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Chester Arthur Burnett
June 10, 1910
|Died||January 10, 1976 (aged 65)|
Hines, Illinois, Illinois, U.S.
|Resting place||Oakridge Cemetery, Hillside, Illinois|
|Other names||Big Foot Chester, Bull Cow, John D.|
|Awards||Rock & Roll Hall of Fame (1991)|
Chester Arthur Burnett (June 10, 1910 – January 10, 1976), better known by his stage name Howlin' Wolf, was an American blues singer and guitarist. He is regarded as one of the most influential blues musicians of all time. Over a four-decade career, he recorded in genres such as blues, rhythm and blues, rock and roll, and psychedelic rock. He also helped bridge the gap between Delta blues and Chicago blues. Born into poverty in Mississippi as one of six children, he went through a rough childhood where his mother kicked him out of her house, and he moved in with his great-uncle, who was particularly abusive. He then ran away to his father's house where he finally found a happy family, and in the early 1930s became a protégé of legendary Delta blues guitarist and singer, Charley Patton. He started a solo career in the Deep South, playing with other notable blues musicians of the era, and at the end of a decade had made a name for himself in the Mississippi Delta.
After going through some legal issues and undergoing a particularly rough experience while serving in the Army, he moved to Chicago, Illinois, in adulthood and became successful. He started his recording career in 1951 after being heard singing by then 19-year-old Ike Turner, and then formed his own band in Chicago. Five of his songs managed to get on the Billboard national R&B charts, and he also released several albums in the 1960s and 1970s, and made several television performances as well. His studio albums include The Howlin' Wolf Album (1969), Message to the Young (1971), and The London Howlin' Wolf Sessions (1971). He released his final album The Back Door Wolf in 1973, and also made his last public performance in November 1975 with fellow blues legend B.B. King. After years of severely declining health, Burnett died in 1976, and was posthumously inducted in the Blues Hall of Fame in 1980, and the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1991.
With a booming voice and imposing physical presence, he is one of the best-known Chicago blues artists. AllMusic has described him as "a primal, ferocious blues belter with a roster of classics rivaling anyone else, and a sandpaper growl of a voice that has been widely imitated". The musician and critic Cub Koda noted, "no one could match Howlin' Wolf for the singular ability to rock the house down to the foundation while simultaneously scaring its patrons out of its wits." Producer Sam Phillips recalled, "When I heard Howlin' Wolf, I said, 'This is for me. This is where the soul of man never dies.'" Several of his songs, including "Smokestack Lightnin'", "Killing Floor" and "Spoonful", have become blues and blues rock standards. "Smokestack Lightnin'" was selected for a Grammy Hall of Fame Award in 1999, and three of his songs were listed by the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in its "500 Songs That Shaped Rock and Roll". In 2011, Rolling Stone magazine ranked him number 54 on its list of the "100 Greatest Artists of All Time".
Chester Arthur Burnett was born on June 10, 1910, in White Station, Mississippi, to Gertrude Jones and Leon "Dock" Burnett. He would later say that his father was "Ethiopian", while Jones had Choctaw ancestry on her father's side. He was named for Chester A. Arthur, the 21st President of the United States. His physique garnered him the nicknames "Big Foot Chester" and "Bull Cow" as a young man: he was 6 feet 3 inches (191 cm) tall and often weighed close to 300 pounds (136 kg). The name "Howlin' Wolf" originated from Burnett's maternal grandfather, John Jones, who would admonish him for killing his grandmother's chicks from reckless squeezing by warning him that wolves in the area would come and get him; the family would continue this by calling Burnett "the Wolf". The blues historian Paul Oliver wrote that Burnett once claimed to have been given his nickname by his idol Jimmie Rodgers.
Burnett's parents separated when he was a year old. Dock, who had worked seasonally as a farm laborer in the Mississippi Delta, moved there permanently while Jones and Burnett moved to Monroe County. Jones and Burnett would sing together in the choir of the Life Boat Baptist Church near Gibson, Mississippi, and Burnett would later claim that he got his musical talent from her. Jones kicked Burnett out of the house during the winter when he was a child for unknown reasons.[a] He then moved in with his great-uncle Will Young, who had a large household and treated him badly. While in the Young household he worked almost all day and did not receive an education at the school house. When he was thirteen, he killed one of Young's hogs in a rage after the hog had caused him to ruin his dress clothes; this enraged Young who then whipped him while chasing him on a mule. He then ran away and claimed to have walked 85 miles (137 km) barefoot to join his father, where he finally found a happy home with his father's large family. During this era he went by the name "John D." to dissociate himself from his past, a name by which several of his relatives would know him for the rest of his life. At the peak of his success, he returned from Chicago to see his mother in Mississippi and was driven to tears when she rebuffed him: she refused to take money offered by him, saying it was from his playing the "devil's music".
On January 15, 1928, at the age of 17, Burnett finally gathered enough money to buy his first guitar. It was the date that Burnett reportedly never forgot until "the day he died".
1930s and 1940s
In 1930, Burnett met Charley Patton, the most popular bluesman in the Mississippi Delta at the time. He would listen to Patton play nightly from outside a nearby juke joint. There he remembered Patton playing "Pony Blues", "High Water Everywhere", "A Spoonful Blues", and "Banty Rooster Blues". The two became acquainted, and soon Patton was teaching him guitar. Burnett recalled that "the first piece I ever played in my life was ... a tune about hook up my pony and saddle up my black mare"—Patton's "Pony Blues". He also learned about showmanship from Patton: "When he played his guitar, he would turn it over backwards and forwards, and throw it around over his shoulders, between his legs, throw it up in the sky". Burnett would perform the guitar tricks he learned from Patton for the rest of his life. He played with Patton often in small Delta communities.
