.[57] On October 12, 2017, owner John Larock was arrested and convicted of sexual harassment of female employees, and on October 31, 2018 began serving a six-month jail sentence.[58][59][60] The restaurant continued to operate with Larock as owner, but was open sporadically, with limited days and hours.[61]

In March 2022, after a number of controversies, the Lake George restaurant permanently closed, the last restaurant establishment to use the Howard Johnson's name.[62]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b "Wyndham Hotel Group - Company Backgrounder" (.pdf). Wyndham Hotel Group. Retrieved 21 January 2015.
  2. ^ Office, United States Patent (1952). Official Gazette of the United States Patent Office. U.S. Patent Office. p. 1371.
  3. ^ Diller, Nathan (2 June 2022). "The last Howard Johnson's restaurant closed, ending an era of Americana". Washington Post. Retrieved 2 June 2022.
  4. ^ "Locations - Howard Johnson by Wyndham Hotels". Press Release. Retrieved 9 April 2019.
  5. ^
  6. ^ Eisen, David (10 April 2018). "Ahead of spin-off, Wyndham Hotel Group puts a new spin on its brand names". Hotel Management. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  7. ^ "The last Howard Johnson's restaurant is for sale". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
  8. ^ Canfield, Clarke (19 May 2005). "HoJo's Restaurants Are Fading Away". Los Angeles Times.
  9. ^ a b "44 Companies Closing 48 Plants + 18 Bankruptcies (Fairfield Farm Kitchens closing Brockton, Ma plant)". Plant Closings: 2. 15 January 2007. Retrieved 4 December 2014.
  10. ^ Sugars, Bradley J. (2005). Successful Franchising: Expert Advice on Buying, Selling and Creating Winning Franchises. McGraw-Hill Professional. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-07-146671-4. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
  11. ^ a b Hinckley, Jim; Robinson, Jon G. (2005). The Big Book of Car Culture: The Armchair Guide to Automotive Americana. MotorBooks/MBI. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-7603-1965-9. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
  12. ^ Boyett, Joseph H.; Boyett, Jimmie T. (2002). The Guru Guide to Entrepreneurship: A Concise Guide to the Best Ideas from the World's Top Entrepreneurs. John Wiley and Sons. p. 275. ISBN 978-0-471-43686-7. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
  13. ^ The Nation's Business (1968). Lessons of Leadership: 21 Top Executives Speak Out on Creating, Developing, and Managing Success. Doubleday. p. 48.
  14. ^ "28 Flavors Head West". Life. Time Inc. 6 September 1948. p. 71. ISSN 0024-3019.
  15. ^ "The History of Howard Johnson's Restaurant". 2 February 2022.
  16. ^ a b "Howard Johnson: Host of the Highway". 23 September 2017.
  17. ^ Tomasson, Robert E. (28 August 1983). "Survey to Study Turnpike Dining". The New York Times.
  18. ^ "Thomas Soffron, 96, Creator of Clam Strips". The New York Times. 28 February 2004. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
  19. ^ Sovich, Nina (1 May 2004). "Clam King". CNN. Retrieved 18 September 2012. Like many famous Greeks, and not a few New Englanders, Thomas Soffron found his fortune at sea. An immigrant from Calamata, Greece, Soffron invented clam strips: battered and fried slices from the "foot" of hard-shelled sea clams (which held up better when frozen than did the coastal variety). For years Soffron Brothers Clam Co., based in Ipswich, Massachusetts, served as the exclusive supplier of clam strips to the Howard Johnson's restaurant chain, which sold the whole country on this Down East delicacy. Few HoJos are left, but the clam strip's enduring popularity stands as its creator's legacy. Soffron died on 21 February 2004, at age 96 in Ipswich, his hometown.
  20. ^ "Rubenstein Library / ROAD / 1920-1929 (Outdoor Advertising Timeline: 1920-1929)". Duke Libraries. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
  21. ^ "Ghana finance minister denied service, Oct. 10, 1957".
  22. ^ "CORE Protests Against Howard Johnson Chain".
  23. ^ "Durham Civil Rights Heritage Project : Howard Johnson's Restaurant - 1962".
  24. ^ "Here's What Bernie Sanders Actually Did in the Civil Rights Movement".
  25. ^ "Restaurant Chain Bans Segregation". Arizona Tribune. Phoenix, AZ. 28 December 1962. p. 1. Archived from the original on 11 August 2020. Retrieved 11 August 2020 – via The Howard Johnson company, which operates 179 restaurants, has announced it is against racial segregation and that its national policy is to "provide service without discrimination."
  26. ^ "Restaurant Cites Integration Gain". The New York Times. 7 December 1962. p. 27. Retrieved 18 September 2020. The company praised the two groups' leadership 'in the battle against segregation and discriminatory practices.' It said it agreed with them that segregation of public eating facilities was not defensible.
  27. ^ "Before Stonewall, Julius' Bar Went Down in Gay History". NBC Out. 9 November 2017. Retrieved 18 June 2021.
