Hrusish languages

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Hrusish
Southeast Kamengic
Hruso-Miji
Geographic
distribution
Arunachal Pradesh
Linguistic classificationpossibly Sino-Tibetan
Subdivisions
GlottologNone

The Hrusish or Southeast Kamengic languages[1] possibly constitute a Sino-Tibetan branch in Arunachal Pradesh, northeast India. They are Hruso (Aka) and Miji (which includes Bangru).[1] In Glottolog, Hammarström, et al.[2] does not accept Hrusish, and considers similarities between Hruso and Miji to be due to loanwords.

Names[edit]

George van Driem (2014) and Bodt & Lieberherr (2015)[3] use the name Hrusish, while Anderson (2014)[1] prefers Southeast Kamengic.

Classification[edit]

Anderson (2014)[1] considers Hrusish to be a branch of Tibeto-Burman. However, Blench and Post (2011) suggest that the Hruso languages likely constitute an independent language family.[4]

Bodt's & Lieberherr's (2015:69)[3] internal classification of the Hrusish languages is as follows.

Hrusish
  • Hruso (ʁuso, Aka)
  • Miji-Bangru
    • Western Miji (Đəmmai, Sadʑalaŋ)
    • Eastern Miji (Nəmrai, Wadu Baŋru)
    • Bangru (Tadə Baŋru, Tadʑu Baŋru, Ləwjɛ)

Comparative vocabulary[edit]

The following comparative vocabulary table of Hrusish vocabulary items (Bangru, Miji, and Hruso) is from Anderson (2014), with additional Bangru data from Li (2003).[5] Anderson's (2014) Hruso data is from Anderson's own field notes and from Simon (1970).[6] Anderson's (2014) Miji data is from his own field notes as well as Simon (1979)[7] and Weedall (2014).[8] Bangru data is from Ramya (2011, 2012).[9][10]

Gloss Bangru (Li 2003)[5] Bangru (Anderson 2014)[1] Miji (Anderson 2014)[1] Hruso (Anderson 2014)[1]
sun dʑu˥wai˥˧ dʒu dʒo ~ zuʔ; zo ~ ʒʲoʔ dʒu ~ dʑu; dʲu
snow də˧˩ɣai˥ tene dɨlen; təlɛn tʰiɲɲo
ashes laʔ˥bu˥˧ lag-bow maj-bu xukʰes-pu
mother's brother - kiː-ni a-kʰiw; akju a-kʰi
son mə˧˩dʑu˥ mu-dʒu-ɲiːib zu sou ~ sa ~ seu
I ȵoŋ˥ ɲo(ʔ) ɲaŋ
we ga˧˩ni˥ k-aɲi aɲi ɲi
bear si˥tsuaŋ˥ sutʃow ʃutsaŋ sitso ~ sutso
insect(s) bə˧˩loŋ˥ beloŋ-siɲi biluʔŋ; bəɫuʔŋ; biluŋʰ bəlu
nose mə˧˩ȵi˧guaŋ˥˧ mi-niː-ko ɲi un-su ~ nu-su
hand mə˧˩gai˥ me-gej (mə)gi əgzə
thumb ('hand' + 'mother') - me-gej-nea gi-nuiʔ; gi-batʃo əgzə-i-aɲ
saliva, spit - je ʒeʔ ze-mdʑiu; əʒʲəxu ~ əɣʲəxu
sleep dʑe˥ zeu dʒi dʒum
dream dai˥mu˧˩mu˥ tjameiː tajme tʰimjeu
four bu˧˩rai˥ poraji bli; b(ə)le pʰiri; pʰiji
five buŋ˥ puŋ bungu, buŋu pʰum ~ pʰóm
six rai˥˧ reh reʔ; reʔ ~ réʔ rijɛ; ʑje
seven muai˥˧ moji myaʔ, mjaʔ mrjo; mrɔ
eight sə˧˩cai˥˧ sagaik sɨgiʔ, sɨgeʔ; səguj səgzə ~ sɨgdʒɨ ~ sɨɣdʒɨ
nine sə˧˩təŋ˥ sataŋ sɨtʰɨn; stʰɨn; stən stʰə; stʰɨ ~ stʰə
ten rəŋ˥ raŋ lin; lən ʁə; ʁɨ ~ ʁə
bow - karaik gɨriʔ; gəri kʰiri
dry mə˧˩ci˥ miː-kji mɨ-kʰyang; məkjaŋ kʰrou
mother a˧˩nai˥˧ aːneja aɲʲi aɲi; aɲ
red ja˧˩dʑu˥˧ ja-tʃuk mu-tsu tsu
stream - wu-dʒu vu-zuʔ 'creek' xu-sa
shoulder mə˧˩pu˥zi˥ m-podʒ pas-t(ʰ)uŋ; pastoŋ ə-pos-tu
finger mə˧˩gai˥tsuo˥˧ me-gej-tʃowa gi-tsoʔ; məgitso əgzi-tsə
pig ʑəu˥˧ dʒu ʒo; ʒoʔ vo
bird ('bird' + 'son/child') pu˥dʑu˧˩ pu-dʒu buzu(ʔ); bɨ-zɨ ~ b-zɨ ~ bə-zu ~ bə-zə; bə-zuʔ mu-su
seed - mete tʰei-zʰo; (me)tẽ isi; dʒʲe; ʃe-die

