Huazhou District

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Huazhou District

华州区
Coordinates: 34°27′N 109°45′E / 34.450°N 109.750°E / 34.450; 109.750Coordinates: 34°27′N 109°45′E / 34.450°N 109.750°E / 34.450; 109.750
CountryPeople's Republic of China
ProvinceShaanxi
Prefecture-level cityWeinan
Area
 • Total1,139.5 km2 (440.0 sq mi)
Population
(2007)
 • Total364,139
 • Density320/km2 (830/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
714100
Area code(s)0913
Websitehuaxian.gov.cn
Huazhou District
Huazhou.png
"Huazhou" in Chinese characters
Chinese華州

Huazhou District (simplified Chinese: 华州区; traditional Chinese: 華州區), formerly Hua County or Huaxian (simplified Chinese: 华县; traditional Chinese: 華縣; pinyin: Huà Xiàn), is a district of Weinan, Shaanxi province, China. It was upgraded from a County to a district in 2015.

Administrative divisions[edit]

Huazhou District has 1 Subdistrict and 9 towns.

Subdistrict:

  • Huazhou (华州街道)

Towns:

  • Jindui (金堆镇)
  • Xinglin (杏林镇)
  • Guapo (瓜坡镇)
  • Chishui (赤水镇)
  • Lianhuasi (莲花寺镇)
  • Liuzhi (柳枝镇)
  • Gaotang (高塘镇)
  • Xiamiao (下庙镇)
  • Daming (大明镇)

History[edit]

Xia (about 21 - 16 centuries ago), legend belongs to Yongzhou, which is the active area of Hu clan. There are Rui and Yu states in Xia. The Shang Dynasty (about 16 - 11 centuries ago) was incorporated into the central dynasty's core ruling area, and the western part was the land of the Rongguo. The Western Zhou Dynasty (11th century - 771 BC) belonged to the capital city of that time. It was the territory of the princes, such as Korea in Hancheng, Rui State and Zheng State in Huazhou. In the Eastern Zhou Dynasty (770 - 256), the eastern part belonged to Jin and the western part belonged to Qin in the Spring and Autumn Period. Qin Xiaogong 10 years ago (668 years ago) Qin felled the soil and laid down Yexian County to the north of the Weihe River. The County governed the old county village near the old town. The next year Zheng County was located, which is now the southern part of the Weihe River. During the Warring States Period, the eastern part of Weinan belonged to the Wei Dynasty, and King Wei Xiangwang devoted five years (314 years ago) to the Qin Dynasty, administering the areas south of Weihe River and east of Luohe River. Weinan scenery Weinan scenery (9 sheets) Qin Dynasty (221 - 206 BC), south of Weihe River belongs to Liyi, north of Weihe River belongs to Youyi. In the twenty-seventh year of Qin Shihuang's reign (220 years ago), Liyi and Xiayi were under the jurisdiction of internal history. At this time, Lianshao County was also located in the north. According to the Hanshu Geographic Records, it is said that "it should be an internal history". In the first year of Gaozu in the Western Han Dynasty (206 BC), Xiang Yu marched into the Guanzhong Pass, and Fengsi Maxin was the king of Saiwang. He belonged to Liyi and Xiaju for a time, and the lotus spoon should also belong to them. Two years later, the two counties of Weinan and Heshang were set up in Han Dynasty. Zheng and Liyi belong to Weinan County and Lotus Spoon belongs to Heshang County. Nine years (198 years ago) two counties were withdrawn and their internal history was restored. In July 197, Liyi was renamed Xinfeng. In the sixth year of Jianyuan (135 years ago), it was divided into internal history. Xinfeng, Zheng and Xiayu belong to the right internal history, while Lianqiu belongs to the left internal history. In the first year of the Taichu Dynasty (104 years ago), the right internal history was changed to Jing Zhaoyin and the left internal history was changed to Feng Yi. Xinfeng, Xiaya and Zheng belong to Jing Zhaoyin, while Lianshao belongs to Zuo Fengyi. From the first year of the founding of Xinmang to the fourth year of the Emperor (9-23 years), Lijun, Xinfeng, Xiayu and Lianzhou counties were established. In the fifteenth year of the Eastern Han Dynasty (AD 39), Xiayu was merged into Zhengxian County, belonging to Jing Zhaoyin, and the number of lotus spoons was left Feng Yi. Mitu County, then merged into Xinfeng, belongs to Jing Zhaoyin. In the first year of Jianhe (147), Xiayu County was restored and changed to Zuofengyi. Wei (220 - 265) changed Beijing Zhaoyin to a county and Zuo Fengyi to a county. Xinfeng, Zhengxian, Liyongzhou, Jingzhao County, Xiayu County, and Lianzhou, Liyongzhou, Fengyi County.