Burnett was influenced by other popular blues performers of the time, including the Mississippi Sheiks, Blind Lemon Jefferson, Ma Rainey, Lonnie Johnson, Tampa Red, Blind Blake, and Tommy Johnson. Two of the earliest songs he mastered were Jefferson's "Match Box Blues" and Leroy Carr's "How Long, How Long Blues". The country singer Jimmie Rodgers was also an influence. Burnett tried to emulate Rodgers's "blue yodel" but found that his efforts sounded more like a growl or a howl: "I couldn't do no yodelin', so I turned to howlin'. And it's done me just fine". His harmonica playing was modeled after that of Sonny Boy Williamson II, who taught him how to play when Burnett moved to Parkin, Arkansas, in 1933.
During the 1930s, Burnett performed in the South as a solo performer and with numerous blues musicians, including Floyd Jones, Johnny Shines, Honeyboy Edwards, Sonny Boy Williamson II, Robert Johnson, Robert Lockwood, Jr., Willie Brown, Son House and Willie Johnson. By the end of the decade, he was a fixture in clubs, with a harmonica and an early electric guitar. It was around this time that Burnett got into some legal trouble in Hughes, Arkansas: While he was in town, he tried to protect a female acquaintance from an angry boyfriend, and the two men fought, with Burnett killing the man with a hoe. What happened after this is a matter of dispute; Burnett either fled the area, or did some jail time.
On April 9, 1941, he was inducted into the U.S. Army and was stationed at several bases around the country. Years later, he stated that the plantation workers in the Delta had alerted military authorities because he refused to work in the fields. He was assigned to the 9th Cavalry Regiment, which was famous for being one of the unit's dubbed "Buffalo Soldiers". Burnett was first sent to Pine Bluff, Arkansas for basic training, and was given long hours performing menial work. Then after that, he was transferred to Camp Blanding, located in Jacksonville, Florida, where he was assigned to the kitchen patrol. In the day time, he would cook food for the enlisted soldiers, and at night he would play the guitar in the assembly room. Burnett was later sent to Fort Gordon, located in Georgia, and he would play his guitar on the steps of the mess hall, which is where a young James Brown, who came to the Fort nearly every day to earn money shining shoes and performing buck dances for the troops, first heard him play.
Burnett was then sent to a tutoring camp in Tacoma, Washington, where he was in charge of decoding communications. Because Burnett was functionally illiterate, having never received formal education, he was repeatedly beaten by the drill instructor for reading and spelling errors. Soon, Burnett began having uncontrollable shaking fits, dizzy spells, fainting, and also began experiencing mental confusion.
Burnett participated in the Louisiana Maneuvers in 1941, where one of the earliest photographs of him was taken of him cleaning the frog of a horse's hoof. In 1943, He was evaluated at an Army mental hospital. In November 1943, Burnett was found unfit for duty and given an honorable discharge on November 3. Recalling his experiences in the Army years later, Burnett stated, "The Army ain’t no place for a black man," Jus’ couldn't take all that bossin’ around, I guess. The Wolf's his own boss."
He returned to his family, which had recently moved near West Memphis, Arkansas, and helped with the farming while also performing, as he had done in the 1930s, with Floyd Jones and others. In 1948 he formed a band, which included the guitarists Willie Johnson and Matt "Guitar" Murphy, the harmonica player Junior Parker, a pianist remembered only as "Destruction" and the drummer Willie Steele. Radio station KWEM in West Memphis began broadcasting his live performances, and he occasionally sat in with Williamson on KFFA in Helena, Arkansas.
First recordings and initial success
In 1951, Ike Turner, who was a freelance talent scout, heard Howlin' Wolf in West Memphis. Turner brought him to record several songs for Sam Phillips at Memphis Recording Service (later renamed Sun Studio) and the Bihari brothers at Modern Records. Phillips praised his singing, saying, "God, what it would be worth on film to see the fervour in that man's face when he sang. His eyes would light up, you'd see the veins come out on his neck and, buddy, there was nothing on his mind but that song. He sang with his damn soul." Howlin' Wolf quickly became a local celebrity and began working with a band that included the guitarists Willie Johnson and Pat Hare. Sun Records had not yet been formed, so Phillips licensed his recording to Chess Records. Howlin' Wolf's first singles were issued by two different record companies in 1951: "Moanin' at Midnight"/"How Many More Years" released on Chess, "Riding in the Moonlight"/"Morning at Midnight," and "Passing By Blues"/"Crying at Daybreak" released on Modern's subsidiary RPM Records. In December 1951, Leonard Chess was able to secure Howlin' Wolf's contract, and at the urging of Chess, he relocated to Chicago in late 1952.
In Chicago, Howlin' Wolf assembled a new band and recruited the Chicagoan Jody Williams from Memphis Slim's band as his first guitarist. Within a year he had persuaded the guitarist Hubert Sumlin to leave Memphis and join him in Chicago; Sumlin's understated solos and surprisingly subtle phrasing perfectly complemented Burnett's huge voice. The lineup of the Howlin' Wolf band changed often over the years. He employed many different guitarists, both on recordings and in live performance, including Willie Johnson, Jody Williams, Lee Cooper, L.D. McGhee, Otis "Big Smokey" Smothers, his brother Little Smokey Smothers, Jimmy Rogers, Freddie Robinson, and Buddy Guy, among others. Burnett was able to attract some of the best musicians available because of his policy, unusual among bandleaders, of paying his musicians well and on time, even including unemployment insurance and Social Security contributions. With the exception of a couple of brief absences in the late 1950s, Sumlin remained a member of the band for the rest of Howlin' Wolf's career and is the guitarist most often associated with the Chicago Howlin' Wolf sound.