Reconstruction[edit]

Proto-Hrusish has been reconstructed in by Bodt & Lieberherr (2015). Bodt & Lieberherr (2015:101) note that Proto-Hrusish displays a sound change from Proto-Tibeto-Burman *s- to t-, which they note had also occurred in Bodo-Garo, Kuki-Chin, Tangkhulic, Central Naga, and Karbi languages. The Proto-Tibeto-Burman *-l and -r have also been lost in Proto-Hrusish.

Reconstructed Proto-Hrusish forms from Bodt & Lieberherr (2015) are given below.

  • *nə-paŋ ‘aconite’
  • *si-ni ‘ant’
  • *pri ‘awake’
  • *bə-ru(d͡ziŋ) ‘axe’
  • *mə-niŋ ‘bad’
  • *bra ‘bamboo (big)’
  • *(g)o-prja ‘bark (tree)’
  • *sə-t͡saŋ ‘bear’
  • *majk ‘bee’
  • *mə-doʔ ‘big (thick, wide)’
  • *bə-dow ‘bird’
  • *taʔ ‘bite’
  • *kam ‘bitter’
  • *jaC ‘blood’
  • *mə-muC ‘body’
  • *lu ‘boil (water)’
  • *mə-ri-jaŋ ‘bone’
  • *gə-raj ‘bow’
  • *mə-nuŋ ‘breast; milk’
  • *(nam)sjaj ‘broom’
  • *su ‘cane; rope’
  • *dowC ‘chicken’
  • *mə-ga-daʔ ‘chin’
  • *gi-le ‘cloth’
  • *majməwŋ ‘cloud’
  • *ku ‘cook’
  • *su ‘cow’
  • *kraC ‘cry’
  • *taj ‘cut’
  • *ga ‘day’
  • *mə-ruk ‘deep’
  • *θəj ‘die’
  • *taC ‘dig’
  • *ni-t͡ɕi ‘dirty’
  • *ru ‘do’
  • *piŋ ‘door’
  • *tai-mə ‘dream’
  • *tuŋ ‘drink’
  • *t͡ɕa ‘eat’
  • *do-riŋ ‘egg’
  • *sə-giC ‘eight’
  • *(a/mə)ko ‘elder brother’
  • *mə-hi-laŋ ‘empty’
  • *t͡səj ‘excrete, defecate’
  • *mə-jaʔ ‘eye’
  • *mə-rəŋ ‘far’
  • *mə-baC ‘fat (n)’
  • *ri ‘fear’
  • *mejʔ ‘few’
  • *rəj ‘fight’
  • *mə-guC-t͡ɕoʔ ‘finger’
  • *maj ‘fire’
  • *laC ‘fireplace’
  • *trV ‘fish’
  • *bə-ŋu ‘five’
  • *mə-boC ‘flower’
  • *mə-d͡ʑoC ‘friend’
  • *d͡ʑuC ‘frog’
  • *θai ‘fruit’
  • *bə-ləj ‘four’
  • *liŋ ‘full’
  • *kikmuŋ ‘garlic, onion’
  • *bəj ‘give’
  • *se-preN ‘goat’
  • *rajC ‘grind, crush’
  • *mə-luŋ ‘guts’
  • *go-pu ‘hair’
  • *mə-gaŋ-lo ‘hard’
  • *mə-guC ‘hand, arm’
  • *du ‘have, exist’
  • *mə-go-kuŋ ‘head’
  • *mə-luŋ-wəwC ‘heart’
  • *mə-ləj ‘heavy’
  • *mə-su ‘horn’
  • *nam ‘house’
  • *kə-na ‘how many’
  • *niC ‘human’
  • *bə-luŋ ‘hundred’
  • *noC ‘ill’
  • *bəw-luŋ ‘insect’
  • *suN ‘iron’
  • *gə-d͡ʑuk ‘itch’
  • *dəgraŋ ‘kick’
  • *gajC ‘kill’
  • *vaj-t͡suŋ ‘knife’
  • *ni ‘know’
  • *toC ‘laugh’
  • *mə-rajC ‘leaf’