Jin (265 - 316), Xinfeng and Zhengxian are still under Yongzhou Jingzhao County, while Xiayu and Lianzhou are still under Yongzhou Fengyi County. Before the Eastern Jin Dynasty, Qin Fengjian Manlu two years (360 years) first month, cut Xinfeng, Zhengxian, Weinan County (the county is now North of the old city), under Yongzhou Jingzhao County. Xiayu and Lianqiu are still in Fengyi County, Yongzhou. In the later Qin Dynasty, the subordinates of Weinan and Xiayu remained unchanged. According to Taiping Laoyu Ji, "Yao Run Waste Lianqiu County." In the first year of the Northern Wei Dynasty (386), because of avoiding the name of Emperor Wu Tuoba, he changed Ye to Xiafeng County and moved to Xiongbayi Town (now Bayi Town). Taisan (479) re-established Lotus Spoon County, the waste summer into the Lotus Spoon, Yongzhou Fengyi County. Xiaochang changed Weinan County to Nanxinfeng County in 527, and set up Weinan County. The administrative office was relocated to Sili Mingguangyuan, southeast of the county town. In the third year of Datong of Western Wei Dynasty (537), Xiafeng County was redeveloped, and it was also located in Fengyi County of Yongzhou with Lianshou. In the second year of Emperor Fei (553), Lingyuan and Zhongyuan were divided into two counties, and Nanxinfeng County was changed into Weinan County. All the three counties are under the jurisdiction of Weinan County, Yongzhou. In the three years of Jiande in the Northern Zhou Dynasty (574), Weinan County, Lingyuan County and Zhongyuan County entered Weinan County, belonging to Jing Zhaoyin of Yongzhou. In the same year, because of the frequent "banditry" within the boundaries of the lotus spoon, Yanshou County was located, and Xiafeng County was governed by the county, leading to Xiafeng and the lotus spoon. In the early Sui Dynasty, Yongzhou was set up and soon changed to Jingzhao County, which belongs to Weinan. Kaihuang three years (583), abolished Yanshou County. In the first year of Daye (605), Xiafeng was replaced by Xiafeng. It belongs to Fengyi County with Lianqiu County. Daye 10 years (614), Xiayu County will be moved to today's Xiayi City, Litongzhou. In the first year of Tang Wude (618), Weinan was transferred to Huazhou. In the first year of vertical arch (685), Huazhou was changed to Taizhou. In the first year of Shenlong (705), it became Huazhou again. In July of the second year of Tianzhu (691), Weinan and Qingshan were located in Hongmen County, and the county was governed by Zengkou Town. At the same time, there are Hongzhou, leading Weinan, Qingshan, Hongmen, Gaoling, Queyang and other counties. In the first year of Dazu (701), Fei Hongzhou and Hongmen County, Weinan belonged to Yongzhou. In the first year of Kaiyuan (713), Jingzhao Prefecture was located in Weinan. Since the first year of Tianchuigong in Wuze, the name of Huazhou has been changed several times, and Xiayi County's membership has not changed: in the first year of Kaiyuan, Huayin County of Huazhou; in the first year of Tianbao (742), the abolished County of Huayin County of Huazhou exists; in the first year of Qianyuan (758), it was renamed Huazhou, in the second year of Shangyuan (761), and then Taizhou; in the first year of Baoying (762), it was restored. Its name is Huazhou; in the first year of Baoli (825), it was restored to Taizhou; in the fourth year of Qianning (897), it was Xingde Prefecture; and in the third year of Guanghua (900), it was Huazhou. In the back Liang Dynasty of the Five Dynasties, Weinan was subordinated to Da'an Prefecture; in the later Tang, Jin and Han Dynasties, it was subordinated to Jing Zhaofu Prefecture; in the second year of the latter Zhou Xiande (956), it was subordinated to Huazhou. Xiayu County has always been under Huazhou. In the first year of Jianlong in the Northern Song Dynasty (960), Huazhou was transformed into the Zhenguo Army; in the third year of Dao (1997), Huayin County, Luhua County, Shaanxi Province; in the fifth year of Huangyou (1053), the town's national army was the Zhentong Army and Weinan belonged to it. Six years (1073) Xining withdrew from Weinan and entered Zhengxian. In the first year of Yuanfeng (1078), Weinan County was restored, Huayin County, Huazhou, Liyongxing Military Road. Xiayu County, has been subordinated to Huayin County, Huazhou. In the second year of Jinhuangtong (1142), Yongxing Military Road was changed to Jingzhaofu Road, Zhentong Army to Jinan Army, Weinan and Xiaya. In the first year of the Yuan Dynasty (1260), Jin'an Army was transformed into Huazhou. By the first year of the first year of the Yuan Dynasty (1264), and into Weinan, said the merger. Sixteen years (1279), changed Jingzhao Road to Anxi Road, 23 years (1286), located in Shaanxi Province and other places. In the first year of Huang Qing (1312), Anxi Road was changed to Fengyuan Road, Weinan Li Shaanxi and other places went to Huazhou, Fengyuan Road, Zhongshu Province. In the 14th year of Hongwu Ming Dynasty (1381), he was renowned as the "co-administrator" of the Ming Dynasty. Xiayuan County was transformed into Weinan County. The County border began to cross the Weishui River from north to south. He was affiliated with Shaanxi Province and other places to announce the Secretary of Government and History of Xi'an, Huazhou, and Zhili Xi'an Prefecture in November of the 38th year of Jiajing (1559 In the Qing Dynasty, Weinan County and Fuping County were affiliated to Xi'an Prefecture of West Qianlu Road in Shaanxi Province, while the remaining ten counties were affiliated to Tongzhou Prefecture of Tongshang Road in Shaanxi Province.

From 1948 to 1949, the territory of Weinan City was liberated one after another. People's governments of all counties abolished the Armor Protection System during the Republic of China and implemented the three-level system of district, Township and village. There are 82 districts, 2 cities and 621 townships in 6 counties in Weinan District, 72 districts, 2 cities and 580 townships in 8 counties in Dali District, and 13 districts, 2 cities and 96 townships in Fuping County. Apart from Lintong and Lantian counties, there are 136 districts, 6 cities and 1011 townships. In May 1950, Weinan District downsized the administrative divisions below the county level. There were 105 districts, 908 townships in 13 counties and 97 townships in 10 districts in Fuping County. Excluding Lintong and Lantian counties, there are 92 districts and 787 townships in the territory. In 1956, with the development of agricultural cooperation, the districts of counties were adjusted one after another, and the small towns were big ones, and the rural high-level agricultural cooperatives were under the jurisdiction of the countryside. In September 1958, counties withdrew from their townships one after another and established the People's Commune of "the unity of politics and society". The commune consists of production brigades and production brigades. In November of the same year, and small counties for large counties, in this territory there are Weinan, Pucheng, Dali, Hancheng four counties. The sub-county divisions were then adjusted, and the small communes were the big communes. They consisted of management areas, brigades and production teams. In addition to Lintong and Lantian counties, there were 42 communes and 234 administrative districts in the territory. After the restoration of Huaxian, Huayin, Tongguan, Heyang, Chengcheng, Baishui and Fuping Counties in August 1961, the administrative divisions in the counties were reorganized, the administrative districts were abolished and the three-level system of communes, brigades and production teams was implemented. There are 208 communes in 11 counties (except Lintong and Lantian), and there are also district work committees in Weinan, Pucheng and Fuping counties. In November 1975, the District Work Committee was abolished. In January 1980, the four communes of Gaolouhe, Xiaojiabao, Azhuang and Guangyang in Pucheng County were classified as Tongchuan City. By 1982, there were 304 communes (towns) and 3939 production brigades in 13 counties of the region, and 21 918 production brigades. In 1984, Weinan and Hancheng were transformed into cities (county level), and Chengguan Town was transformed into street offices. In accordance with the provisions for the establishment of separate political and social organizations, communes, brigades and production teams are generally abolished in all counties (cities) and townships and villages are established. There are altogether two sub-district offices, 180 townships, 55 towns and 3139 villages in the whole district. In 1988, migrants returned to the reservoir area, Dali County added 6 townships and Huayin County added 3 townships. Map of Weinan Maps of Weinan City (3) On December 27, 1990, Huayin County was abolished and Huayin City (county level) was established. The former administrative region of Huayin County was taken as the administrative region of Huayin City at County level. On December 17, 1994, Weinan District and County Weinan City were abolished, and Weinan City at prefecture level was established, with the Municipal People's Government stationed at No. 83 Dongfeng Street. Huayin and Hancheng, two county-level cities in the former Weinan area, were directly under the jurisdiction of Shaanxi Province, and Weinan was in charge of them. [2] On May 25, 2012, the provincial government of Shaanxi Provincial Party Committee issued relevant documents stipulating that Hancheng became a pilot city in Shaanxi Province, which was planned to be listed separately, the administrative level was upgraded to a sub-city hall-level system, with the same economic and social management authority as the districts and municipalities, the independent fiscal and taxation management system realized provincial direct management, and the relevant provincial documents were not directly under Weinan. Korea city. In October 2015, the State Council approved the Provincial People's Government's Request for the Adjustment of Some Administrative Regions in Weinan City, and agreed to revoke Huaxian and establish Huazhou District in Weinan City, with the former administrative region of Huaxian as the administrative region of Huazhou District.