Howlin' Wolf had a series of hits with songs written by Willie Dixon, who had been hired by the Chess brothers in 1950 as a songwriter, and during that period the competition between Muddy Waters and Howlin' Wolf was intense. Dixon reported "Every once in a while Wolf would mention the fact that, 'Hey man, you wrote that song for Muddy. How come you won't write me one like that?' But when you'd write for him he wouldn't like it." So, Dixon decided to use reverse psychology on him, by introducing the songs to Wolf as written for Muddy, thus inducing Wolf to accept them.
In the 1950s, Howlin' Wolf had five songs on the Billboard national R&B charts: "Moanin' at Midnight", "How Many More Years", "Who Will Be Next", "Smokestack Lightning", and "I Asked for Water (She Gave Me Gasoline)". His first LP, Moanin' in the Moonlight, was released in 1959. As was standard practice in that era, it was a collection of previously released singles.
1960s and 1970s
Album releases and European tours
In the early 1960s, Howlin' Wolf recorded several songs that became his most famous, despite receiving no radio play: "Wang Dang Doodle", "Back Door Man", "Spoonful", "The Red Rooster" (later known as "Little Red Rooster"), "I Ain't Superstitious", "Goin' Down Slow", and "Killing Floor", many of which were written by Willie Dixon. Several became part of the repertoires of British and American rock groups, who further popularized them. Howlin' Wolf's second compilation album, Howlin' Wolf (often called "the rocking chair album", from its cover illustration), was released in 1962.
During the blues revival in the 1950s and 1960s, black blues musicians found a new audience among white youths, and Howlin' Wolf was among the first to capitalize on it. He toured Europe in 1964 as part of the American Folk Blues Festival, produced by the German promoters Horst Lippmann and Fritz Rau. In 1965, he appeared on the popular television program Shindig! at the insistence of the Rolling Stones, whose recording of "Little Red Rooster" had reached number one in the UK in 1964. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, Howlin' Wolf recorded albums with others, including The Super Super Blues Band, with Bo Diddley and Muddy Waters; The Howlin' Wolf Album, with psychedelic rock and free-jazz musicians like Gene Barge, Pete Cosey, Roland Faulkner, Morris Jennings, Louis Satterfield, Charles Stepney and Phil Upchurch; and The London Howlin' Wolf Sessions, accompanied by the British rock musicians Eric Clapton, Steve Winwood, Ian Stewart, Bill Wyman, Charlie Watts and others.
The Howlin' Wolf Album, like rival bluesman Muddy Waters's album Electric Mud, was designed to appeal to the hippie audience. The album had an attention-getting cover: large black letters on a white background proclaiming "This is Howlin' Wolf's new album. He doesn't like it. He didn't like his electric guitar at first either." The album cover may have contributed to its poor sales. Chess co-founder Leonard Chess admitted that the cover was a bad idea, saying, "I guess negativity isn't a good way to sell records. Who wants to hear that a musician doesn't like his own music?"
The London Howlin' Wolf Sessions, like Muddy Waters's London album, proved more successful with British audiences than American.
Wolf's last album was 1973's The Back Door Wolf. Entirely composed of new material, it was recorded with musicians who regularly backed him on stage, including Hubert Sumlin, Detroit Junior, Andrew "Blueblood" McMahon, Chico Chism, Lafayette "Shorty" Gilbert and the bandleader Eddie Shaw. The album is shorter (a little more than 35 minutes) than any other he recorded, as a result of his declining health.
Wolf's last public performance was in November 1975 at the International Amphitheatre, located in Chicago. He shared the bill with B.B. King, Albert King, Luther Allison, and O.V. Wright. Wolf reportedly gave an "unforgettable" performance, even crawling across the stage during the song, "Crawling King Snake." The crowd gave him a five-minute standing ovation. When he got off the stage after the concert was over, a team of paramedics had to revive him.
Wolf is among the most influential blues musicians of the postwar years. He was at the forefront of transforming the rural acoustic blues of the South, to the electric, more urban blues of Chicago. When Wolf first formed his band in West Memphis, Arkansas, his sound was much more aggressive, with guitarist Willie Johnson's raucous, distorted guitar playing being the signature sound of his early recordings. When Wolf switched guitarists and added Hubert Sumlin to his lineup, his sound became less aggressive with Sumlin adding "angular riffing" and "wild soloing". He also adopted the backbeat that Chicago blues was mainly known for.
Although Sumlin was the main guitar player in Wolf's band, Wolf played a number of guitars himself throughout the years. He played a 1965 Epiphone Casino on his musical tour in Europe, a Fender Coronado, a Gibson Firebird V in the "Down in the Bottom" video recorded in 1966, a white Fender Stratocaster, a Teisco Tre-100, and he also played a Kay K-161 ThinTwin in his earlier years. The Kay K-161 ThinTwin is currently residing in the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame located in Cleveland, Ohio.
Burnett was noted for his disciplined approach to his personal finances. Having already achieved a measure of success in Memphis, he described himself as "the onliest one to drive himself up from the Delta" to Chicago, which he did, in his own car on the Blues Highway and with $4,000 in his pocket, a rare distinction for a black bluesman of the time. Although functionally illiterate into his forties, Burnett eventually returned to school, first to earn a General Educational Development (GED) diploma and later to study accounting and other business courses to help manage his career.
Burnett met his future wife, Lillie Handley (1925–2001), when she attended one of his performances at a Chicago club. She and her family were urban and educated and were not involved in what was considered the unsavory world of blues musicians. Nevertheless, he was attracted to her as soon as he saw her in the audience. He immediately pursued her and won her over. According to those who knew them, the couple remained deeply in love until his death. Together, they raised two daughters Betty and Barbara, Lillie's daughters from an earlier relationship. West Coast rapper Skeme is his great nephew, who was born 14 years after his death.
