House of Howard

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Howard family
Howard arms (augmented).svg
Coat of arms of Howard, granted to Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk
CountryKingdom of England, United Kingdom
Founded1483
FounderJohn Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk
Current headEdward Fitzalan-Howard, 18th Duke of Norfolk
Cadet branches

The House of Howard is an English Noble House founded by John Howard who was created Duke of Norfolk (3rd creation) by King Richard III of England in 1483. However, John was also the eldest grandson (although maternal) of the 1st Duke of 1st creation. The Howards have been part of the peerage since the 15th century and remain the Premier Dukes of the Realm in the Peerage of England, acting as Earl Marshal of England. After the English Reformation many Howards remained steadfast in their Catholic faith as the most high-profile recusant family; two members, Philip Howard, 20th Earl of Arundel, and William Howard, 1st Viscount Stafford, are regarded as martyrs: a saint and a blessed respectively.

The senior line of the house, as well as holding the Duke of Norfolk, are also Earl of Arundel, Earl of Surrey and Earl of Norfolk, as well as holding six baronies. The Arundel title was inherited in 1580, when the Howards became the genealogical successors to the paternally extinct FitzAlans, ancient kin to the House of Stuart, dating back to when the family first arrived in Great Britain from Brittany (see Alan fitz Flaad). Thomas Howard, the 4th Duke of Norfolk, married as his first wife Mary FitzAlan; who, after the death of her brother Henry in 1556, became heiress to the Arundel estates of her father Henry FitzAlan, 19th Earl of Arundel. Her son was the above-mentioned Philip Howard, 20th Earl of Arundel. It is from this marriage that the present Duke of Norfolk takes his name of FitzAlan-Howard and why his seat is in Arundel Castle. There have also been several notable cadet branches; those existing to this day include the Howards of Effingham, Howards of Carlisle, Howards of Suffolk and Howards of Penrith. The former three are earldoms, and the latter a barony.

Throughout much of English, and later British history, the Howards have played an important role. Claiming descent from Hereward the Wake, the resister of the Norman conquest who has been much celebrated in folklore, John Howard fought to the death at the Battle of Bosworth Field in defence of the cause for the House of York. They regained favour with the new Tudor dynasty after leading a defence of England from Scottish invasion at the Battle of Flodden, and Catherine Howard subsequently became the fifth wife and Queen consort to King Henry VIII. Her uncle, Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk, played a significant role in Henrician politics. Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Nottingham, served as Lord Admiral of the English fleet which defeated the invading Spanish Armada.

Arundel Castle has been in the family of the Duke of Norfolk for over 400 years, and is still the principal seat of the Norfolk family. As cultural heritage, it is a Grade I listed building.[1]

Origins[edit]

Background[edit]

Arundel Castle, home of the Fitzalans and later the Howards

The later Howards would claim a fanciful descent from Hereward the Wake who was of local Mercian background and resisted the Norman conquest of England from his base at the Isle of Ely, who would subsequently become a mainstay of English folklore.

A pedigree compiled and signed by Sir William Dugdale The Norroy King of Arms at the College of Arms dated 8 April 1665 however states that the Howard family are descended from the Howarth [sic Howard] family of Great Howarth Hall, Rochdale. And that “it is clear from above seventy deeds, without date, that the Howards, Dukes of Norfolk, do derive from the Howards Howarth of Great Howarth and that William Howard of Wigenhall… was a direct decedent of Osbert Howard de Howarth” given lands in Rochdale on behalf of his service as Master of King Henry I’s Buckhounds. Dugdale's account however has been disputed.[2]

Indisputable descent begins with Sir William Howard (died 1308), a judge who was in the House of Commons in the Model Parliament of 1295. Sir William's son, Sir John Howard, became Sheriff of Norfolk and Suffolk. Sir John was married to Joan de Cornwall, granddaughter of Richard of England, 1st Earl of Cornwall and King of the Romans by his illegitimate child, Sir Richard de Cornwall.[3]

History[edit]