geographical environment[edit]

Weinan City is located in the east of Weihe Plain, Guanzhong, Shaanxi Province, between 108 -50 -110 -38, 34 -13 -35. It is bordered by the Yellow River in the east, Yuncheng in the east, Sanmenxia in the east, Linfen in the capital of Shaanzhou, Xianyang in the west, Xianyang in the thousand-year-old imperial capital, Qinling in the South and Shangluo in the north, Qiaoshan and Ge The holy land of Yan'an and Tongchuan borders on each other. It is 182.3 kilometers long in the north and south, 149.7 kilometers wide in the East and west, and has a total area of about 13,000 square kilometers.

natural resources[edit]

There are 51 kinds of mineral resources/reserves in Weinan city. Among them, there are more than 20 kinds with large reserves and easy exploitation. Coal, molybdenum, gold and stone are the dominant minerals. Weibei Coalfield, known as "Black Belt", covers 200 kilometers and produces more than 10 million tons of coal annually, ranking first in Shaanxi Province in terms of development and utilization; molybdenum mine has proved reserves of 1,000,115 tons, ranking second in China; gold ore proved reserves of 217,000 tons, accounting for 48.4% of Shaanxi Province; geothermal water and medical and drinking mineral water resources are abundant. Among them, Dali Mineral Water has 56,000 tons of sunrise water, which is known as "the crown of China, rare in the world". There are 4 kinds of energy minerals, 8 kinds of metal minerals, 8 kinds of rare, rare and rare earth elements, 31 kinds of non-metallic minerals and 238 mineral areas. Thirty-eight minerals have been identified and listed in the reserve scale, with 221 provenances. Molybdenum, lead, copper, niobium and selenium rank first in Shaanxi Province, among which molybdenum ranks the top three in China; iron, bauxite and rhenium rank second in Shaanxi Province; gold deposit ranks third in Shaanxi Province; coal, marble and graphite reserves rank fourth in Shaanxi Province. [4] [6] Coalbed methane is distributed within 1000 square kilometers of Chenghe and Hancheng mining areas. The total coalbed methane resources in Hancheng mining area are predicted to be 208.027 billion cubic meters, and the recoverable reserves are predicted to be 190.766 billion cubic meters. [4] Metal mineral resources Ferrous metal minerals are mainly iron ores, which have the characteristics of small scale, low grade, shallow burial and single component. Three mining areas: Yangshanzhuang Iron Mine of Hancheng City, Taiyao Iron Mine of Tongguan City and Tichagou Iron Mine of Huayin City. There are one medium-sized deposit and two small-sized deposits. By the end of 2002, the reserves were 33.12 million tons. There are 5 kinds of non-ferrous metal mineral resources, including copper, lead, molybdenum, bauxite and tungsten, with 13 producing areas, and the first four minerals have proved reserves. Copper Mine: One of the mining areas, the associated copper mine of Jinduicheng Molybdenum Mine, has a reserves of 187,000 tons by the end of 2002, which is the largest copper mine in Shaanxi Province. Lead deposits: There are three mineral deposits, one large-scale uranium-niobium-lead paragenetic lead deposit in Huayangchuan, Huayin City, and two associated lead deposits in Haochayu Gold Mine, Tongguan County. By the end of 2002, there were 619,000 tons of reserves (lead metal). Molybdenum deposits: 6 origins, 1 large-scale, 2 medium-sized (1 paragenesis with uranium deposits) and 3 ore spots. Huanglongpu molybdenum ore field in Huaxian County, Shaanxi Province, is located on the south slope of Huashan Mountain at the northwest end of Xiaoqinling Mountains, covering an area of about 100 square kilometers. Jinduicheng molybdenum deposit and Taoyuan molybdenum deposit in Huaxian County are important pillars of the ore field. By the end of 2002, there were 882,500 tons of reserves. Bauxite: Two places of origin, up to the end of 2002, 599,000 tons of resources, distributed in Weibei City, Chengcheng County, are small deposits. Precious metal minerals are mainly gold and silver. Gold deposit is one of the dominant minerals in Weinan. By the end of 2002, there were 26 mineral deposits and 1 placer gold deposit. Rock gold is mainly distributed in the western section of Xiaoqinling gold field, Tongguan County is the most widely distributed, and Huayin City and Huaxian County are also distributed. By the end of 2002, about 23 tons (metal) of resources/reserves had been retained. Gold deposits are mostly associated with silver, copper, lead, zinc, sulfur and other minerals. Silver mineral resources mainly occur in the form of associated minerals. The reserve of silver mineral resources is 15 tons (metal content). There are only 2 independent silver mineral sites located in Baihualing and Muzigou of Huaxian County. [4] Non-metallic minerals: Metallurgical auxiliary raw material minerals are mainly refractory clay and flux dolomite. Fire-resistant clay: There is one medium-sized mineral area, Sanyanqiao mining area, Chengcheng County; one mining site. By the end of 2002, there were 3.395 million tons of reserves. Flux dolomite: 1 medium-sized ore, Yangshanzhuang Flux Dolomite Mine, Hancheng City; 1 ore point, Yaoshan Dolomite Mine, Pucheng City. There are five kinds of chemical raw materials and minerals, namely iron sulfide, phosphorus, salt, peat and humic acid coal. They are produced in 15 places. Only sulfur and humic acid coal have proven reserves. Pyrite: It can be divided into single sulfur ore and associated sulfur ore. Single sulphur deposits are mainly distributed in Chengcheng and Pucheng counties, with one small deposit and one mining site. By the end of 2002, Sanyanqiao pyrite mine in Chengcheng County had a pyrite resource reserve of 134,000 tons and stopped mining. There are three associated sulphur deposits. By the end of 2002, the reserves of resources were 22.061 million tons of sulphur. The associated sulphur deposits in Jinduicheng Molybdenum Mine accounted for 22.441 million tons of sulphur. Phosphate Mine: One is Yushiyu Phosphate Mine in Tongguan County. The ore-bearing stratum is Yushiyu in Lijiacun Township, Tongguan County, west of Tongguan. It passes Tongyu to the East and extends to Henan Province. In addition, apatite in Yangshanzhuang Iron Mine of Hancheng City can also be comprehensively utilized. Salt deposits: There are 4 ore spots, mainly distributed in Fuping, Pucheng and Dali, mainly in Fuping brine beach. Peat: 2 mining sites, located in Weinan City, about 13 km to 15 km south. The prospective reserves of peat resources in Yisi and Yanchenpo areas of Linwei District are 6.8172 million tons, and there are Dawangxiang peat deposits in Linwei District. Humic acid coal: 2 mining sites, Pucheng County Caideng Humic acid Coal Mine proved reserves of 211,000 tons, geological work is low. There are more than 20 kinds of building materials and other non-metallic minerals. The proven reserves are mainly limestone for cement, marble for decoration and gneiss for stone. In addition, there are granite, vermiculite, graphite, silica, kaolin and so on. Cement limestone: 9 mining areas, up to the end of 2002, resource reserves of 53.94 million tons, mainly distributed in the central and northern areas of Hancheng, Pucheng, Baishui, Fuping. Marble for decoration: It is distributed in Fuping, Huaxian and Tongguan. The Laomiao Lanshan Marble Mine in Fuping County is a medium-sized deposit. Marble in Taihua Group in Tongguan-Huaxian area is easy to be mined in open pit with a good prospect. By the end of 2002, the reserve of resources was 5.33 million cubic meters. [6] Geothermal resources In the form of hot springs, known are Pucheng Yuanjiapo Hot Spring, with water temperature ranging from 27 to 31 degrees Celsius; Tangli Hot Spring, with water temperature ranging from 26 to 34 degrees Celsius; Changle Hot Spring, with water temperature 43 degrees Celsius; Heyang Qianchuanhuanhuanhuanhuanhuan Hot Spring, with water temperature 29 degrees Celsius. Since the 1990s, through the combination of exploration and development, some achievements have been achieved, such as: Weinan Yinggao Hotel, Coalfield 129 Team, Geothermal Well of Military Engineering 051 Base. Territory geothermal water surface elevation is about 380 meters above sea level, so it is called "380" Ordovician limestone water, distributed in Heyang, Chengcheng, Pucheng, Dali, Hancheng, Baishui, Fuping 7 counties (cities). According to the exploration data of the provincial coal and geological