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Translated works by Albanian leader Enver Hoxha

Hoxhaism (English: /ˈhɒə.ɪzəm/) is a variant of anti-revisionist Marxism–Leninism that developed in the late 1970s due to a split in the anti-revision movement, appearing after the ideological dispute between the Communist Party of China and the Party of Labour of Albania in 1978.[1] The ideology is named after Enver Hoxha, a notable Albanian communist leader, who served as the First Secretary of the Party of Labour.


Emblem of the Party of Labour of Albania highlighting Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Vladimir Lenin and Joseph Stalin, on which Hoxhaism and its anti-revisionism is based

Hoxhaism demarcates itself by a strict defense of the legacy of Joseph Stalin, the organization of the Soviet Union under Stalinism,[2] and fierce criticism of virtually all other communist groupings as "revisionist"—it defines currents such as Eurocommunism as anti-communist movements.[3]

Critical of the United States, the Soviet Union, China, and Yugoslavia, Enver Hoxha labeled the latter three "social imperialist" and condemned the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968, before withdrawing Albania from the Warsaw Pact in response. Hoxhaism asserts the right of nations to pursue socialism by different paths, dictated by the conditions in those countries,[4] although Hoxha personally held the view that Titoism was "anti-Marxist" in overall practice.[5][6]

The Albanians succeeded in ideologically winning over a large share of anti-revisionists, mainly in Latin America (such as the Popular Liberation Army and the Marxist-Leninist Communist Party of Ecuador as well as the Revolutionary Communist Party of Brazil), but they also had a significant international following in general.

Following the fall of the People's Socialist Republic of Albania in 1991, the Hoxhaist parties grouped themselves around an international conference founded in 1994 and the publication Unity and Struggle.

List of Hoxhaist parties[edit]



See also[edit]


  1. ^ Communism for Know-It-Alls. Filiquarian Publishing, LLC. 2008. p. 23.
  2. ^ Pridham, Geoffrey (2000). The Dynamics of Democratization: A Comparative Approach. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 70.
  3. ^ Hoxha, Enver (1979). "The Marxist-Leninist Movement and the World Crisis of Capitalism". Institute of Marxist-Leninist Studies at the Central Committee of the Party of Labour of Albania.
  4. ^ "A Brief Guide to Hoxhaism". The Red Star Vanguard. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
  5. ^ Hoxha, Enver. "Enver Hoxha: Eurocommunism is Anticommunism". Retrieved 23 May 2014.
  6. ^ Hoxha, Enver (1960). "Reject the Revisionist Theses of the XX Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the Anti-Marxist Stand of Krushchev's Group! Uphold Marxism-Leninism!". Naim Frasheri Publishing House.

External links[edit]