Anne Boleyn, second wife of Henry VIII

Sir William's great-great-great-grandson, Sir Robert Howard, married Lady Margaret Mowbray, elder daughter of Thomas Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk (1366–1399). The line of Dukes died out in 1476 and the heiress of the last Duke, Anne Mowbray, died at the age of nine in 1481; after declaring her widower King Edward IV's son Richard of Shrewsbury, 1st Duke of York, illegitimate, Richard III of England created the son of Sir Robert and Lady Margaret, John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk, of a new creation on 28 June 1483, the 200th anniversary of the Barony of Mowbray to which he was also senior co-heir. John had previously been summoned to Parliament as Lord Howard by Edward IV. He was also created hereditary Earl Marshal. John's son and heir, Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk, was the grandfather of two English queens, Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard, both wives of Henry VIII.

The Howard family became one of the foremost recusant families due to their continued adherence to Roman Catholicism throughout the English Reformation and its aftermath. This meant that they often could not take their seats in the House of Lords. They are still known as the most prominent English Catholic family.

Both the Dukedom and Earl Marshalship have been the subject of repeated attainders and restorations in the 15th to 17th centuries. Before Charles II restored the titles for good, the Howards had inherited the ancient title of Earl of Arundel through an heiress, and formed additional branches that have continued to this day.

A branch of the Howard family has been seated at Castle Howard, one of England's most magnificent country homes, for over 300 years.

In order of genealogical seniority:

Queen Elizabeth I was the first English monarch to descend from John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk who was her great-great grandfather.

Queen Elizabeth II is the first British monarch to descend from John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk. Through her mother, Elizabeth Bowes Lyon, she descends twice from the 4th Duke and four times from the 2nd Duke. Her grandchildren descend a total of 34 times from John Howard, 1st Duke, including from the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th Dukes, as well as from the Earls of Suffolk and Berkshire and the Earls of Effingham, and also from Mary Boleyn 11 times.[4]

Howard Family Tree[edit]

The following chart is a family tree of the Dukes of Norfolk, who were members of the Plantagenet, Mowbray and Howard families.

Family tree[edit]

Eleanor
of Castile

1241–1290
Edward I
Longshanks

King of England
1239–1307
r.1272–1307
Margaret
of France

1279–1318
Edward II
King of England
1284–1327
r.1307–1327
Thomas
of Brotherton
Earl of Norfolk
1300–1338
r.1312–1338
Alice
Hayles
Edward III
King of England
1312–1377
r. 1327–1377
John
de Mowbray

Baron Mowbray
1310–1361
r.1321–1361
John
Segrave

Baron Segrave
1315–1353
Margaret
Css. of Norfolk
~1320–1399
r.1338–1399
Walter
Manny

Baron Manny
~1310–1372
r.1347–1372
Edward
of Norfolk
~1320–1334
Beatrice
de Mortimer
~1322-1383
Alice
of Norfolk
~1324–~1352
Edward
Montagu

Baron Montagu
?-1361
Edmund
of Langley

Duke of York
1341–1402
r.1385–1402
Blanche
Mowbray
~1342-1409
John
de Segrave
?-bef.1353
Elizabeth
Segrave
1338-1368
John
Mowbray

Baron Mowbray
1340–1368
r. 1361–1368
Thomas
Manny

1357-1362
Anne
Hastings

Baroness Manny
1355–1384
r.1375–1384
John
Hastings

Earl of Pembroke
1347 – 1375
r.1348–1375
Richard
of Conisburgh

Earl of
Cambridge
~1375–1415
Elizabeth
le Strange
~1373–1383
Thomas
de Mowbray

Duke of Norfolk
1366–1399
r.1397—1399
Elizabeth
Fitzalan

1366–1425
Eleanor
de Mowbray
bef.1361
bef.1417
John
de Welles

Baron Welles
1352–1421
r.1361–1421
John
de Mowbray

Earl of
Nottingham
1365-1383
r.1377—1383
Richard
Duke of York
1411–1460
r.1425–1460
Thomas
de Mowbray