departments, the annual recoverable amount is 125 million cubic meters to 157 million cubic meters. Located on the Bank of the Yellow River near Qianchuan Town, Heyang County, Zhuoquan is a rising spring group with seven effluents, which are arranged in a north-south to north-east direction. It is exposed on the heart beach and floodplain of the Yellow River. The total flow rate is 3485.78 cubic meters/hour, the elevation is 348-352 meters, the water temperature is 29-31 degrees C, the salinity is less than 1 gram/liter, the flow rate is stable, and the water flow is stable. The chemical type is bicarbonate-sulfuric acid chloride type, which is the same as the groundwater quality of regional Ordovician limestone. In 1986, the peasants in Qianchuan Town made use of the groundwater resources near the Huanquan Spring. Nine self-raised geothermal water wells were constructed, with a water output of 150 cubic meters per hour and 333 hectares of land irrigated. In October 1990, a machine-operated well was drilled in the gully of Qinnan Village, Dudian Township, with a depth of 480 meters and a water inflow of 80 cubic meters per hour. It was tested to be natural mineral water by the provincial authorities. The hot spring located on the east side of the main stream of Luohe River on the west slope of Xitang Village, Jiaotong Township, Chengcheng County, has a discharge of 1.43 cubic meters per second, an annual water inflow of 45.0865 million cubic meters, and a water temperature of 29 degrees Celsius. At the same time, the mining area is also exposed. The annual water inflow of Quanjiahe Coal Mine is 7.7 million cubic meters, and that of Dongjiahe Coal Mine is 3.1 million cubic meters. The total annual water inflow in the three places is 55.89.65 million cubic meters. There are hot springs in Yuanjiapo, Dongchen Town, Yongfeng Town, Wentang Village, Heping Road and Miaoxiang Changle Village along the Luohe River in Pucheng County. The water temperature ranges from 26 to 43 degrees, and the total flow rate is 2.2 cubic meters per second. The hydrochemical type is bicarbonate-sodium-magnesium type with a salinity of 0.9 g/liter. The water level ranges from 360 m to 375 m and belongs to fracture water of Ordovician limestone faults. The North terrace of Yuhongcun in the South Bank of Luohe County, Dali County, has four self-blowout temperature wells with water temperature of 41 C, water inflow volume of 239.9 cubic meters per hour to 588.5 cubic meters per hour, daily water inflow volume of 54,000 tons, self-blowout pressure of 29 meters higher than the surface, salinity of 0.97 grams per liter. The hydrochemical type belongs to carbonate, heavy carbonate-sodium calcium type. It has been certified by the state as a high-quality natural mineral water for both medical and drinking purposes. In 2002, 400,000 people in 240 administrative villages and 18 townships in Dali-Luobei had access to high-quality mineral water. The geothermal well of Weinan Municipal Government Hostel has a depth of 2451 meters and a water volume of 55 cubic meters per hour. The water temperature of the actual well-logging mouth is 92 degrees C. The water quality belongs to C1-Na+type water, which is high-quality medical and health-care hot mineral water. Biological resources There are more than 300 kinds of wildlife. Red-crowned cranes, black storks, green sheep, swans and other 23 kinds of rare birds and animals protected by the state are well-known throughout the country. There are more than 20 kinds of livestock and poultry reared artificially, including Qinchuan cattle, Guanzhong donkey, dairy goats and so on. The vegetation area of Weinan City is warm temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest. The main components of forest flora are temperate and cold tree species in North China and Northwest China. There are more than 190 families, 800 genera and 2500 species of wild vascular plants in the city. There are 150 kinds of cultivated plants, including 17 kinds of grain crops, 7 kinds of cash crops and 39 kinds of vegetable crops. 931 species of 215 families of Chinese medicinal herbs. 360 species of wild animals. There are 48 kinds of livestock and poultry. There are more than 1800 species of agricultural insects belonging to 109 families and 12 orders. There are 125 kinds of microorganisms. There are 389 species belonging to 147 genera and 61 families of trees and shrubs. The rattan plants mainly include Chai Teng and Pueraria lobata. There are 17 species and 22 varieties of wild fruit trees. Artificial cultivation of fresh and dry fruit trees 20 species 226 varieties. There are more than 20 kinds of greening trees around. More than 1000 varieties of 400 species, 120 genera and 50 families of ornamental plants. According to statistics, there are 631 species of plants with high value or development prospects in the city. The selected species are mainly wild plants with high utilization value at the present stage; a few special cash crops with high value and general cultivated crops with new uses are also selected appropriately; at the same time, some species with scientific research value are included. water resource In addition to the three transit rivers of Huang, Wei and Luo, there are Yuanhe, Chishui, Luofu and Tonghe which originated in Qinling Mountains. The main rivers are Qianhe, Chashui, Shitou and Dayu, Hushui, Baishui, Panhe, Zhishui and Kongwa rivers, which originate in the northern mountainous areas. [2] The total water resources of Weinan City are 2.06 billion cubic meters, accounting for 4.4% of the total water resources of the province. Among them, 0.74 billion cubic meters are distributed in Huanglong Mountains, 255 million cubic meters are distributed in Weibei Gaoyuan Gully Area, 457 million cubic meters are distributed in Weibei Taiyuan Area, 663 million cubic meters are distributed in Weihe Plain Area, 132 million cubic meters are distributed in Weihe Henan Plateau Area and 425 million cubic meters in Qinling Mountains Area. Surface water resources: Weinan has an average annual runoff of 888 million cubic meters, accounting for 2.11% of the total surface water resources in the province. The average runoff depth was 67.6 mm, 136.4 mm lower than that of 204 mm in the whole province. Because of the comprehensive influence of the regional distribution of precipitation, topography and other underlying surface factors, the distribution of annual runoff and annual precipitation is basically the same. There is a zonal difference between the north and the south, and the runoff depth decreases from the South and north mountainous areas to the Weihe Plain. The average annual runoff depth in Qinling Mountains is 325 mm; the average annual runoff depth in Weihe River Plain is 103 mm; the average annual runoff depth in northern Huanglong Mountain Area is 85 mm; the average annual runoff depth in Weibei Plain is 37 mm; and the average runoff depth in Weihe River Plain is 20 mm. [4] [12] Groundwater resources: Weinan City groundwater and total recharge of 1.508 billion cubic meters. Among them, rainfall infiltration recharge is 1.069 billion cubic meters, rivers seepage recharge is 0.81 billion cubic meters, channels seepage recharge is 150 million cubic meters, farmland irrigation seepage recharge is 0.92 billion cubic meters, well irrigation recharge is 0.61 billion cubic meters, reservoir seepage recharge is 0.18 billion cubic meters, and hillside recharge is 0.37 billion cubic meters. Excluding 172 million cubic meters of groundwater evaporation, 173 million cubic meters of groundwater with salinity greater than 2 g/litre, and 1.163 billion cubic meters of groundwater in the whole city. It is distributed in 212 million cubic meters of Huanglong Mountain, 271 million cubic meters of Weibei Taiyuan, 451 million cubic meters of Weihe Plain, 114 million cubic meters of Weinan Plateau and 116 million cubic meters of Qinling Mountain. The groundwater exploitable amount is less than 100 meters, the salinity is less than 2 grams/liter and the well depth is less than 300 meters. The average exploitable coefficient is 0.571. The groundwater exploitable amount of the city is 656 million cubic meters, accounting for 56.4% of the groundwater effective resources. land resource Weinan City has 263,200 hectares of forest land, 8.49 million cubic meters of forest stock, and 15.9% of the forest coverage. Natural grassland 148,000 hectares. The cultivated land area is 546,100 hectares, of which 344,000 hectares are effectively irrigated.