After he married Lillie, who was able to manage his professional finances, Burnett was so financially successful that he was able to offer band members not only a decent salary but benefits such as health insurance; this enabled him to hire his pick of available musicians and keep his band one of the best around. According to his stepdaughters, he was never financially extravagant (for instance, he drove a Pontiac station wagon rather than a more expensive, flashy car).
Burnett's health began declining in the late 1960s. He suffered his first heart attack in 1969 as he and Hubert Sumlin were traveling to a show at University of Chicago. He fell against the dashboard of the car he was riding in, and Sumlin, who was driving, pulled over and grabbed a two-by-four piece of wood that was lying in the road. Sumlin then rammed the wood into Burnett's back, which kick-started his heart. Three weeks later, while he was in Toronto for a gig, Burnett suffered additional heart and kidney problems, but refused an operation recommended by doctors, telling his wife that "he needed to keep working".
In 1970, Burnett was involved in a serious car accident that sent him flying through the windshield, which caused extensive damage to his kidneys. For the rest of his life, he received dialysis treatments every three days, which was administered by his wife Lillie. In May that same year, while he was in the United Kingdom to record "The London Howlin' Wolf Sessions", his health problems worsened. A year later, Burnett suffered another heart attack, and his kidneys had failed. He also began suffering from high blood pressure as well. By May 1973, Burnett was back performing again. The bandleader, Eddie Shaw, was so concerned for Burnett's health that he limited him to performing six songs per concert.
In January 1976, Burnett checked into the Edward Hines Jr. Veterans Administration Hospital in Hines, Illinois, for kidney surgery. Three days before his death, a carcinoma was found in his brain. He died from a combination of the tumor, heart failure, and kidney disease on January 10, 1976, at the age of 65. He was buried in Oakridge Cemetery, outside Chicago, in a plot in Section 18, on the east side of the road. His gravestone has an image of a guitar and harmonica etched into it.
In 1980, Burnett was posthumously inducted into the Blues Foundation's Blues Hall of Fame. He was also inducted into the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame as an early influence, and the Hall of Fame located in his hometown of West Point, Mississippi, in 1995.
On September 17, 1994, the U.S. Postal Service issued a 29-cent commemorative postage stamp depicting Howlin' Wolf.
On September 1, 2005, the Howlin' Wolf Blues Museum opened in West Point, Mississippi. The museum is located at 57 E. Westbrook Street, and an annual festival is held there.
Howlin' Wolf Foundation
The Howlin' Wolf Foundation, a nonprofit corporation organized under the US tax code, section 501(c)(3), was established by Bettye Kelly to preserve and extend Howlin' Wolf's legacy. The foundation's mission and goals include the preservation of the blues music genre, scholarships to enable students to participate in music programs, and support for blues musicians and blues programs.
Awards and nominations
Grammy Hall of Fame
A Howlin' Wolf recording of "Smokestack Lightning" was selected for a Grammy Hall of Fame Award, an award established in 1973 to honor recordings that are at least 25 years old and have "qualitative or historical significance".
|Howlin' Wolf Grammy Award history|
|1956||"Smokestack Lightning"||Blues (Single)||Chess||1999|
Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
|1961||"The Red Rooster"|
The Blues Foundation Awards
|Howlin' Wolf: Blues Music Awards|
|2004||Historical Blues Album of the Year||The London Howlin' Wolf Sessions||Nominated|
|1995||Reissue Album of the Year||Ain't Gonna Be Your Dog||Nominated|
|1992||Vintage or Reissue Blues Album—US or Foreign||The Chess Box—Howlin' Wolf||Winner|
|1990||Vintage/Reissue (Foreign)||Memphis Days||Nominated|
|1989||Vintage/Reissue Album (US)||Cadillac Daddy||Nominated|
|1988||Vintage/Reissue Album (Foreign)||Killing Floor: Masterworks Vol. 5||Winner|
|1987||Vintage/Reissue Album (US)||Moanin' in the Moonlight||Winner|
|1981||Vintage or Reissue Album (Foreign)||More Real Folk Blues||Nominated|
|Howlin' Wolf inductions|
|2020||Blues Hall of Fame||Classic of Blues Recording: Album||The Chess Box—Howlin' Wolf|
|2012||Memphis Music Hall of Fame||Musicians||Inaugural class|
|2003||Mississippi Musicians Hall of Fame||Blues|
|1991||Rock and Roll Hall of Fame||Early influences|
|1980||Blues Hall of Fame||Musicians|
- 1959: Moanin' in the Moonlight (Chess) 1951–1958 recordings
- 1962: Howlin' Wolf (Chess) 1957–1962 recordings
- 1962: Howling Wolf Sings the Blues (Crown) 1951–1952 recordings
- 1965: The Real Folk Blues (Chess) 1956–1965 recordings
- 1967: More Real Folk Blues (Chess) 1953–1956 recordings
- 1968: The Super Super Blues Band (Chess) with Muddy Waters and Bo Diddley
- 1969: The Howlin' Wolf Album (Cadet Concept)
- 1971: Message to the Young (Chess)
- 1971: The London Howlin' Wolf Sessions (Chess)
- 1972: Chester Burnett a/k/a/ Howlin' Wolf (Chess) 1951–1965 recordings
- 1972: Live and Cookin' (Chess)
- 1973: The Back Door Wolf (Chess)
- 1974: London Revisited (Chess) split album with Muddy Waters
- 1975: Change My Way (Chess) 1958–1966 recordings
- 1977: The Legendary Sun Performers (Charly)
- 1979: Heart Like Railroad Steel (Memphis & Chicago Blues 1951–57) (Blues Ball)
- 1979: Can't Put Me Out (Chicago 1956–72, Volume II) (Blues Ball)
- 1984: Muddy & the Wolf (Chess) split album with Muddy Waters
- 1984: His Greatest Sides, Volume One (Chess)
- 1991: Howlin' Wolf – The Chess Box (Chess)
- 1991: Howlin' Wolf Rides Again (Flair/Virgin)
- 1994: Ain't Gonna Be Your Dog: Chess Collectibles, Vol. 2 (Chess)
- 1997: His Best (Chess); reissued as The Definitive Collection (Geffen)
|Year||Titles (A-side, B-side)
Both sides from same album except where indicated
|Label & Cat No.||US R&B||Album|
|1951||"How Many More Years"||Chess 1479||4||Moanin' in the Moonlight|
|"Moanin' at Midnight"||10|
|"Riding in the Moonlight"
b/w "Morning at Midnight"
|RPM 333||—||Howling Wolf Sings the Blues|
|"Passing By Blues"
b/w "Crying at Daybreak" (from Howling Wolf Sings the Blues)
|RPM 340||—||Non-album tracks|