Earl of Norfolk
1385–1405
r.1399–1405
John
de Mowbray

Duke of Norfolk
1392—1432
r.1397—1399
Katherine
Neville

~1400–aft.1483
Elizabeth
de Mowbray
Michael
de la Pole

Earl of Suffolk
1394–1415
r.1415
Robert
Howard
of Tendring
1398–1436
Margaret
de Mowbray
1391-1459
John
Grey
of Ruthin
Eleanor
Bourchier
John
Mowbray

Duke of Norfolk
1415–1461
r.1432–1461
Edward
Neville

Baron
Bergavenny
bef.1414–1476
r.1447–1476
Katherine
Howard
1430-1480
Catherine
Moleyns
?-1465
John
Howard

Duke of Norfolk
~1425–1485
r.1483–1485
Margaret
Chedworth
1436–1494
Edward IV
King of England
1442–1483
r.1461–1470
1471–1483
Elizabeth
Talbot

~1442–~1506
John
de Mowbray

Duke of Norfolk
1444–1476
r.1461–1476
Robert
Mortimer
of Landmere
?-1485
Elizabeth
Howard
Anne
Howard
1446–1474
Edmund
Gorges
of Wraxall
~1454-1512
Katherine
Howard
?-1536
John
Bourchier

Baron Berners
1467–1533
r.1474–1533
Richard
of Shrewsbury

Duke of York
1473-?
Anne
de Mowbray

Css of Norfolk
1472–~1481
Elizabeth
Tilney

Css of Surrey
bef.1445–1497
Thomas
Howard

Duke of Norfolk
1443–1524
r.1514–1524
Agnes
Tilney

~1477–1545
Margaret
Howard
1445–1484
John
Wyndham
of Crownthorpe
and Felbrigg
1451-1503
Jane
Howard
1450-1508
Edward
Howard

~1476–1513
John
Howard
1482-1502
Henry
~1480-
bef.1513
Richard
Howard
1487-1517
Elizabeth
Howard
?-1536
Katherine
Broughton
William
Earl of
Effingham
1510–1573
r.1554–1573
Margaret
Gamage
1515-1581
John Grey
Viscount
Lisle
?-1504
Muriel
Howard
?-1512
Charles
Howard
1483-1512
Thomas
Howard

1511–1537
Dorothy
Howard
~1511-1580
Anne
Howard
~1518-1558
John
de Vere

Earl of Oxford
1499–1526
r.1513–1526
Earls of
Effingham
Anne
of York

1475–1511
Thomas
Howard

Duke of Norfolk
1473–1554
Elizabeth
Stafford

1497–1558
Edmund
Howard

1478–1539
Joyce
Culpeper

~1480–~1528
Elizabeth
Howard

~1480–1538
Thomas
Boleyn

Earl of Wiltshire
1477–1539
r.1529–1539
Elizabeth
Marney
?-1517
Catherine
Howard

1518/1524
–1542
Henry VIII
King of England
1491–1547
r.1509–1547
Anne
Boleyn

1501/1507
–1536
Gertrude
Lyte
Thomas
Viscount
of Bindon
1520–1582
r.1559–1582
Mabel
Burton
Henry
Howard

Earl of Surrey
1516/1517–
1547
Frances
de Vere

1517–1577
Henry
Duke of
Richmond
and Somerset
1519–1536
Mary
Howard

1519–1557
Henry
Howard

Earl of
Northampton
1540–1614
r.1604–1614
Jane
Howard

1533/37
–1593
Charles
Neville

Earl of
Westmorland
1542–1601
r.1564–1571
Margaret
Howard
1543-1591
Henry
Scrope

Baron Scrope
of Bolton
1534–1592
r.1549–1592
Katherine
Howard
1538-1596
Henry
Berkeley