Population nationality[edit]

population structure According to the data of the sixth census of China, the permanent population of Weinan City in 2012 was 528 6077. Compared with 5394 806 people in the fifth census of China at 0:00 on November 1, 2000, the total number of permanent residents decreased by 108 729, or 2.02%. The annual average decrease was 0.20%. There are 1445151 households in Weinan permanent population, 49979770 households, with an average population of 3.45 per household, which is 0.34 less than the 3.79 population in the fifth national census in 2000. Among the permanent population in Weinan, the male population is 268 2710, accounting for 50.75%, while the female population is 260 3367, accounting for 49.25%. The sex ratio of the total population (100 females and 100 males to females) decreased from 104.48 in the fifth national census in 2000 to 103.05. Among the permanent population in Weinan, 74,3257 people aged 0-14, accounting for 14.06%; 40,76063 people aged 15-64, accounting for 77.11%; 46,6757 people aged 65 and over, accounting for 8.83%. Compared with the fifth national census in 2000, the proportion of the population aged 0-14 decreased by 11.71 percentage points, the proportion of the population aged 15-64 increased by 9.01 percentage points, and the proportion of the population aged 65 and over increased by 2.70 percentage points. [15] Permanent population According to the sample survey in 2016, the permanent population of the whole city was 5.3716 million at the end of the year, with a birth rate of 9.98, a mortality rate of 6.32, and a natural growth rate of 3.66. [16] By the end of 2017, the city's permanent population was 53.829 million, the urbanization rate was 46.32%, the birth rate was 10.59, the mortality rate was 6.56 and the natural growth rate was 4.03.