  • *lə-wajC ‘leech’
  • *laj ‘leg’
  • *laŋ ‘lift’
  • *mə-lə-taŋ ‘light’
  • *t͡ɕi ‘liquor’
  • *rej ‘listen, hear’
  • *siŋ ‘live, grow up’
  • *mə-θin ‘liver’
  • *mə-pjaŋ ‘long’
  • *gaŋ ‘look, see’
  • *saC ‘louse’
  • *daj ‘make; do’
  • *niC ‘man (male)’
  • *su ‘meat’
  • *lu ‘month’
  • *lu ‘moon’
  • *mə-nuŋ ‘mouth; language’
  • *lu-lV ‘mortar’
  • *me-naj ‘mother’
  • *mə-mjiŋ ‘name’
  • *mə-nej ‘near’
  • *ta- ‘negative imperative’
  • *mə-gə-nu ‘new’
  • *nə-gaC ‘night’
  • *sə-tiŋ ‘nine’
  • *mə-ɕoʔ ‘old’
  • *a-ken ‘one’
  • *an ‘paddy rice’
  • *bə-laC ‘pestle’
  • *jowʔ ‘pig’
  • *go-kuN ‘pillow’
  • *nə-dəj; *pro ‘rain’
  • *t͡ɕaʔ ‘red’
  • *gə-leC ‘ring’
  • *lam-baŋ ‘road’
  • *mə-kriŋ ‘root’
  • *mə-də-rəw ‘round’
  • *lu ‘salt’
  • *sə-gə-raj ‘sand’
  • *mə-θai ‘seed’
  • *laC ‘sell’
  • *mə-ljak ‘seven’
  • *k(r)iC ‘sew’
  • *mə-nuŋ ‘short’
  • *mə-ma ‘sister (elder)’
  • *d͡ʑuC ‘sit, stay’
  • *reC ‘six’
  • *mə-prja ‘skin’
  • *nə-də-laŋ ‘sky’
  • *d͡ʑV ‘sleep’
  • *maj-kən ‘smoke (n)’
  • *bəw ‘snake’
  • *dəren ‘snow’
  • *mə-lə-prjuC ‘soft, smooth’
  • *naʔ ‘soil’
  • *təwC ‘speak’
  • *d͡ʑuŋ ‘spear’
  • *məsu ‘spicy’
  • *jeʔ ‘spittle’
  • *gu ‘stand’
  • *lə-t͡ɕuŋ ‘star’
  • *kə ‘steal’
  • *t͡ɕuŋ ‘storehouse, granary’
  • *mə-gə-raŋ ‘straight’
  • *bə-nuŋ ‘suck’
  • *d͡ʑuʔ ‘sun’
  • *bə-ljaC ‘swallow’
  • *mə-jaŋ ‘sweet’
  • *liŋ ‘swell’
  • *wa ‘(swidden) field’
  • *d͡ʑaC ‘swim’
  • *mə-lə-mrjaj ‘tail’
  • *ləw ‘take’
  • *t͡ɕaC ‘tell’
  • *rəŋ ‘ten’
  • *paj-t͡ɕi ‘that’
  • *pu-t͡ɕi ‘that (lower)’
  • *mə-lu ‘thigh’
  • *huŋ ‘this’
  • *gə-θəm ‘three’
  • *gə-d͡ʑuC ‘thorn’
  • *bə-laj ‘tongue’
  • *mə-taC ‘tooth’
  • *(g)o-naj ‘tree’
  • *gə-niC ‘two’
  • *an-lə-giN ‘uncooked rice’
  • *pen ‘vegetable’
  • *mu ‘vomit’
  • *daj ‘walk’
  • *t͡ɕaC ‘hot, warm’
  • *wi ‘water’
  • *kua-suʔ ‘waterfall’
  • *traj ‘weave’
  • *tiŋ ‘what’
  • *kəʔ ‘where’
  • *mə-gə-raN ‘white’
  • *θu ‘who’
  • *low ‘wind’
  • *gə/mə-t͡ɕəwC ‘wing’
  • *d͡ʑVru ‘with’
  • *(g)o ‘wood’
  • *nəməraj ‘woman’
  • *də-niŋ ‘year’
  • *də-gaC ‘yesterday’
  • *mə-nuŋ ‘younger sibling’
  • *na(-jaŋ) ‘1SG’
  • *ni ‘2SG’
  • *ʔi ‘3SG’
  • *ka-ni ‘1PL’
  • *d͡ʑV ‘2PL’
  • *na ‘3PL’