  28. ^ Kasino 2012: event occurs at 37:22; Carter 2010: "In the early days she tended to go out mainly in semidrag and call herself Black Marsha. (When she later dropped the Black and started calling herself Marsha P. Johnson, she explained that the P. stood for 'Pay it no mind.')"
  29. ^ "Red Coach Grills".
  30. ^ "Burton "Skip" Sack - Thayer Ventures".
  31. ^ Evarts, Ben (23 July 2011). "Today in fire history: hotel fire kills six". National Fire Protection Association Blog. Archived from the original on 6 December 2014. Retrieved 4 December 2014.
  32. ^ "Indigestion on the Highway". Life. Time Inc. 28 August 1970. p. 12. ISSN 0024-3019.
  33. ^ "Cecil R. Paul Center for Business". Eastern Nazarene College. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
  34. ^ a b Horovitz, Bruce (25 September 1985). "Marriott and Partner Buy Howard Johnson". Los Angeles Times.
  35. ^ Daniels, Lee A. (25 September 1985). "Howard Johnson Acquired". The New York Times.
  36. ^ "The Howard Johnson's Story". Franchise Associates, Inc. Archived from the original on 2 March 2001. Retrieved 25 August 2021.
  37. ^ "Company News; Prime Motor Inns in Trouble". The New York Times. 15 September 1990. Retrieved 4 December 2014.
  38. ^ "Howard Johnson Wildwood Boardwalk Pays Homage to History" (Press release). Lodging Magazine. 31 May 2017. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
  39. ^ "Howard Johnson Tiers". Howard Johnson International. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
  40. ^ "Restaurant Chain Fights Stale Image Operators Hope To End Howard Johnson Slump". Orlando Sentinel. 30 April 1987. Retrieved 4 December 2014.
  41. ^ Kantrowitz, Marc (13 August 2013). Canton. Arcadia Publishing. p. 108. ISBN 9780738504421.
  42. ^ Clarke Canfield (14 May 2005). "HoJo restaurants fading fast". Bangor, Maine. Associated Press.
  43. ^ Chesto, Jon (22 July 2009). "Fading HoJo's chain seeks new knight in shining armor". Milford Daily News. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
  44. ^ "Broken Chain: State Loses Last Hojo's". Hartford Courant. 15 April 2007. Retrieved 4 December 2014.
  45. ^ Cermak, Marv (9 July 2012). "Restaurants served a slice of Americana". The Albany Times Union. Retrieved 4 December 2014.
  46. ^ Severson, Kim (13 June 2011). "Summer Jobs of the Rich and Famous". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 December 2014.
  47. ^ Chesto, Jon (10 June 2012). "Wyndham Hotel Group is still planning for a HoJo's revival despite the challenges ahead". Mass. Markets. Retrieved 4 December 2014.
  48. ^ "Much-Anticipated Howard Johnson Brand Reinvigoration Unveiled at Wyndham Hotel Group Global Conference" (Press release). Wyndham. 10 September 2013. Archived from the original on 20 September 2014. Retrieved 4 December 2014.
  49. ^ "Howard Johnson by Wyndham | Refreshed Rooms".
  50. ^ Anderson, Eric (28 July 2012). "Lake George Howard Johnson's to reopen". The Albany Times Union. Retrieved 30 July 2014.
  51. ^ Chandler, Adam (9 September 2016). "The Very Last Howard Johnson's". The Atlantic. Retrieved 10 September 2016.
  52. ^ Lake Placid HoJo's to close its doors WCAX, 24 March 2015
  53. ^ Mann, Brian (1 April 2015). "With Nostalgia and a Last Nosh, 1 of 3 Remaining HoJo's Closes : The Salt : NPR". NPR. Retrieved 25 May 2015.
  54. ^ "Howard Johnson restaurant to close; only 1 left". 23 August 2016. Retrieved 24 August 2016.
  55. ^ Cook, Everett (14 February 2017). "The Last Howard Johnson's in the Universe". Eater. Retrieved 14 February 2017.
  56. ^ "Memory of a visit to the Lake George Howard Johnson's just got creepier". 12 October 2017.
  57. ^ Johnson, Howard (8 August 2017). "Last orders for an American roadside legend". BBC News (video).
  58. ^ "Site of last Howard Johnson's restaurant up for sale". Fox News. Associated Press. 25 January 2017. Retrieved 8 August 2017.
  59. ^ "Owner of Last HoJo's Restaurant Charged With Sexual Abuse". US News. 12 October 2017.
  60. ^ "Howard Johnson owner sentenced for sex crimes". WIVB-TV. 31 October 2018.
  61. ^ Wilson, Mary (1 November 2018). "Lake George Howard Johnson's under new management after conviction of former operator". Archived from the original on 27 March 2019.
  62. ^ "America's last Howard Johnson's restaurant has closed". CNN. June 2022.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]