Economics[edit]

In 2017, the city's GDP reached 165.662 billion yuan, an increase of 8.3% over the previous year. Among them, the added value of the primary industry was 23.350 billion yuan, an increase of 4.8%, accounting for 13.9% of GDP; the added value of the secondary industry was 77.841 billion yuan, an increase of 9.5%, accounting for 47.0%; and the added value of the tertiary industry was 64.771 billion yuan, an increase of 8.2%, accounting for 39.1%. The per capita GDP was 30808 yuan, an increase of 8.0% over the previous year. In 2017, the added value of the non-public economy was 83.380 billion yuan, accounting for 50.3% of the gross domestic product, an increase of 0.8 percentage points over the previous year. [17] Local fiscal revenue in 2017 was 7.354 billion yuan, an increase of 11.9%. Fiscal expenditure was 40.765 billion yuan, an increase of 15.6%. At the end of 2017, the RMB deposit balance of financial institutions in the whole city was 224.598 billion yuan, an increase of 8.9% over the previous year, of which the household deposit balance was 163.03 billion yuan, an increase of 11.4%. The balance of loans from financial institutions was 107.109 billion yuan, an increase of 3.5%. Short-term loans amounted to 28.227 billion yuan, a decrease of 2.5%, and medium- and long-term loans amounted to 66.574 billion yuan, an increase of 15.6%. The premium income of the city's insurance industry is 7.485 billion yuan, an increase of 767 million yuan over the previous year, of which property insurance premium income is 1.737 billion yuan and life insurance premium income is 5.548 billion yuan. The total expenditure of property and life insurance compensation is 2.072 billion yuan, of which property insurance compensation is 875 million yuan and life insurance compensation is 1.197 billion yuan. [17] In 2017, the investment in fixed assets of the whole society reached 273.122 billion yuan, an increase of 19.3% over the previous year. Among them, investment in fixed assets (excluding farmers) amounted to 268.184 billion yuan, an increase of 20.1%. Among the fixed assets investment (excluding farmers), 31.838 billion yuan was invested in the primary industry, an increase of 21.4% over the previous year; 44.106 billion yuan in the secondary industry, a decrease of 3.4%, and 192.240 billion yuan in the tertiary industry, an increase of 26.9%. In 2017, private investment amounted to 83.110 billion yuan, an increase of 9.9% over the previous year, accounting for 31.0% of fixed assets investment (excluding farmers). [17] Primary industry In 2017, the sown area of grain was 7.586 million mu, with a total output of 21.154 million tons, a slight increase over the previous year. Among them, 1.406 million tons of summer grain increased by 2.7%, while 974.8 million tons of autumn grain decreased by 3%. The vegetable area of the city is 1.3 million mu, the total output is 2.8219 million tons, an increase of 4.5%; the fruit area is 3.147 million mu, the total output is 3.4536 million tons, an increase of 5.6%; the melon area is 540,000 mu, the total output is 1.42 million tons, an increase of 3.6%. By the end of 2017, 24758,800 pigs were fed in the city, down 0.5% from the previous year; 80,400 cattle fed, up 1.0%; 635,300 sheep fed, down 0.2%; 999,144 poultry fed, up 1.2%. The annual meat output was 216,700 tons, down 0.3% from the previous year, egg production was 119,900 tons, up 0.6%, milk production was 393,000 tons, down 0.9%. [17] The secondary industry In 2017, the added value of all industries was 63.267 billion yuan, an increase of 9.6% over the previous year, of which the added value of industries above scale increased by 9.7%. In 2017, the total industrial output value of the whole city was 211.36 billion yuan, an increase of 26.7% over the previous year. Of these, 167.891 billion yuan in heavy industry, an increase of 23.9%, and 43.469 billion yuan in light industry, an increase of 39.1%. The total industrial output value of the six leading industries reached 3.327 billion yuan, an increase of 25.9%. Among them, the energy industry increased by 17.1%, the chemical industry by 28.222 billion yuan, an increase of 25.3%; the equipment manufacturing industry by 24.430 billion yuan, an increase of 54.7%; the non-ferrous metallurgical industry by 40.84%; the food industry by 27.336 billion yuan, an increase of 18.5%; the non-metallic mineral products industry by 12.922 billion yuan, an increase of 10.6%. In 2017, the added value of the construction industry reached 14.575 billion yuan, an increase of 9.1% over the previous year. The total output value of the construction industry with above qualifications reached 33.771 billion yuan, an increase of 22%. A total of 95.751 billion yuan, an increase of 76.7%, was signed by construction enterprises with above qualifications. The construction area of housing construction was 15.4487 million square meters, an increase of 22.9%. [17] In 2017, the investment in real estate development was 11.381 billion yuan, an increase of 17.4% over the previous year; the construction area of real estate development enterprises was 117.752 million square meters, an increase of 7.4%; the sales area of commercial housing was 2.0649 million square meters, an increase of 18.3%; and the area for sale of commercial housing was 113.03 million square meters, a decrease of 14.9%. [17] The service sector; the tertiary industry In 2017, the total retail sales of consumer goods amounted to 65.185 billion yuan, an increase of 13.6% over the previous year. Among them, the retail sales of consumer goods of enterprises (units) above the quota reached 40.641 billion yuan, an increase of 14.7%. According to the operating area, the retail sales of consumer goods in cities and towns totaled 48.975 billion yuan, an increase of 13.5% over the previous year; the retail sales of consumer goods in rural areas totaled 16.210 billion yuan, an increase of 13.8%. According to consumption patterns, retail sales of goods amounted to 57.810 billion yuan, an increase of 13.7%, and catering income to 73.75 yuan, an increase of 12.5%. In 2017, the total consumer price index was 101.3%. Among the eight major price indices, food, tobacco and alcohol prices fell by 0.4%, clothing by 1.6%, residential by 1.7%, daily necessities and services by 1.4%, health care by 7.0%, transportation and communications by 1.5%, education, culture and entertainment by 0.2%, and other goods and services by 1.5%. The total retail price index of commodities is 100.7%, and the price index of means of agricultural production is 105.5%. In 2017, there were 509 investment projects under construction in the city, with 73.827 billion yuan in funds in place, an increase of 10.0% over the previous year. Among them, 288 new start-up projects, 44.208 billion yuan in actual funds, 221 continuing projects and 29.619 billion yuan in actual funds. According to the statistics of Xi'an Customs, the total import and export volume in 2017 was 1.157 billion yuan, a decrease of 4.5% over the previous year, of which 1.021 billion yuan was exported, a decrease of 4.0%, and 137 million yuan was imported, a decrease of 7.6%. In 2017, the whole city received 53.3 million tourists (excluding Korean cities), and realized 42.6 billion yuan of comprehensive tourism income (excluding Korean cities).