|1952||"The Wolf Is at Your Door"
b/w "Howlin' Wolf Boogie"
|"My Baby Stole Off"
b/w "I Want Your Picture"
|"Gettin' Old and Grey"
b/w "Mr. Highway Man"
|"Saddle My Pony"
b/w "Worried All the Time"
b/w "My Last Affair"
|"All Night Boogie"
b/w "I Love My Baby" (from More Real Folk Blues)
|Chess 1557||—||Moanin' in the Moonlight|
|1954||"No Place to Go"
b/w "Rockin' Daddy" (from More Real Folk Blues)
|"Baby How Long"
b/w "Evil Is Goin' On"
|"I'll Be Around"
b/w "Forty Four" (from Moanin' in the Moonlight)
|Chess 1584||—||More Real Folk Blues|
|1955||"Who Will Be Next"
b/w "I Have a Little Girl"
|"Come to Me Baby"
b/w "Don't Mess with My Baby"
|Chess 1607||—||Non-album tracks|
b/w "You Can't Be Beat" (from More Real Folk Blues)
|Chess 1618||8||Moanin' in the Moonlight|
|"I Asked for Water"
b/w "So Glad" (non-album track)
|1957||"Going Back Home"
b/w "My Life"
|Chess 1648||—||Non-album tracks|
|"Somebody in My Home"
b/w "Nature" (from The Real Folk Blues)
|Chess 1668||—||Moanin' in the Moonlight|
|1958||"Sitting on Top of the World"
b/w "Poor Boy"
|Chess 1679||—||The Real Folk Blues|
|"I Didn't Know"
b/w "Moanin' for My Baby" (from Moanin' in the Moonlight)
|Chess 1695||—||Change My Way|
|"I'm Leaving You"
b/w "Change My Way" (from Change My Way)
|Chess 1712||—||Moanin' in the Moonlight|
|1959||"I Better Go Now"
b/w "Howlin' Blues"
|Chess 1726||—||Change My Way|
|"I've Been Abused"
b/w "Mr. Airplane Man"
|"The Natchez Burning"
b/w "You Gonna Wreck My Life" (from More Real Folk Blues)
|Chess 1744||—||The Real Folk Blues|
b/w "Who's Been Talking"
|Chess 1750||—||Howlin' Wolf|
b/w "Howlin' for My Darling"
b/w "Back Door Man"
|"Down in the Bottom"
b/w "Little Baby"
|"The Red Rooster"
b/w "Shake for Me"
|1962||"You'll Be Mine"
b/w "Goin' Down Slow"
|"I Ain't Superstitious"
b/w "Just Like I Treat You"
|Chess 1823||—||Change My Way|
b/w "Do the Do" (from Change My Way)
|Chess 1844||—||Non-album track|
|1963||"Three Hundred Pounds of Joy"
b/w "Built for Comfort"
|Chess 1870||—||The Real Folk Blues|
b/w "Tail Dragger" (from The Real Folk Blues)
|Chess 1890||—||Change My Way|
|"My Country Sugar Mama"
b/w "Love Me Darling" (from Change My Way)
|Chess 1911||—||The Real Folk Blues|
b/w "Killing Floor"
|"Tell Me What I've Done"
b/w "Ooh Baby"
|"Don't Laugh at Me"
b/w "I Walked from Dallas"
|Chess 1945||—||Change My Way|
|1966||"New Crawling King Snake"
b/w "My Mind Is Ramblin'"
|1967||"Pop It to Me"
b/w "I Had a Dream"
|Chess 2009||—||Non-album tracks|
b/w "Tail Dragger"
|Cadet Concept 7013||43||The Howlin' Wolf Album|
b/w "Hard Luck"
|Chess 2081||—||Non-album tracks|
|1971||"I Smell a Rat"
b/w "Just As Long"
|Chess 2108||—||Message to the Young|
|1973||"Coon on the Moon"
b/w "The Back Door Wolf"
|Chess 2145||—||The Back Door Wolf|
|Baby Ride with Me||Early 1951||Memphis Recording Service||Memphis, TN||Audition session|
|Ridin' in the Moonlight||Early 1951||Memphis Recording Service||Memphis, TN||Audition session|
|Baby Ride with Me (Ridin' in the Moonlight)||1951-14-05||Memphis Recording Service||Memphis, TN|
|How Many More Years||1951-14-05||Memphis Recording Service||Memphis, TN|
|How Many More Years||1951-00-07||Memphis Recording Service||Memphis, TN||Chess 1479|
|Moanin' at Midnight||1951-00-07||Memphis Recording Service||Memphis, TN||Chess 1479|
|Baby Ride with Me (Ridin' in the Moonlight)||1951-00-09||KWEM||West Memphis, AR||RPM 333|
|Dog Me Around||1951-00-09||KWEM||West Memphis, AR|
|Morning at Midnight||1951-00-09||KWEM||West Memphis, AR||RPM 333|
|Keep What You Got||1951-00-09||KWEM||West Memphis, AR|
|Passing By Blues||1951-10-02||Private home||West Memphis, AR||RPM 340|
|Crying at Daybreak||1951-10-02||Private home||West Memphis, AR||RPM 340|
|My Baby Stole Off||1951-10-02||Private home||West Memphis, AR||RPM 347|
|I Want Your Picture||1951-10-02||Private home||West Memphis, AR||RPM 347|
|Howlin' Wolf Boogie||1951-12-18||Memphis Recording Service||Memphis, TN||Chess 1497|
|California Blues #1||1951-12-18||Memphis Recording Service||Memphis, TN|
|California Boogie||1951-12-18||Memphis Recording Service||Memphis, TN|
|Look-a-Here Baby||1951-12-18||Memphis Recording Service||Memphis, TN|
|The Wolf Is at Your Door (Howlin' for My Baby)||1951-12-18||Memphis Recording Service||Memphis, TN||Chess 1497|
|Smile at Me||1951-12-18||Memphis Recording Service||Memphis, TN|
|Worried All the Time||1951-12-18||Memphis Recording Service||Memphis, TN||Chess 1515|
|Mr. Highway Man (Cadillac Daddy)||1952-01-23||Memphis Recording Service||Memphis, TN||Chess 1510|
|My Troubles and Me||1952-01-23||Memphis Recording Service||Memphis, TN|
|Getting Old and Grey||1952-01-23||Memphis Recording Service||Memphis, TN||Chess 1510|
|My Baby Walked Off||1952-01-23||Memphis Recording Service||Memphis, TN|
|Chocolate Drop||1952-01-23||Memphis Recording Service||Memphis, TN|
|House Rockin' Boogie||1952-02-12||Private home||West Memphis, AR|
|Brown Skin Woman||1952-02-12||Private home||West Memphis, AR|
|Worried About My Baby||1952-02-12||Private home||West Memphis, AR|
|Driving This Highway||1952-02-12||Private home||West Memphis, AR|
|The Sun Is Rising||1952-02-12||Private home||West Memphis, AR|
|My Friends||1952-02-12||Private home||West Memphis, AR|
|I'm the Wolf||1952-02-12||Private home||West Memphis, AR|
|Passing the Blues||1952-02-12||Private home||West Memphis, AR|
|Everybody's in the Mood (All in the Mood)||1952-04-17||Memphis Recording Service||Memphis, TN|
|Color and Kind||1952-04-17||Memphis Recording Service||Memphis, TN|
|Bluebird||1952-04-17||Memphis Recording Service||Memphis, TN|
|Saddle My Pony||1952-04-17||Memphis Recording Service||Memphis, TN||Chess 1515|
|Dorothy Mae||1952-04-17||Memphis Recording Service||Memphis, TN|
|Sweet Woman (I've Got a Woman)||1952-04-17||Memphis Recording Service||Memphis, TN|
|(Well) That's All Right||1952-04-17||Memphis Recording Service||Memphis, TN|
|Decoration Day||1952-04-17||Memphis Recording Service||Memphis, TN|
|Oh Red||1952-10-07||Memphis Recording Service||Memphis, TN||Chess 1528|
|My Last Affair||1952-10-07||Memphis Recording Service||Memphis, TN||Chess 1528|
|Come Back Home||1952-10-07||Memphis Recording Service||Memphis, TN|
|Drinkin' C.V. Wine Blues||1952-10-07||Memphis Recording Service||Memphis, TN|
|I've Got a Woman||1953||Memphis Recording Service||Memphis, TN||Mastered on 1953-09-24|
|Just My Kind||1953||Memphis Recording Service||Memphis, TN||Mastered on 1953-09-24|