Baron
Berkeley
1534–1613
Robert
Sackville

Earl of Dorset
1561–1609
r.1608–1609
Mary
FitzAlan

1540–1557
Thomas
Howard

Duke of Norfolk
1536–1572
r.1554–1572
Margaret
Audley

1540–1564
Elizabeth
Leyburne

1536–1567
Thomas
Dacre

Baron Dacre
1527–1566
r. 1563–1566
Margaret
Sackville

1562–1591
Elizabeth
Howard
1559-1591
Philip
Howard

Earl of Arundel
1557–1595
r.1580–1595
Anne
Howard

1557–1630
Mary
Dacre
1563-1578
Thomas
Howard

Earl of Suffolk
1561–1626
r.1603–1626
Catherine
Howard

1564–1638
William
Howard

1563–1640
Elizabeth
Dacre
1564-1639
Thomas
Howard

Earl of Arundel
1586–1646
r.1604–1646
Alethea
Talbot

1585–1654
James
Howard
Baron
Maltravers
1607–1624
Henry
Howard

Earl of Arundel
1608–1652
1646–1652
Elizabeth
Stuart
1610-1673
Anne
Howard
1612–1658
William
Howard

Viscount
Stafford
1614–1680
Mary
Stafford
1616-1692
Philip
Howard

1629–1694
Anne
Howard
1632–?
Catherine
Howard
1634–1655
Talbot
Howard
1636–?
Edward
Howard
1637–1691
Anne
Wilbraham
~1655-?
Francis
Howard
1640–1683
Elizabeth
Howard
1651–1705
Thomas
Howard

Duke of Norfolk
1627–1677
r.1660–1677
Anne
Somerset
1631-1662
Henry
Howard

Duke of Norfolk
1628–1684
r.1677–1684
Jane
Bickerton

1643-1693
Charles
Howard
of Greystoke
1630–1713
Mary
Tattershall
?-1695
Bernard
Howard
of Glossop
1641–1717
Catherine
Tattershall
?-1727
Mary
Mordaunt

1659–1705
Henry
Howard

Duke of Norfolk
1655–1701
r.1684–1701
Thomas
Howard
of Worksop
1662-1689
Mary
Elizabeth
Savile
~1663-1732
Henry
Howard
of Greystoke
~1668–1720
Mary
Aylward
~1670–1747
Bernard
Howard II
of Glossop
1674-1735
Anne
Roper
?-1744
Maria
Shireburn

~1693-1754
Thomas
Howard

Duke of Norfolk
1683–1732
r.1701–1732
Walter
Aston

Lord of Forfar
1660–1748
Mary
Howard
?-1723
Charles
Howard

Duke of Norfolk
1720–1786
r.1777–1786
Catherine
Brockholes
bef.1724–1784
Henry
Howard
of Glossop
1713-1787
Juliana
Molyneux
?-1808
Mary
Blount

1712–1773
Edward
Howard

Duke of Norfolk
1686–1777
r.1732–1777
Philip
Howard
~1687-1750
Marion
Coppinger
?-1768
Charles
Howard

Duke of Norfolk
1746–1815
r.1786–1815
Frances
Scudamore
~1750-1820
Elizabeth
Maycock
?-1811
Edward
Charles
Howard
1774-1816
Elizabeth
Belasyse
1770–1819
Bernard
Howard

Duke of Norfolk
1765–1842
r.1815–1842
Anne
Howard
1742–1787
Robert
Petre

Baron Petre
1742–1801
r.1742–1801
Juliana
Barbara
Howard
1769-1833
Mary
Bridget
1767-1843
Henry
Thomas
1766-1842
Elizabeth
Long
Henry
Howard

Duke of Norfolk
1791–1856
r.1842 – 1856
Charlotte
Leveson
-Gower
1788–1870
Robert Petre
Baron Petre
1763–1809
r.1801–1809
Bernard
Thomas
Fitzalan
-Howard
1825–1846
Mary
Charlotte
Howard
1822–1897
Thomas
Foley

Baron Foley
1808–1869
r.1833–1869
Winifred
Mary
De Lisle
?-1909
Edward
Fitzalan-H.

Baron of
Glossop
1818–1883
r.1869–1883
Augusta
Talbot
?-1862
George
Manners

1820–1874
Adeliza
Fitzalan
-Howard
?-1904
Henry
Fitzalan
-Howard

Duke of Norfolk
1815–1860
r.1856–1860
Augusta
Lyons

1821–1886
Charles
Rawdon-H.