social undertakings[edit]

education In 2017, the city has one full-time university with 16.3 million students; 29 secondary vocational education schools with 18.7 million students; 252 ordinary secondary schools with 223,500 students; 450 primary schools with 292,300 students; 1388 kindergartens with 19.57 million children; 9 special education schools with 9 students in school. There are 873 people. The enrollment rate of junior high school graduates was 89.33%. [17] Located in the city, there are Weinan Normal College, Shaanxi Railway Engineering Vocational and Technical College, Weinan Vocational and Technical College. science and technology In 2017, a total of 1378 patents were applied for, of which 567 were invention patents, an increase of 48% over the previous year; 655 were utility model patents and 156 were design patents. A total of 823 patents were authorized, of which 74 were authorized for invention, a decrease of 54%, 471 for utility models, an increase of 17.2%, and 278 for design, a decrease of 231%. By the end of 2017, the total number of invention patents in the city was 603, down 14.4%, and the number of invention patents per 10,000 people was 1.125. [17] Culture In 2017, there were 13 art performance groups in the city, and 2479 performances were performed by Yiyuan Theater Culture Huimin. There are 12 cultural halls, 137 cultural stations and 11 art performance venues. There are one Municipal Radio station, two radio programs, one municipal radio station and two television programs. The comprehensive coverage rate of the whole city is 97.59%, the comprehensive coverage rate of the broadcasting is 96.11%, and the coverage rate of the digital film in the countryside is 100%. [17] Sports In 2017, 2397 sports projects were built in the city. It organizes 14 international and municipal competitions, 22 provincial and municipal competitions and more than 2,900 competitions. The number of days of the competitions exceeds 200 days, and the number of participants reaches 3.7 million. The city's social sports instructors reached more than 12,100, achieving full coverage of urban and rural areas. There are 148 sports social organizations, 300 fitness sites, and more than 250,000 people in urban and rural areas often take part in physical exercise. All year round, 823 athletes were selected to participate in the qualifying competitions of 20 provincial games. They won 63 gold medals, 71 silver medals and 70 bronze medals, with a total score of 4877 points. [17] Hygiene In 2017, Weinan has 4356 health institutions, including 155 hospitals, 69 community service centers (stations) and 198 health centers; 29 345 beds, including 20 433 hospitals and 5642 hospitals; 34 784 health technicians, including 9605 doctors (7381 licensed doctors). At the end of the year, the total number of participants in the new rural cooperative medical system was 4.0334 million, with a participation rate of 99.4%. [17] social security In 2017, Weinan participated in urban basic medical insurance of 1.14 million people, of which 440,000 participated in urban workers'medical insurance and 700,000 participated in urban residents' medical insurance; at the end of the year, 249,700 participated in unemployment insurance, 456,800 participated in urban workers'old-age insurance, 276,100 participated in industrial injury insurance and 163,300 participated in maternity insurance. At the end of the year, 2.6126 million people participated in the basic old-age insurance for urban and rural residents. In 2017, the total number of old-age beds in the city was 19864. There are 86 different kinds of old-age service institutions, with 11 415 beds and 6 018 occupants. There is a social welfare home with 460 beds and 300 adoptions. There is a welfare home for children with 300 beds and 164 adoptions. There are 876 rural mutual welfare homes with 7093 beds. There are 33 day care centers in urban communities with 1356 beds. At the end of the year, 8857 households and 17040 people were included, with a monthly per capita subsidy of 492 yuan, while 30 560 households and 88 409 people were included in the rural area, with an average of 229 yuan per person per year. [17] People's life In 2017, the per capita disposable income of urban residents in Weinan City was 29,808 yuan, an increase of 2323 yuan, or 8.5 percent, over the previous year. Among them, wage income increased by 8.7%, accounting for 67.0% of income; net operating income increased by 28.2%, accounting for 5.5%; net property income increased by 7.8%, accounting for 9.0%; net transfer income increased by 3.1%, accounting for 18.5%. In 2017, the per capita disposable income of rural residents reached 10,260 yuan, an increase of 845 yuan, or 9.0 percent, over the previous year. Among them, wage income was 4585 yuan, up 13.6%, accounting for 44.7% of income; net operating income was 3591 yuan, down 0.2%, accounting for 35.0%; net property income was 238 yuan, up 40.0%, accounting for 2.3%; net transfer income was 1846 yuan, up 59.0%, accounting for 18.0%. In 2017, the income ratio of urban and rural residents was 2.91:1, which was 0.01 lower than that of the previous year. In the whole year, 628,800 new urban employees were added, 24,200 laid-off and unemployed people were re-employed, 102,000 people were re-employed, and the registered unemployment rate in cities and towns was 3.21%. 954,900 rural laborers have been transferred to employment in the whole city. [17] Environmental protection In 2017, 365 days were effectively monitored, 165 days were up to the standard, accounting for 45.2%. Among them, 18 days were good and 147 days were good. Urban ambient air quality exceeded the standard for 200 days, accounting for 54.8%, of which 129 days were slightly polluted, 36 days were moderately polluted, 22 days were severely polluted and 13 days were severely polluted. The average annual concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, SO2 and NO2 are 135 micrograms/cubic meters, 71 micrograms/cubic meters, 18 micrograms/cubic meters and 56 micrograms/cubic meters respectively, and the intensity of dust reduction is 9.3 tons/square kilometers/month. [17] Safe production In 2017, 117 production safety accidents occurred in Weinan, a 27% decrease over the previous year, and 75 deaths, a 2.6% decrease. The economic loss was 8.0815 million yuan, down 55.7%. [17] Post and Telecommunications In 2017, the revenue of postal services was 465 million yuan, an increase of 12.9% over the previous year; the revenue of telecommunications services was 3.032 billion yuan, an increase of 9.7%; the number of fixed telephone subscribers was 649.6 million, a decrease of 11.6%; the number of wireless mobile subscribers was 5.886 million, an increase of 49%; and the number of Internet broadband access subscribers was 1.028 million, an increase of 11.5%. [17]

traffic[edit]