|Work for Your Money||1953||Memphis Recording Service||Memphis, TN||Mastered on 1953-09-24|
|I'm Not Joking||1953||Memphis Recording Service||Memphis, TN||Mastered on 1953-09-24|
|Mama Died and Left Me||1953||Memphis Recording Service||Memphis, TN||Mastered on 1953-09-24|
|Highway My Friend||1953||Memphis Recording Service||Memphis, TN||Mastered on 1953-10-28|
|Hold Your Money||1953||Memphis Recording Service||Memphis, TN||Mastered on 1953-10-28|
|Streamline Woman||1953||Memphis Recording Service||Memphis, TN||Mastered on 1953-10-28|
|California Blues #2||1953||Memphis Recording Service||Memphis, TN||Mastered on 1953-10-28|
|Stay Here Till My Baby Comes Back||1953||Memphis Recording Service||Memphis, TN||Mastered on 1953-10-28|
|Crazy About You Baby||1953||Memphis Recording Service||Memphis, TN||Mastered on 1953-10-28|
|All Night Boogie||1953||Memphis Recording Service||Memphis, TN||Mastered on 1953-10-28; Chess 1557|
|I Love My Baby||1953||Memphis Recording Service||Memphis, TN||Mastered on 1953-10-28; Chess 1557|
|No Place to Go||1954-03||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 1566|
|You Gonna Wreck My Life||1954-03||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 1744|
|Neighbors||1954-03||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|I'm the Wolf||1954-03||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|Rockin' Daddy||1954-03||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 1566|
|Baby How Long||1954-05-25||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 1575|
|Evil||1954-05-25||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 1575|
|I'll Be Around||1954-10||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 1584|
|Forty Four||1954-10||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 1584|
|Who Will Be Next||1955-03||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 1593|
|I Have a Little Girl||1955-03||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 1593|
|Come to Me Baby||1955-03||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 1607|
|Don't Mess with My Baby||1955-03||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 1607|
|Smokestack Lightning||1956-01||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 1618|
|You Can't Be Beat||1956-01||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 1618|
|I Asked for Water||1956-07-19||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 1632|
|So Glad||1956-07-19||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 1632|
|Break of Day||1956-07-19||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|The Natchez Burnin'||1956-07-19||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 1744|
|Going Back Home||1956-12||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 1648|
|Bluebird||1956-12||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|My Life||1956-12||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 1648|
|You Ought to Know||1956-12||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|Who's Been Talking?||1957-06-24||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 1750|
|Tell Me||1957-06-24||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 1750|
|Somebody in My Home||1957-06-24||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 1668|
|Nature||1957-06-24||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 1668|
|Walk to Camp Hall||1957-12||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|Poor Boy||1957-12||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 1679|
|My Baby Told Me||1957-12||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|Sittin' on Top of the World||1957-12||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 1679|
|I Didn't Know||1958-03||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|Howlin' Blues (I'm Going Away)||1958-03||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 1726|
|I Better Go Now||1958-03||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 1726|
|I Didn't Know (rerecorded)||1958-04-03||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 1695|
|Moaning for My Baby||1958-04-03||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 1695|
|Midnight Blues||1958-04-03||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|I'm Leavin' You||1958-09||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 1712|
|You Can't Put Me Out||1958-09||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|Change My Way||1958-09||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 1712|
|Getting Late||1958-09||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|I've Been Abused||1959-07||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 1735|
|Howlin' for My Darling||1959-07||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 1762|
|My People's Gone||1959-07||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|Mr. Airplane Man||1959-07||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 1735|
|Wolf in the Mood||1959-07||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|Wang Dang Doodle||1960-06||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 1777|
|Back Door Man||1960-06||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 1777|
|Spoonful||1960-06||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 1762|
|Down in the Bottom||1961-05||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 1793|
|Little Baby||1961-05||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 1793|
|Shake for Me||1961-06||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 1804|
|The Red Rooster||1961-06||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 1804|
|You'll Be Mine||1961-12||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 1813|
|Just Like I Treat You||1961-12||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 1823|
|I Ain't Superstitious||1961-12||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 1823|
|Goin' Down Slow||1961-12||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 1813|
|Mama's Baby||1962-09-27,28||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 1844|
|Do the Do||1962-09-27,28||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 1844|
|Tail Dragger||1962-09-27,28||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 1890|
|Long Green Stuff||1962-09-27,28||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|Hidden Charms||1963-08-14||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 1890|
|Three Hundred Pounds of Joy||1963-08-14||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 1870|