Earl of
Loudoun
1855–1920
r.1874–1920
Alice
Elizabeth
Fitzalan-H.
1856-1915
Constance
Mary
Germana
Fitzalan-H.
?-1933
Charles
Lennox
Tredcroft
1832-1917
Charles
Bernard
Talbot
Fitzalan-H.
1852–1861
Minna
Charlotte
Fitzalan-H.
1843-1921
Victoria
Alexandrina
Fitzalan-H.
1840-1870
James
Hope
-Scott

1812–1873
Mary
Adeliza
Fitzalan-H.
1845-1925
William
Middleton
Winifrede
Mary
Fitzalan-H.
?-1937
Gwendolen
Mary Anne
Fitzalan-H.
1854–1932
John
Crichton-S.

Marquess
of Bute
1847–1900
r.1848–1900
Elizabeth
Mary
Fitzalan-H.
1859-1859
Etheldreda
Fitzalan-H.
1849-1926
Philippa
Fitzalan-H.
1852–1946
Edward
Stewart
1857-1948
Philip
Thomas
Fitzalan-H.
1853-1855
Hyacinthe
Scott-Kerr
1865-1930
Francis
Edward
Fitzalan-H.

Baron of
Glossop
1859–1924
Clara
Louisa
Greenwood
1852-1887
Angela
Mary
Charlotte
Fitzalan-H.
?-1919
Marmaduke
Constable-M.

Lord Herries
of Terregles
1837–1908
r.1876–1908
Anne
Fitzalan-H.
1857-1931
Ralph
Drury
Kerr
1837–1916
Margaret
Fitzalan-H.
1860-1899
George
Greaves
1889-1953
Frances
Alice
Fitzalan-H.
1892-?
Gwendolen
Constable-M.

1877–1945
Henry
Fitzalan-H.

Duke of Norfolk
1847–1917
r.1860–1917
Flora
Abney
-Hastings
1854–1887
Edmund
Vcte. FitzAlan
of Derwent
1855–1947
r.1921–1947
Mary
Bertie
1859–1938
Gladys
Norton
Philip
Granville
James
Fitzalan-H.
1895-1918
Bernard
Fitzalan-H.

Baron
of Glossop
1885–1972
Mona
Stapleton

Baroness
Beaumont
1894–1971
Muriel
Augusta
Mary
Fitzalan-H.
1884-1962
Colin
Keppel
Davidson
1895-1943
Rachel
Pepys

1905–1992
Anthony
Hilton
Pepys
Philip
Joseph
Earl of Surrey
1879–1902
Michael
Fitzalan-H.

1916-2007
Mariegold
Magdalane
Fitzalan-H.
1919-2006
Gerald
James
Jamieson
?-1992
Martin
Fitzalan-H.
1922-2003
Bridget
Anne
Keppel
1925-2011
Winifred
Alice
Fitzalan-H.
1914–2006
John
Edward
Broke
Freeman
Katherine
Mary
Fitzalan-H.
1912–2000
Joseph
Anthony
Moore
Phillips
1914-1990
Theodore
Bernard
Peregrine
Hubbard
1923-2012
Miriam
Fitzalan-H.
1924-1996
Miranda
Fitzalan-H.
1927-
Christopher
Anthony
Emmett
1925-?
Bernard
Fitzalan-H.

Duke of Norfolk
1908–1975
r.1917–1975
Lavinia
Strutt

1916–1995
Bernard
Noel
Kelly
1930-
Mirabel
Fitzalan-H.
1931-2008
Colin
Cowdrey

Baron of
Tonbridge
1932–2000
Anne
Lady Herries
of Terregles
1938–2014
r.1975–2014
Mary
Lady Herries
of Terregles
1940–2017
r.2014–2017
Anthony
Mumford
1936–2006
Anne
Constable
-Maxwell

1927–2013
Miles
Fitzalan-H.