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Anderson, Gregory D.S. 2014. On the classification of the Hruso (Aka) language. Paper presented at the 20th Himalayan Languages Symposium, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
  2. ^ http://glottolog.org/resource/languoid/id/hrus1242
  3. ^ a b Bodt, Timotheus Adrianus; Lieberherr, Ismael (2015). "First notes on the phonology and classification of the Bangru language of India". Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area. 38 (1): 66–123. doi:10.1075/ltba.38.1.03bod.
  4. ^ Blench, Roger; Post, Mark (2011), (De)classifying Arunachal languages: Reconstructing the evidence (PDF), archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-05-26
  5. ^ a b Li Daqin [李大勤]. 2003. "A sketch of Bengru" [崩如语概况]. Minzu Yuwen 2003(5), 64-80.
  6. ^ Simon, I. M. 1970. Aka language guide. Shillong: NEFA. 1993 Reprint Itanagar.
  7. ^ Simon, I. M. 1979/1974. Miji Language Guide. Shillong. (Govt. Arunachal).
  8. ^ Weedall, Christopher. 2014. Sajolang-English lexicon. m.s.
  9. ^ Ramya, Tame. 2011. An Ethnographic Study Bangrus of in Kurung Kumey District, Arunachal Pradesh. M Phil. Thesis. Rajiv Gandhi University, Itanagar.
  10. ^ Ramya, Tame. 2012. Sociolinguistic profile of the Bangru languages of Arunachal Pradesh. Presented at ICOLSI, Shillong. m.s.
  • Anderson, Gregory D.S. 2014. On the classification of the Hruso (Aka) language. Paper presented at the 20th Himalayan Languages Symposium, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
  • Bodt, Timotheus Adrianus; Lieberherr, Ismael (2015). "First notes on the phonology and classification of the Bangru language of India". Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area. 38 (1): 66–123. doi:10.1075/ltba.38.1.03bod.
  • George van Driem (2001) Languages of the Himalayas: An Ethnolinguistic Handbook of the Greater Himalayan Region. Brill.