|Joy to My Soul||1963-08-14||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|Built for Comfort||1963-08-14||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 1870|
|Love Me Darlin'||1964-08||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 1911|
|Killing Floor||1964-08||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 1923|
|My Country Sugar Mama||1964-08||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 1911|
|Louise||1964-08||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 1923|
|I Walked from Dallas||1965-04-15||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 1945|
|Tell Me What I've Done||1965-04-15||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 1928|
|Don't Laugh at Me||1965-04-15||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 1945|
|Ooh Baby||1965-04-15||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 1928|
|Poor Wind That Never Change||1966-04-11||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|New Crawlin' King Snake||1966-04-11||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 1968|
|My Mind Is Ramblin'||1966-04-11||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 1968|
|Commit a Crime||1966-04-11||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|Pop It to Me||1967-06||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 2009|
|I Had a Dream||1967-06||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 2009|
|Dust My Broom||1967-06||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|Long Distance Call||1967-09||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|Ooh Baby/Wrecking My Love Life||1967-09||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|Sweet Little Angel||1967-09||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|Spoonful||1967-09||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|Diddley Daddy||1967-09||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|The Red Rooster||1967-09||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|Goin' Down Slow||1967-09||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|Spoonful||1968-11||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|Tail Dragger||1968-11||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|Smokestack Lightnin'||1968-11||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|Moanin' at Midnight||1968-11||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|Built for Comfort||1968-11||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|The Red Rooster||1968-11||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|Evil||1968-11||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|Down in the Bottom||1968-11||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|Three Hundred Pounds of Joy||1968-11||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|Back Door Man||1968-11||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|I'm the Wolf||1968-11||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|Rollin' and Tumblin'||1968-11||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|Howlin Wolf interview||1968-11||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|I Ain't Gonna Be Your Dog No More||1968-11||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|Woke Up This Morning||1968-11||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|Ain't Going Down That Dirt Road||1968-11||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|Mary Sue||1969-07-14||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 2081|
|Hard Luck||1969-07-14||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL||Chess 2081|
|The Big House||1969-07-14||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|Tired of Crying||1969-07-14||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|I Want to Have a Word with You||1970-05-02 through 07||Olympic Studios||London|
|Goin' Down Slow||1970-05-02 through 07||Olympic Studios||London|
|I Ain't Superstitious||1970-05-02 through 07||Olympic Studios||London|
|Rockin' Daddy||1970-05-02 through 07||Olympic Studios||London|
|Poor Boy||1970-05-02 through 07||Olympic Studios||London|
|Wang Dang Doodle||1970-05-02 through 07||Olympic Studios||London|
|Sittin' on Top of the World||1970-05-02 through 07||Olympic Studios||London|
|Do the Do||1970-05-02 through 07||Olympic Studios||London|
|Highway 49||1970-05-02 through 07||Olympic Studios||London|
|Commit a Crime||1970-05-02 through 07||Olympic Studios||London|
|Worried About My Baby||1970-05-02 through 07||Olympic Studios||London|
|Built for Comfort||1970-05-02 through 07||Olympic Studios||London|
|Who's Been Talking?||1970-05-02 through 07||Olympic Studios||London|
|The Red Rooster||1970-05-02 through 07||Olympic Studios||London|
|Killing Floor||1970-05-02 through 07||Olympic Studios||London|
|If I Were a Bird||1971-10||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|Message||1971-10||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|I Smell a Rat||1971-10||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|Miss James||1971-10||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|Message to the Young||1971-10||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|She's Looking Good||1971-10||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|Just As Long||1971-10||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|Romance Without Finance||1971-10||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|Turn Me On||1971-10||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|Moving||1973-08-14,17||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|Coon on the Moon||1973-08-14,17||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|Speak Now Woman||1973-08-14,17||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|Trying to Forget You||1973-08-14,17||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|Stop Using Me||1973-08-14,17||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|Leave Here Walking||1973-08-14,17||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|The Back Door Wolf||1973-08-14,17||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|You Turn Slick on Me||1973-08-14,17||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|Watergate Blues||1973-08-14,17||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
|Can't Stay Here||1973-08-14,17||Chess Studios||Chicago, IL|
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- Segrest & Hoffman 2004, p. 5
- Oliver 1969, p. 150.
