Huajiying Formation

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Huajiying Formation
Stratigraphic range: Valanginian-Aptian
Type Geological formation
Unit of Jehol Group
Sub-units Guohedao Member,
Nianzigou Member,
Qiaotou Member,
Sichakou Member
Underlies Quingshila Formation
Overlies Dabeigou Formation
Region Hebei
Country  China

The Huajiying Formation is a geological formation in Hebei, People's Republic of China. Known for its fossils including primitive birds, the age of the formation is uncertain. It may represent an early portion of the Jehol Biota, dating to somewhere in the early Cretaceous or late Jurassic periods. It may correlate with the early Cretaceous Dadianzi Formation and parts of the Yixian Formation, with an age range between 140 and 122 Ma ago.[1] It contains the Qiaotou Member, sometimes treated as a distinct formation.

Age and stratigraphy[edit]

The Huajiying Formation contains the following members, in order from youngest to oldest:

  • 5th Volcanic Member
  • Guohedao Sedimentary Member
  • 4th Volcanic Member
  • Nianzigou Sedimentary Member
  • 3rd Volcanic Member
  • Qiaotou Sedimentary Member
  • 2nd Volcanic Member
  • Sichakou Sedimentary Member
  • 1st Volcanic Member

The age of the formation is uncertain. Ji and colleagues suggested in 2008 that the Qiaotou Member correlates with the Dawangzhangzi bed of the Yixian Formation, dated to ~122 Ma ago by Zhou in 2006.[2] Ji et al. also suggested that the lower Sichakou Member correlates with the Dadianzi Formation, dated to 140 Ma ago by Tian and colleagues in 2003.[3]


The faunal lists below are based on a survey of the Huajiying Formation by Jin Fan and colleagues in 2008, unless otherwise noted.[4]

Color key
Taxon Reclassified taxon Taxon falsely reported as present Dubious taxon or junior synonym Ichnotaxon Ootaxon Morphotaxon
Uncertain or tentative taxa are in small text; crossed out taxa are discredited.

Birds and other theropods[edit]

Genus Species County Member Abundance Notes Images


"H. fengningensis"

Qiaotou Member

Nomen nudum/objective junior synonym of Vescornis


J. luanhera

Qiaotou Member

An enantiornithine


J. elegans

Qiaotou Member

A troodontid


P. fengningensis

Sichakou Member

An enantiornithine


S. mengi

Qiaotou Member

An enantiornithine


V. hebeiensis

Qiaotou Member

An enantiornithine


Genus Species County Member Abundance Notes Images


L. davidi

Also present in the Jiufotang Formation & Yixian Formation

An osteoglossiform

L. tokunagai


P. fengningensis

A fish related to sturgeons


P. liui

Also present in the Jiufotang & Yixian Formations

A paddlefish


Y. longidorsalis

Also present in the Yixian Formation

A peipiaosteid


  1. ^ a b Wang, X., O’Connor, J.K., Zhao, B., Chiappe, L.M., Gao, C. and Cheng, X. (2010). "New species of Enantiornithes (Aves: Ornithothoraces) from the Qiaotou Formation in Northern Hebei, China." Acta Geologica Sinica, 84(2): 247-256.
  2. ^ Zhou, Z. (2006). "Evolutionary radiation of the Jehol Biota: chronological and ecological perspectives." Geological Journal, 41: 377–393.
  3. ^ Tian, S.G., Liu, Y.Q., Li, P.X., Pang, Q. and Niu, S. (2003). "Sequence stratigraphy of Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary strata in Luanping, Northern Hebei, China." Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences, 47(7): 607―617.
  4. ^ Jin, F., Zhang, F.C., Li, Z.H., Zhang, J.Y., Li, C. and Zhou, Z.H. (2008). "On the horizon of Protopteryx and the early vertebrate fossil assemblages of the Jehol Biota." Chinese Science Bulletin, 53(18): 2820-2827.