Duke of Norfolk
1915-2002
r.1975–2002
Mark
Fitzalan-H.
1934-
Jacynth
Lindsay
1934-
Nigel
Clutton
Sarah
Margaret
Fitzalan-H.
1941–2015
Theresa
Lady Herries
of Terregles
1945-
r.2017-
Michael
Ancram

Marquess
of Lothian
1945-
Tessa Mary
Isabel
Fitzalan-H.
1950-
Roderick
Balfour
Earl of
Balfour
1948-
r.2003-
Carina
Mary
Gabrielle
Fitzalan-H.
1952-
David
Frost

1939–2013
Patrick
Ryecart

1952-
Marcia
Mary
Josephine
Fitzalan-H.

1953-
Nick
George
Edward
Fitzalan-H.

Duke of Norfolk
1956-
r.2002–
Georgina
Susan
Gore

1962-
Gerald
Bernard
Fitzalan-H.
1962-
Emma
Roberts
Henry Miles
Fitzalan
-Howard
Earl of Arundel

1987-
Rachel
Fitzalan
-Howard
1989-
Thomas
Fitzalan
-Howard
1992-
Isabel
Fitzalan
-Howard
1994-
Philip
Fitzalan
-Howard
1996-

Image[edit]

Errors :

Norfolk family tree.jpg


Below is a clickable family tree of the Howard family:


Arms of the Howard Family[edit]

See: Gallery of Howard Arms


The Howard family's original arms were the white bend on red with the crosslets. On marrying the heiress of the dukes of Norfolk, the first Howard duke of Norfolk quartered his arms with those of Thomas of Brotherton 1st Earl of Norfolk, son of King Edward I Longshanks as well as the Mowbray arms. Starting with the 2nd Duke of Norfolk, the Howards added in the 3rd quarter the checkered blue and gold of the Warren Earls of Surrey, whom they became heirs of. Philip Howard was deprived of the dukedom of Norfolk, which was under attainer, but inherited the earldom of Arundel. His descendants used the gold lion on red of the Fitzalan Earls of Arundel in the 4th quarter.

Earl Marshal is a hereditary royal officeholder and chivalric title under the sovereign of the United Kingdom used in England (then, following the Act of Union 1800, in the United Kingdom). It is the eighth of the Great Officers of State in the United Kingdom, ranking beneath the Lord High Constable and above the Lord High Admiral. The Earl Marshal has responsibility for the organisation of State funerals and the monarch's coronation in Westminster Abbey.[6] He is also a leading officer of arms. The office is hereditary in the Howard Family in their position as Dukes of Norfolk, the senior dukedom in the United Kingdom.

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • William Dugdale, Baronage of England (London, 1675–76);
  • Collins, Peerage of England (fifth edition, London, 1779);
  • Henry Howard, Memorials of the Howard Family (privately printed, 1834);
  • Edmund Lodge, Portraits of Illustrious Personages (London, 1835); The Howard Papers, with a Biographical Pedigree and Criticism by Canston (London, 1862);
  • Yeatman, The Early Genealogical History of the House of Arundel (London, 1882);
  • Doyle, Official Baronage of England (London, 1886);
  • Brenan and Statham, The House of Howard (London, 1907).

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Images of England: Arundel Castle". English Heritage. Retrieved 2 December 2007.
  2. ^ "Dugdale's 1665 Pedigree of the Howarths of Great Howarth".
  3. ^ Douglas Richardson, Plantagenet Ancestry, pg 232-33.
  4. ^ Vyhmeister (2011) p.131 "The Howard Dukes of Norfolk – Genealogical Connection Tree to Princes William and Harry Windsor"
  5. ^ Rietstap, Johannes Baptist (2003). Armorial general. vol.2. Genealogical Publishing Co. ISBN 0806348119.
  6. ^ "The history of the Royal heralds and the College of Arms". The College of Arms website. Retrieved 16 April 2009.
  7. ^ Brooke-Little, J.P., FSA (1978) [1950]. Boutell's Heraldry (Revised ed.). London: Frederick Warne LTD. p. 125. ISBN 0-7232-2096-4.

External links[edit]