- Segrest & Hoffman 2004, p. 6
- Segrest & Hoffman 2004, pp. 6–7
- Segrest & Hoffman 2004, p. 8
- Segrest & Hoffman 2004, p. 11
- Segrest & Hoffman 2004, pp. 11–12
- Segrest & Hoffman 2004, p. 15
- Mitchell, Ed (June 10, 2010). "The life and times of Howlin' Wolf". MusicRadar. Retrieved September 8, 2022.
- Segrest & Hoffman 2004, p. 19.
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- Gifford, Barry (1968). "Couldn't Do No Yodeling, So I Turned to Howlin'." Rolling Stone, August 24, 1968.
- Malone, Bill C. (February 1, 2014). The New Encyclopedia of Southern Culture: Volume 12: Music. UNC Press Books. p. 194. ISBN 978-1-4696-1666-7.
- Welky, Ali; Keckhaver, Mike (2013). Encyclopedia of Arkansas Music. University of Arkansas Press. p. 112. ISBN 978-1-935106-60-9.
- Lamplugh, George (April 2018). "Howlin' Wolf, 1910-1976: His Life, His Times, His Blues". Retired But Not Shy. Retrieved September 9, 2022.
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- Nash, JD (June 10, 2021). "10 Things You Didn't Know About Howlin' Wolf". American Blues Scene. Retrieved September 8, 2022.
- Selvin, Joel (September 14, 1997). "POP QUIZ -- Q & A With Ike Turner". SFGATE. Retrieved May 28, 2020.
- "Howlin' Wolf Interview". The Arhoolie Foundation. April 20, 1967. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
- "Howlin' Wolf Bio". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on January 9, 2015.
- Humphrey 2007.
- Szatmary, David P. (1996). A Time to Rock: A Social History of Rock and Roll. Schirmer Books. p. 1645. ISBN 978-0-02-864670-1.
- Collis 1998, p. 54.
- "Chess, Biharis Skirmish; This Time Over Wolf". Billboard. December 22, 1951. p. 17.
- Sawyers 2012, p. 161.
- Hoffman, Mark (July 18, 2012). "Howlin' Wolf Biography, Part 2". Howlinwolf.com. Retrieved April 17, 2014.
- Whitburn 1988, pp. 197–198.
- Draper, Don (June 10, 2018). "Howlin' Wolf – Howlin' the Blues, The Story of a Blues Giant". Don's Tunes. Retrieved September 7, 2022.
- Beacham, Frank. "Willie Johnson was born 98 years ago today". Frank Beacham's Journal. Retrieved September 13, 2022.
- "Howlin' Wolf". TeachRock. Retrieved September 13, 2022.
- "Howlin' Wolf". Equipboard. Retrieved September 8, 2022.
- "Howlin' Wolf – Sun Record Company". Sunrecords.com. Retrieved January 30, 2019.
- Hoffman, Mark (July 18, 2012). "Howlin' Wolf Biography, Part 3". Howlinwolf.com. Retrieved September 8, 2022.
- Stanton, Scott (September 8, 2003). The Tombstone Tourist: Musicians. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 9780743463300.
- Guralnick, Peter. "Howlin' Wolf". Rock & Roll Hall of Fame. Retrieved September 8, 2022.
- "West Point, Mississippi". West Point. Retrieved September 8, 2022.
- "Mission & Goal". Howlinwolffoundation.org. Howlin' Wolf Foundation. Archived from the original on February 20, 2014. Retrieved April 17, 2014.
- "Grammy Hall of Fame Awards". The Recording Academy. 1999. Archived from the original on July 7, 2015. Retrieved April 17, 2014.
- "500 Songs That Shaped Rock and Roll". Exhibit Highlights. Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. 1995. Archived from the original on May 2, 2007. Retrieved April 17, 2014.
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- Addison (December 9, 2019). "NEWS: The Blues Foundation names Blues Hall of Fame 2020 inductees: Bettye LaVette, Syl Johnson, Victoria Spivey, Eddie Boyd, George Smith, Billy Branch, Ralph Peer, and more!". Blues Foundation. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
- Segrest & Hoffman 2004, Sessionography.
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- Collis, John (1998). The Story of Chess Records. Bloomsbury USA. ISBN 978-1-58234-005-0.
- Humphrey, Mark (2007). The Definitive Collection (liner notes). Howlin' Wolf. Geffen Records/Chess Records. B0008784-02/CHD-9375 BK02.
- McGlynn, Don (2003). The Howlin' Wolf Story – The Secret History of Rock & Roll (DVD). Bluebird/Arista. 82876-56631-9.
- Oliver, Paul (1969). The Story of the Blues. Barrie & Jenkins. ISBN 3-85445-092-3.
- Sawyers, June Skinner (2012). Chicago Portraits: New Edition. Northwestern University Press. ISBN 978-0-8101-2649-7.
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