Traffic in the territory is developed, Longhai Railway, Baoxi Railway, Houxi Railway, Ningxi Railway, Daxi Passenger Dedicated, Zhengxi Passenger Dedicated, Huang and Han Hou Railway, Lianhuo Express, Xiyu Express, Weipu Express and Yushang Express run through the north and south. Lianhuo and Xiyu expressways, 108, 310 National highways, 101 and 106 provincial highways, crisscross with 6 railways such as Longhai, Xiyan, West Korea and Southwest China, forming a four-way transportation network. County to county railway, township to oil road, village to road, highway density per 100 square kilometers 43.2 kilometers, highway total mileage 268.4 kilometers, ranking first in Shaanxi Province. Weinan central city is 60 kilometers away from the provincial capital Xi'an and more than 90 kilometers away from Xianyang International Airport. [8] In 2017, the road freight volume was 179.53 million tons, an increase of 10.5% over the previous year, and the freight turnover volume was 336.39.35 million tons kilometers, an increase of 10.4%. Highway passenger traffic was 91.79 million, down 1.5%; passenger turnover was 28.21 million kilometers, down 1.6%. [17]

folk culture[edit]

Weinan is one of the birthplaces of the Chinese nation. The Chinese nation, also known as "Cathay", originated in Weinan. "China" is Huashan, and "Xia" refers to the "Xia Yang" in particular refers to the narrow and long region across this region. The civilization produced here is the "Chinese civilization", so Weinan also has the title of "the root of China". Because of its outstanding, it extends to the later generation of the Chinese nation's code. About 800,000 years ago, the "Lantian ape man" once thrived in the city; the "Dali man" skull fossil is a primitive human fossil about 200,000 years ago; the "Yumenkou cave accumulation" is a Paleolithic site; the Shayuan and Longshan cultural sites also have far-reaching influence. Qin Opera, Laoqiang Opera, Tongzhou Bangzi Opera, Bowl and Bowl Opera, Muddle Opera, A Gongqiang Opera and other operas are rich in content, and are the birthplace of Bangzi Opera in northern China. Stone carving, wood carving, facial flowers, shadow play and other folk arts are unique. There are 12 national intangible cultural heritages such as Huayin Laoqiang, 84 provincial intangible cultural heritages such as Tongguan Wansheng Garden pickles making skills, ranking in the forefront of Shaanxi and even China. Shayuan Culture, Longshan Culture, Xiyue Temple, Taishi Temple, Cangjie Temple and so on, such as the absolute classics, record the long history of Chinese civilization; Pucheng Bridge Mausoleum and dozens of other Tang emperor tombs, such as remote constellations, shine with magical light. The ancient rhyme of the flourishing Tang Dynasty, the heroic style of the flourishing Empire and the charming historical and cultural style of the Tang Dynasty. Guanyu, the opening work of the Book of Songs, came into being here. This is also the ancestral home of the surnames of Zheng and Yang.

Specialty[edit]

Sheep milk powder, Heer cake, golden jujube, yellow cauliflower, Baishui Dukang wine, Tongzhou watermelon, Chishui scallion, Pucheng crisp pear, Hawthorn steamed bun, water basin mutton, time steamed bun, Pucheng fireworks, Zhonglou cigarettes, Tongguan pickles, buckwheat noodle bait and so on.

tourist resources[edit]

There are many sites of ancient Great Wall and ancient battlefield relics in Weinan, 619 of which are included in the development and protection of cultural relics tourist attractions, including 59 national and provincial key cultural relics protection units, especially the Xiyue Temple, known as the First Temple of the Five Mountains, the mausoleum of Tang Dynasty emperor in Pucheng, the ancestral halls and tombs of Shi Sheng Sima Qian of a generation, and the Wei Dynasty running through the north and south. The Great Wall Site is the most famous. Mount Huashan in Xiyue is a tourist resort integrating leisure, vacation, entertainment and sightseeing in the precipitous and beautiful Mount Huashan in Xiyue. Longmen scenic spot of the Yellow River is known as the "Three Gorges of the North Country" and Sima Qian Temple of the Han Taishi is being renovated and expanded. Pucheng Hanyang Lake National Wetland Park has pleasant scenery, pleasant to the eye, and beautiful and magical scenery of Longshou Black Canyon Scenic Area. The mausoleum group of Tang Dynasty emperors in Weibei, the national key cultural relics - Tang Ruizhong Bridge Mausoleum and Tang Xuanzong Tailing Mausoleum, shows the great Tang Dynasty. Weinan Weinan (3 sheets) National style, prosperous Tang style, charming historical and cultural style. Tourists sigh at the restored stone sculptures of the flourishing Tang Dynasty, arouse the feeling of nostalgia and the pride of revitalizing China. Qianchuan Scenic Spot has more than 160 square kilometers of river beach wetlands, including 11 species of national rare birds, such as red-crowned cranes, black storks, swans, mandarin ducks and grey cranes, which breed and inhabit in groups and are listed as the key protected areas of rare birds by the State Science and Technology Commission. There are virgin springs, Houquan, Fushan Cuibai and modern grand pumping Huang I and II stations, which are good places for bathing, recuperation, fishing and tourism. The first batch of famous calligraphy steles in China are "General Li Sixun's Stele of Cloud Branch", "Princess's Stele of the Tang Dynasty" and "Huashan Stele", "Epitaph of Su Xiaoci", "Epitaph of the Old Golden Immortal Princess of the Tang Dynasty", "Gallis Stele", "Wang's Ancestral Stele of Yimen", "Cao Quan Stele" and "Monument of the Wang's Temple of Pucheng". The precious works of art have made important contributions to the protection and inheritance of Chinese culture.

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

References[edit]